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Encyclopedia > Caliphate

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A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. The head of state (Caliph) has a position based on the notion of a successor to Muhammad's political authority; according to Sunnis ideally elected by the people or their representatives,[1] and according to the Shia an Imamate chosen from the Ahl ul-Bayt. From the time of Muhammad until 1924, successive caliphates were held by various dynasties, including the Umayyads, Abbasids, and finally Ottomans. This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the doctrine, see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine) For the book by Khomeini, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Khomeini) For the book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same... Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the political process. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... People of Mohammeds (s. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The caliphate is the only form of governance that has full approval in traditional Islamic theology, and "is the core political concept of Sunni Islam, by the consensus of the Muslim majority in the early centuries."[2] Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...

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History

The caliph, or head of state, was often known as Amīr al-Mu'minīn (أمير المؤمنين) "Commander of the Faithful", Imam al-Ummah, Imam al-Mu'minīn (إمام المؤمنين), or more colloquially, leader of all the Muslims. Each member state (Sultanate, Wilayah, or Emirate) of the Caliphate had its own governor (Sultan, Wali or Emir). Dar al-Islam (دار الإسلام lit. land of Islam) was referred to as any land under the rule of the caliphate, including a land populated by non-Muslims and land not under rule of the caliphate was referred to as Dar al-Kufr (lit. land of non-Islam), even if its inhabitants were Muslims, because they were not citizens under Islamic law. The first capital of the Caliphate after Prophet Muhammad died was in Medina. At times in Muslim history there have been rival claimant caliphs in different parts of the Islamic world, and divisions between the Shi'a and Sunni parts. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Ameer-ul-Momineen, meaning Commander of the Faithful, also Prince of the Faithful, is a title used by Shia muslims to refer to their first Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... A wilāyah (Arabic: ولاية) or vilayet (Turkish: vilâyet) or (ولایت in Persian) is an administrative division, usually translated as province. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Dar al-Islam (Arabic: دار الإسلام literally house of submission) is a term used to refer to those lands under Muslim government(s). ... dar al-Kufr (Arabic: house of unbelievers) is a term used by the Prophet Muhammed to refer to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between his flight to Medina (the Hijra) and his triumphant return. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ...


The first four caliphs, celebrated as the Rashidun (Rightly Guided) Caliphs, were Prophet Muhammad's Sahaba (companions); Abu Bakr, then Umar ibn al-Khattab, then Uthman ibn Affan, and the fourth was Ali ibn Abi Talib. Sunni Muslims consider Abu-Bakr to be the first legitimate Caliph, Shi'a consider Ali to have been the first truly legitimate Caliph, although they concede that Ali accepted his predecessors, because he eventually sanctioned Abu-Bakr [3]. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Heroes of the Lance are a group of fictional Heroes who appear in the Dragonlance series of novels. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ...


After the first four caliphs the Caliphate was claimed by the dynasties such as Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Ottomans, and for relatively short periods by other, competing dynasties in al-Andalus, Northern Africa, and Egypt. Mustafa Kemal officially abolished the last Caliphate, the Ottoman Empire, and founded the Republic of Turkey, in 1924. The Kings of Morocco still label themselves with the title Amīr al-Mu'minīn for Moroccans, but lay no claim to the Caliphate. The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Ameer-ul-Momineen, meaning Commander of the Faithful, also Prince of the Faithful, is a title used by Shia muslims to refer to their first Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib. ...

Rashidun

Main articles: Rashidun and Muslim conquests

Abū Bakr nominated Umar as his successor on his deathbed, and there was consensus in the Muslim community to his choice. His successor, Uthman, was elected by a council of electors (Majlis), but was soon perceived by some to be ruling as a "king" rather than an elected leader. Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. ˤAlī then took control, and although very popular, he was not universally accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt, and later by some of his own guard. He had two major rebellions and was assassinated after a tumultuous rule of only five years. This period is known as the Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... This article is about the political process. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Fitna (فتنة) is an Arabic word, generally regarded as very difficult to translate but at the same time is considered to be an all encompassing word referring to schism, secession, upheaval and anarchy at once. ... The First Islamic civil war, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ...


Muˤāwiyya, a relative of Uthman, and governor (Wali) of Syria became one of ˤAlī's challengers. After ˤAlī's death, Muˤāwiyya managed to overcome other claimants to the Caliphate. Under Muˤāwiyya, the caliphate became a hereditary office for the first time. He founded the Umayyad dynasty. Mu‘āwÄ«yah ibn AbÄ« Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


In areas which were previously under Persian or Byzantine rule, the Caliphs lowered taxes, provided greater local autonomy, greater religious freedom for Jews, indigenous Christians, and brought peace to peoples demoralized and disaffected by the casualties and heavy taxation that resulted from the years of Byzantine-Persian warfare.[4] For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Umayyads, 7th-8th century

Main article: Umayyad
The Caliphate, 622-750      Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
The Caliphate, 622-750      Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

Under the Umayyads the Caliphate grew rapidly geographically. Islamic rule expanded westward across North Africa and into Hispania and eastward through Persia and ultimately to Sindh and Punjab in modern day Pakistan. This made it one of the largest unitary states in the history of West Eurasia, extending its entire breadth, and one of the few states in history to ever extend direct rule over three continents (Africa, Europe, and Asia). Although not ruling all of the Sahara, homage was paid to the Caliph by Saharan Africa usually via various nomad Berber tribes. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... West Eurasia is an area bounded by the Sahara and the Indian Ocean to the south, the Atlantic to the west, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land on the planet Earth. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...


Largely due to the fact that they were not elected via Shura, the Umayyad dynasty was not universally supported within the Muslim community. Some supported prominent early Muslims like az-Zubayr; others felt that only members of Muhammad's clan, the Banū Hashim, or his own lineage, the descendants of ˤAlī, should rule. There were numerous rebellions against the Umayyads, as well as splits within the Umayyad ranks (notably, the rivalry between Yaman and Qays). Eventually, supporters of the Banu Hisham and the supporters of the lineage of Ali united to bring down the Umayyads in 750. However, the Shiˤat ˤAlī, "the Party of ˤAlī", were again disappointed when the Abbasid dynasty took power, as the Abbasids were descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and not from ˤAlī. Following this disappointment, the Shiˤat ˤAlī finally split from the majority Sunni Muslims and formed what are today the several Shiˤa denominations. Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was a Sahabi, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... al-Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, (566–652) was an uncle and Sahaba of Muhammad. ...


The Caliphate in Hispania

Main article: Caliph of Córdoba

During the Ummayad period Hispania was an integral province of the Ummayad Caliphate ruled from Damascus, Syria. Later the caliphate was won by the Abbasids and Al-Andalus (or Hispania) split from the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad to form their own caliphate. The Caliphate of Córdoba (خليفة قرطبة) ruled the Iberian peninsula from the city of Córdoba, from 929 to 1031. This period was characterized by remarkable success in technology, trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of Spain were constructed in this period, including the famous Great Mosque of Córdoba. The title Caliph (خليفة) was claimed by Abd-ar-Rahman III on January 16, 929; he was previously known as the Emir of Córdoba (أمير قرطبة). All Caliphs of Córdoba were members of the Umayyad dynasty; the same dynasty had held the title Emir of Córdoba and ruled over roughly the same territory since 756. The rule of the Caliphate is known as the heyday of Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula, before it split into taifas. Spain possessed a significant native Muslim population until 1610 with the success of the Catholic-instigated Spanish Inquisition, which expelled any remnants of Spanish Muslim (Morisco) or Jewish populations. The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Events Emir Abd-ar-rahman III of Cordoba declares himself caliph. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid), was at one time the second largest mosque in the world in Córdoba, Spain and is now a Roman Catholic cathedral. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other persons of the same name, see Abd-ar-Rahman. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ...


Abbasids, 8th-13th century

Main article: Abbasid

The Abbasids had an unbroken line of Caliphs for over three centuries, consolidating Islamic rule and cultivating great intellectual and cultural developments in the Middle East. By 940 the power of the Caliphate under the Abbasids was waning as non-Arabs, particularly the Berbers of North Western Africa, the Turkish, and later the Mamluks in Egypt in the latter half of the 13th century, gained influence, and sultans and emirs became increasingly independent. However, the Caliphate endured as both a symbolic position and a unifying entity for the Islamic world. Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund Categories: 940 ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ...

Abassid Provinces during the reign of Harun al-Rashid.

During the period of the Abassid dynasty, Abassid claims to the caliphate did not go unchallenged. The Shiˤa Said ibn Husayn of the Fatimid dynasty, which claimed descendency of Muhammad through his daughter, claimed the title of Caliph in 909, creating a separate line of caliphs in North Africa. Initially covering Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, the Fatimid caliphs extended their rule for the next 150 years, taking Egypt and Palestine, before the Abbassid dynasty was able to turn the tide, limiting Fatimid rule to Egypt. The Fatimid dynasty finally ended in 1171. The Umayyad dynasty, which had survived and come to rule over the Muslim provinces of Spain, reclaimed the title of Caliph in 929, lasting until it was overthrown in 1031. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (2520 × 1464 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (2520 × 1464 pixel, file size: 3. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah a. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... This article is for the year 909. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... Events Emir Abd-ar-rahman III of Cordoba declares himself caliph. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ...

Shadow Caliphate, 13th century

1258 saw the conquest of Baghdad and the execution of Abbasid caliph al-Musta'sim by Mongol forces under Hulagu Khan. A surviving member of the Abbasid House was installed as Caliph at Cairo under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate three years later; however, the authority of this line of Caliphs was confined to ceremonial and religious matters, and later Muslim historians referred to it as a "shadow" Caliphate. For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyub Death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ...


Ottomans, 15th-20th century

Main article: Ottoman Caliphate
The Ottoman Caliphate.
The Ottoman Caliphate.

Ottoman rulers were known primarily by the title of Sultan and used the title of Caliph only sporadically. Mehmed II and his grandson Selim used it to justify their conquest of Islamic countries. As the Ottoman Empire grew in size and strength, Ottoman rulers beginning with Mehmed II began to claim Caliphal authority. The Ottoman Empire, at its height, covered a significant portion of the Mediterranean World, including portions of three continents. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1684x1347, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Eastern Question Turkish people History of the Turkish people List of Ottoman... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1684x1347, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Eastern Question Turkish people History of the Turkish people List of Ottoman... Ottoman redirects here. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


Ottoman rulers used the title "Caliph" symbolically on many occasions but it was strengthened when the Ottoman Empire defeated the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517 and took control of most Arab lands. The last Abbasid Caliph at Cairo, al-Mutawakkil III, was taken into custody and was transported to İstanbul, where he reportedly surrendered the Caliphate to Selim I. According to Barthold, the first time the title of "Caliph" was used as a political instead of symbolic religious title by the Ottomans was the peace treaty with Russia in 1774. The outcome of this war was disastrous for the Ottomans. Large territories, including those with large muslim populations, such as Crimea, were lost to the Russian Empire. However, the Ottomans under Abdulhamid I claimed a diplomatic victory by assigning themselves the protectors of Muslims in Russia as part of the peace treaty. This was the first time the Ottoman caliph was acknowledged as having political significance outside of Ottoman borders by a European power. As a consequence of this diplomatic victory, as the Ottoman borders were shrinking, the powers of the Ottoman caliph increased. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Al-Mutawakkil III, reigned 1508 to 1516, and 1517, was the last caliph of the Abbasid dynasty. ... The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Around 1880 Sultan Abdulhamid II reasserted the title as a way of countering the spread of European colonialism in Muslim lands. His claim was most fervently accepted by the Muslims of British India. By the eve of the First World War, the Ottoman state, despite its weakness vis-à-vis Europe, represented the largest and most powerful independent Islamic political entity. But the sultan also enjoyed some authority beyond the borders of his shrinking empire as caliph of Muslims in Egypt, India and Central Asia. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Khilafat Movement, 1920

Main article: Khilafat Movement
See also: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

In the 1920s the Khilafat Movement, a movement to defend the Ottoman Caliphate, spread throughout the British colonial territories in Asia. It was particularly strong in British India, where it formed a rallying point for Indian Muslims and was the one of the many anti-British Indian political movements to enjoy widespread support. Its leaders included Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar, his brother Shawkat Ali, and Maulana abul kalam azad, Dr MA Ansari, and Hasrat Mohani. For a time it worked in alliance with Hindu communities and was supported by the famous Hindu Gandhi who was a member of the Central Khilafat Committee.[5][6] However, the movement lost its momentum after the arrest or abscondment of its leaders, and a series of offshoots splintered off from the main organization. The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar (1878 - 4 January 1931), was an Indian Muslim journalist and poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called...


End of Caliphate, 1924

Further information: Atatürk's Reforms

On March 3, 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic, Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his reforms, constitutionally abolished the institution of the Caliphate. Its powers within Turkey were transferred to the Turkish Grand National Assembly (parliament) of the newly formed Turkish Republic and the title has since been inactive. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ...


Scattered attempts to revive the Caliphate elsewhere in the Muslim World were made in the years immediately following its abandonment by Turkey, but none were successful. Hussein bin Ali, a former Ottoman governor of the Hejaz who aided the British during World War I and revolted against Istanbul, declared himself Caliph two days after Turkey relinquished the title. But his claim was largely ignored, and he was soon ousted and driven out of Arabia by the Saudis, a rival clan that had no interest in the Caliphate. The last Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI made a similar attempt to re-establish himself as Caliph in the Hejaz after leaving Turkey, but he was also unsuccessful. A summit was convened at Cairo in 1926 to discuss the revival of the Caliphate, but most Muslim countries did not participate and no action was taken to implement the summit's resolutions. Hussein bin Ali (1852-1931) (حسین بن علی; Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī) was the Sharif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king of Hejaz, which received international recognition. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ...


Though the title Ameer al-Mumineen was adopted by the King of Morocco and Mullah Mohammed Omar, former head of the now-defunct Taliban regime of Afghanistan, neither claimed any legal standing or authority over Muslims outside the borders of their respective countries. The closest thing to a Caliphate in existence today is the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), an international organization with limited influence founded in 1969 consisting of the governments of most Muslim-majority countries. Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ...


Reestablishment

Once the subject of intense conflict and rivalry amongst Muslim rulers, the caliphate has lain dormant and largely unclaimed since the 1920s. In recent years though, interest among Muslims in international unity and the Caliphate has grown. For many ordinary Muslims the caliph as leader of the community of believers, "is cherished both as memory and ideal",[7] as a time when Muslims "enjoyed scientific and military superiority globally,"[8] though "not an urgent concern" compared to issues such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.[9] Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ...


Tight restrictions on political activity in many Muslim countries, coupled with the obstacles to uniting over 50 nation-states under a single institution, have prevented efforts to revive the caliphate. Popular apolitical Islamic movements such as the Tablighi Jamaat identify a lack of spirituality and decline in personal religious observance as the root cause of the Muslim world's problems, and claim that the caliphate cannot be successfully revived until these deficiencies are addressed. No attempts at rebuilding a power structure based on Islam were successful anywhere in the Muslim World until the Iranian Revolution in 1979, which was based on Shia principles and whose leaders did not outwardly call for the restoration of a global Caliphate. Tablighi Jamaat (Conveying[1] Group) (Arabic: جماعة التبليغ , also Tabliq) is a Muslim missionary and revival movement. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


Islamist call

A number of Islamist political parties and Islamist guerrilla groups have called for the restoration of the caliphate by uniting Muslim nations, either through peaceful political action (e.g., Hizb ut-Tahrir) or through force (e.g., al-Qaeda).[10] Various Islamist movements have gained momentum in recent years with the ultimate aim of establishing a Caliphate; however, they differ in their methodology and approach. Some are locally-oriented, mainstream political parties that have no apparent transnational objectives. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: حزب التحرير; English: Party of Liberation) is an international, Sunni, pan-Islamist vanguard[2] political party whose goal is to unite all Muslim countries in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, ruled by Islamic law and headed by an elected head of state (caliph). ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


One of al-Qaeda's clearly stated goals is the re-establishment of a caliphate[11]. Bin Laden has called for Muslims to "establish the righteous caliphate of our umma." [12] Al Qaeda recently named its Internet newscast from Iraq "The Voice of the Caliphate."[13] Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


In Pakistan the Tanzeem-e-Islami, an Islamist organization founded by Dr. Israr Ahmed, calls for a Caliphate. The Tanzeem-e-Islami (http://tanzeem. ... Israr Ahmed (Urdu: اسرار احمد) is a well-known Muslim religious figure in Pakistan, India, the Middle East, and North America. ...


The Muslim Brotherhood advocates pan-Islamic unity and implementing Islamic law, it is the largest and most influential Islamic group in the world, and its offshoots form the largest opposition parties in most Arab governments.[14] Founder Hasan al-Banna wrote about the restoration of the Caliphate,[15] but officially sanctioned Islamic institutions in the Muslim world generally do not consider the Caliphate a top priority and have instead focused on other issues. Islamists argue it is because they are tied to the current Muslim regimes. The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


One transnational group particularily strong in Central Asia, and now growing in strength in the Arab World[16], Hizb ut-Tahrir (lit. party of liberation), has tried to recruit the world's Muslims to a renewed caliphate, aiming to ultimately form a pan-Islamic government.[17] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with transnationalism. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: حزب التحرير; English: Party of Liberation) is an international, Sunni, pan-Islamist vanguard[2] political party whose goal is to unite all Muslim countries in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, ruled by Islamic law and headed by an elected head of state (caliph). ...


Opposition

Scholar Olivier Roy writes that "early on, Islmists replace the concept of the caliphate ... with that of the amir." There were a number of reasons including "that according to the classical authors, a caliph must be a member of the tribe of the Prophet (the Quraysh) ... moreover, caliphs ruled societies that the Islamists do not consider to have been Islamic (the Ottoman Empire)." [18] Olivier Roy (born 1949) is the research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a lecturer for both the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) and the Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (IEP). ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


A non-Muslim, United States President George W. Bush has mentioned the Caliphate in speeches on the War on Terror claiming it as an integral part of the radical Islamic ideology at war with Western freedom. For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... The phrase Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the West to describe Islamist groups. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Pres. Bush has said that Al Qaeda terrorists and those that share their ideology

hope to establish a violent political utopia across the Middle East, which they call caliphate, where all would be ruled according to their hateful ideology ... This caliphate would be a totalitarian Islamic empire encompassing all current and former Muslim lands, stretching from Europe to North Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia.[19]

Political system

Electing or appointing a Caliph

Fred M. Donner, in his book The Early Islamic Conquests (1981), argues that the standard Arabian practice during the early Caliphates was for the prominent men of a kinship group, or tribe, to gather after a leader's death and elect a leader from amongst themselves, although there was no specified procedure for this shura, or consultative assembly. Candidates were usually from the same lineage as the deceased leader, but they were not necessarily his sons. Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual direct heir, as there was no basis in the majority Sunni view that the head of state or governor should be chosen based on lineage alone. Fred M. Donner is an Islamic scholar, professor of Near East Studies at the University of Chicago. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


This argument is advanced by Sunni Muslims, who believe that Muhammad's companion Abu Bakr was elected by the community and that this was the proper procedure. They further argue that a caliph is ideally chosen by election or community consensus, even though the caliphate soon became a hereditary office, or the prize of the strongest general. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


Al-Mawardi has written that the caliph should be Qurayshi. Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani has said that the leader of the Muslims simply should be from the majority. Abu Hanifa also wrote that the leader must come from the majority[20]. Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (d. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani (lit. ... Imam Abu Hanifa (699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanifi school of fiqh. ...


Shia belief

Shi'a Muslims disagree with the Sunni practice of elections. They believe that Muhammad had given many indications that he considered ˤAlī ibn Abī Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, as his divinely chosen successor making a majority vote or elections irrelevant. They say that Abū Bakr seized power by threat[citation needed] against Ali and that the 3 caliphs before ˤAlī were usurpers. ˤAlī and his descendents are believed to have been the only proper leaders, or imams regardless of Democracy and what the majority wanted, in the Shia's point of view. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... For other people named Abu Bakar, see Abu Bakr (name). ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Main articles: Succession to Muhammad and Shi'a

In the absence of a Caliphate headed by their Imams, some Shia believe that the system of Islamic government based on Vilayat-e Faqih, where an Islamic jurist or faqih rules Muslims, suffices. However this idea, developed by the Aytollah Khomeini and established in Iran, is not universally accepted among Shia. The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the doctrine, see Guardianship of the Islamic jurists For the book by Ayatollah Khomeini, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Khomeini) For the book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi) For the Wilayat-e-Faqih of the Islamic Republic of Iran, see...

Main article: Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e faqih (book by Khomeini)

Sunni belief

Contrary to the Shia, Sunni Muslims believe that the caliph has always been a merely temporal political ruler, appointed to rule within the bounds of Islamic law (Shariah), and not necessarily the most qualified in Islamic law. The job of adjudicating orthodoxy and Islamic law (Shariah) was left to Islamic lawyers, judiciary, or specialists individually termed as Mujtahids and collectively named the Ulema. The first four caliphs are called the Rashidun meaning the Rightly Guided Caliphs, because they are believed to have followed the Qur'an and the sunnah (example) of Muhammad in all things. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus...


Majlis al-Shura: Parliament

Main article: Shura
or Majlis-e-Shoora

Traditional Sunni Islamic lawyers agree that shura, loosely translated as 'consultation of the people', is a function of the caliphate. The Majlis al-Shura advise the caliph. The importance of this is premised by the following verses of the Quran: Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... Bold text Majlis-e-Shoora (Urdu: مجلس شوری) (Council of Advisors in Urdu, although referred to as Parliament) is the bicameral federal legislature of Pakistan that consists of the Senate (upper house) and the National Assembly (lower house). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ...

“...those who answer the call of their Lord and establish the prayer, and who conduct their affairs by Shura. [are loved by God]”[42:38]

“...consult them (the people) in their affairs. Then when you have taken a decision (from them), put your trust in Allah”[3:159]

The majlis is also the means to elect a new caliph. Al-Mawardi has written that members of the majlis should satisfy three conditions: they must be just, they must have enough knowledge to distinguish a good caliph from a bad one, and must have sufficient wisdom and judgment to select the best caliph. Al-Mawardi also said in emergencies when there is no caliphate and no majlis, the people themselves should create a majlis, select a list of candidates for caliph, then the majlis should select from the list of candidates[21]. Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (d. ...


The founder of Hizb ut-Tahrir, a transnational political movement devoted to the revival of the Caliphate, Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, writes that Shura is important and part of the "the ruling structure" of the Islamic caliphate, "but not one of its pillars." If the caliph "neglects it," by not paying much or any attention, as happened after the first four caliphs "he would be negligent, but the ruling system would remain Islamic" not liable to any Muslim uprising. Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: حزب التحرير; English: Party of Liberation) is an international, Sunni, pan-Islamist vanguard[2] political party whose goal is to unite all Muslim countries in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, ruled by Islamic law and headed by an elected head of state (caliph). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Under the Hizb ut-Tahrir constitution non-Muslims may also be part of the majlis. Though they may not serve a caliph or any other ruling official, nor vote for these officials, they may voice "complaints in respect to unjust acts performed by the rulers or the misapplication of Islam upon them." Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: حزب التحرير; English: Party of Liberation) is an international, Sunni, pan-Islamist vanguard[2] political party whose goal is to unite all Muslim countries in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, ruled by Islamic law and headed by an elected head of state (caliph). ...


The Islamist author Sayyid Qutb, in a rigorous analysis of the shura chapter of the Qur'an, Qutb argued Islam requires only that the ruler to consult with at least some of the ruled (usually the elite), within the general context of God-made laws that the ruler must execute. Sayyid Qutb Sayyid Qutb (IPA pronunciation: []) (also Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, or Sayed; last name also Koteb or Kutb) (Arabic: ; born October 9, 1906[1] – executed August 29, 1966) was an Egyptian author, Islamist, and the leading intellectual of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 60s. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Accountability of rulers

Sunni Islamic lawyers have commented on when it is permissible to disobey, impeach or remove rulers in the Caliphate. This is usually when the rulers are not meeting public responsibilities obliged upon them under Islam. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government. ...


Al-Mawardi said that if the rulers meet their Islamic responsibilities to the public, the people must obey their laws, but if they become either unjust or severely ineffective then the Caliph or ruler must be impeached via the Majlis al-Shura. Similarly Al-Baghdadi believed that if the rulers do not uphold justice, the ummah via the majlis should give warning to them, and if unheeded then the Caliph can be impeached. Al-Juwayni argued that Islam is the goal of the ummah, so any ruler that deviates from this goal must be impeached. Al-Ghazali believed that oppression by a caliph is enough for impeachment. Rather than just relying on impeachment, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani obliged rebellion upon the people if the caliph began to act with no regard for Islamic law. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said that to ignore such a situation is haraam, and those who cannot revolt inside the caliphate should launch a struggle from outside. Al-Asqalani used two ayahs from the Quran to justify this: Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (d. ... Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government. ... Al-Baghdadi or just Baghdadi is an Arabic nesbat, meaning from Baghdad. It is usually added at the end of names as a specifier. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... Al-Juwayni was a Sunni Shafii hadith and Kalam scholar. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ibn Hajar. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... For other uses, see Ibn Hajar. ... harām (Arabic: حرام Ḥarām, Turkish: Haram, Malay: Haram) is an Arabic word, used in Islam to refer to anything that is prohibited by the faith. ... Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ...

“...And they (the sinners on qiyama) will say, 'Our Lord! We obeyed our leaders and our chiefs, and they misled us from the right path. Our Lord! Give them (the leaders) double the punishment you give us and curse them with a very great curse'...”[33:67-68] Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ...

Islamic lawyers commented that when the rulers refuse to step down via successful impeachment through the Majlis, becoming dictators through the support of a corrupt army, if the majority agree they have the option to launch a revolution against them. Many noted that this option is only exercised after factoring in the potential cost of life[22]. For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Rule of Law

The following hadith establishes the principle of rule of law in relation to nepotism and accountability[23] Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Narrated ‘Aisha: The people of Quraish worried about the lady from Bani Makhzum who had committed theft. They asked, “Who will intercede for her with Allah's Apostle?” Some said, “No one dare to do so except Usama bin Zaid the beloved one to Allah's Apostle.” When Usama spoke about that to Allah’s Apostle Allah’s Apostle said: “Do you try to intercede for somebody in a case connected with Allah’s Prescribed Punishments?” Then he got up and delivered a sermon saying, “What destroyed the nations preceding you, was that if a noble amongst them stole, they would forgive him, and if a poor person amongst them stole, they would inflict Allah's Legal punishment on him. By Allah, if Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad (my daughter) stole, I would cut off her hand.

Various Islamic lawyers do however place multiple conditions, and stipulations e.g the poor cannot be penalised for stealing out of poverty, before executing such a law, making it very difficult to reach such a stage. It is well known during a time of drought in the Rashidun caliphate period, capital punishments were suspended until the effects of the drought passed. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ...


Famous caliphs

Main article: List of caliphs
  • Abu Bakr - First rightly guided caliph of the Sunnis. Subdued rebel tribes in the Ridda Wars.
  • Umar ibn al-Khattab - Second rightly guided caliph. During his reign, the Islamic empire expanded to include Egypt, Jerusalem, and Persia.
  • Uthman ibn Affan - Third rightly guided caliph. The Qur'an was compiled under his direction. Killed by rebels.
  • Ali ibn Abu Talib - Fourth and last rightly guided caliph, and considered the first imam by Shi'a Muslims. His reign was fraught with internal conflict.
  • Hassan ibn Ali - Fifth Caliph (considered as "rightly guided" by many sunnis as well as shias). He ruled for 6 months only & handed the powers to Muawiya I]
  • Muawiya I - First caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. Muawiya instituted dynastic rule by appointing his son Yazid as his successor, a trend that would continue through subsequent caliphates.
  • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz - Umayyad caliph considered by some (mainly Sunnis) to be a sixth true & legitimate caliph under Islamic Laws of electing Caliph.
  • Harun al-Rashid - Abbasid caliph during whose reign Baghdad became the world's preeminent centre of trade, learning, and culture. Haroon is the subject of many stories in the famous work 1001 Arabian Nights.
  • Suleiman the Magnificent - Early Ottoman Sultan during whose reign the Ottoman Empire reached its zenith.

-1... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Urdu: خلفأے راشدین, khalifa-e-rashidoon) refers to the first four caliphs in the Sunni tradition of Islam who are seen as being model leaders. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... There were several notable persons named Yazid: Yazid I (born c. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... (Redirected from 1001 Arabian Nights) The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...

Further reading

  • The theory of government in Islam, by The Internet Islamic University
  • The History of Al-Khilafah Ar-Rashidah (The Rightly Guided Caliphates) Scool Textbook, By Dr. 'Abdullah al-Ahsan, `Abdullah Ahsan
  • The Crisis of the Early Caliphate By Richard Stephen Humphreys, Stephen (EDT) Humphreys from The History of al-Tabari
  • Reunification of the Abbasid Caliphate By Clifford Edmund (TRN) Bosworth, from The History of al-Tabari
  • Return of the Caliphate to Baghdad By Franz Rosenthal from The History of al-Tabari
  • The Caliphate, Its Rise, Decline, and Fall. From Original Sources By William Muir
  • Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain (1877-1924) By Azmi Özcan
  • Ottomanism, Pan-Islamism, and the Caliphate Discourse at the Turn of the 20th Century American University in Cairo
  • Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate from Contemporary Arabic and Persian Sources By Guy Le Strange
  • The Fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba: Berbers and Andalusis in conflict By Peter C. Scales

Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian...

See also

Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Sheikh ul-islam (Sheikhul islam, Shaikh al-Islam, Åžeyhülislam) is a title of superior authority in the issues of Islam. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ; meaning Party of Liberation) is an Islamic organization founded by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, religious judge (qadi) of Jerusalem al-quds in 1953, dedicated to the re-establishment of the Khilafah state & removing all imperialistic non-Islamic... The Muslim Brotherhood logo The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: al-Ikhwan al-muslimoon, full title جماعة الإخوان المسلمين Jamaat al-ikhwan al-muslimin, The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-Ikhwan, the Brotherhood) is the name of several Islamist organisations in the Middle East. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Al-Muhajiroun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) is a defunct Khawarij (extremist Muslim) organization whose two offshoots, The Saviour Sect and Al-Ghurabaa are banned under the British Terrorism Act 2006 [1], for the glorification of terrorism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, (2004) v.1, p.116-123
  2. ^ John O. Voll: Professor of Islamic history at Georgetown University http://www.nationalinterest.org/Article.aspx?id=13296
  3. ^ Lexic Orient.com
  4. ^ John Esposito (1992) p.36
  5. ^ The Khilafat Movement
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Washington Post. 'Reunified Islam: Unlikely but Not Entirely Radical, Restoration of Caliphate resonates With Mainstream Muslims' [2]
  8. ^ Andrew Hammond, Middle East Online, (statement under heading picture) [3]
  9. ^ Washington Post. 'Reunified Islam: Unlikely but Not Entirely Radical, Restoration of Caliphate resonates With Mainstream Muslims' [4]
  10. ^ Reunified Islam
  11. ^ www.fas.org
  12. ^ Interview Oct 21, 2001, from bin Laden Message to the World, Verso, 2005, p.121
  13. ^ Washington Post
  14. ^ The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood, Robert S.Leiken & Steven Brooke, Foreign Affairs Magazine [5]
  15. ^ Roy, Olivier, Failure of Islamism, Harvard University Press, (1994) p.42
  16. ^ Jamestown.org
  17. ^ Who is Hizb ut-Tahrir?, Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain website
  18. ^ Roy, Olivier, Failure of Islamism, Harvard University Press, (1994) p.42-3
  19. ^ Washington Post
  20. ^ 2 Muslims.com
  21. ^ 2 Muslims.com
  22. ^ 2 Muslims.com
  23. ^ Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56, Number 681

Ahmadiyya Muslim Association For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: حزب التحرير; English: Party of Liberation) is an international, Sunni, pan-Islamist vanguard[2] political party whose goal is to unite all Muslim countries in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, ruled by Islamic law and headed by an elected head of state (caliph). ...


References

  • Crone, Patricia & Hinds, Martin -- God's Caliph, Cambridge University Press, 1986
  • Donner, Fred -- The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University Press, 1981

External links


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