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Encyclopedia > Californio
Californio
Notable Californios
Pío Pico · Andrés Pico · José Antonio Estudillo
Total population

Spanish & Mexican
92,597 Californios
were in the 1850 Alta California population
 ·  ·
Californios and Spaniards
in Alta California
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 367 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (627 × 1024 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (678 × 913 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 625 pixel, file size: 84 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) José Antonio Estudillo Photograph of painting located at La Casa de Estudillo, Old Town San Diego. ... Pío de Jesus Pico Lopez (May 5, 1801–September 11, 1894) was the last Mexican Governor of Alta California, now the U.S. state of California. ... General Don Andrés Pico (1810-1876) was the brother of Pio Pico. ... José Antonio Estudillo about 1830 José Antonio Estudillo (1805–July 20, 1852) was an early settler of San Diego, California José Antonio Estudillo was born 1805 in Monterey, Alta California to Captain José María Estudillo. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_1821. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... A Californio was a Spanish-speaking inhabitant of Alta California who lived there when it was a part of Mexico, before it was taken by the United States after the Mexican-American War. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ...

Regions with significant populations
Alta California Less than (92,597) 1850
San Diego (650 pop)1850
San Francisco (56,802) 1860
Languages
Spanish
Religions
Predominantly
Roman Catholic
Related ethnic groups
Mediterranean · Amerindian · Mestizo

The Californios were Spanish-speaking inhabitants of Alta California, first a part of New Spain, later of Mexico. This area was later annexed by the United States following the Mexican-American War in 1848. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Diego,_California. ... “San Diego” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Francisco,_California. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Languages French Occitan Greek Italian Portuguese Spanish Catalan Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Protestant Orthodox The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, following the publication of William Z. Ripleys... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


Californios included both the descendants of European settlers from Spain and Mexico, and also included other European settlers, Mestizos, and local Native Americans who adopted Spanish culture and converted to Catholicism. Some white Americans (Yankees), who settled California spoke Spanish and lived as Mexicans, are considered Californios. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Mestizo (Brazil Portuguese. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Spain is a largely mountainous country in the southwest of Europe, consisting of various geographically diverse regions and known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... A European American, or a Euro-American, is an American of European descent. ...


At first, Spanish officials encouraged Mexicans from the northern and western provinces, as well Mexico promoted other Latin Americans, notably from Peru and Chile, to settle in California before the U.S. annexed the province in 1848. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Much of Californio society lived at or near the many Missions, which were established in the 18th and 19th centuries. There were 21 Missions under the Roman Catholic church along the fabled route, El Camino Real). The Spanish Missions of California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans, to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... The Spanish missions in California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native Americans. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... An early map traces the mission trail in Baja California as it existed in 1769. ...


Some Americans became honorary Californios due to their early arrival, marriage to Californio women, and their adoption of, and adaptation to, Spanish culture and religion. Some wealthy Californio nobles intermarried with the settlers, thus a few prominent families in California may have Spanish or Mexican ancestors. [citation needed]

Contents

Californio independence

Mexico's commander in California, Pío Pico, abandoned the Californios, who organized an army to defend themselves from the United States. The Californios defeated an American force in Los Angeles on September 30, 1846, but were defeated after the Americans reinforced their forces in Southern California. Mexico then signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo accepting American sovereignty over California on February 2, 1848. [1] [2] Pío de Jesus Pico Lopez (May 5, 1801–September 11, 1894) was the last Mexican Governor of Alta California, now the U.S. state of California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


European and Anglo American settlers in Northern areas of California threatened to rebel against Mexican rule in the late 1840s, among them was John Sutter, a land owner from Switzerland and founder of New Helvetia, in present-day Sacramento. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Nuevo Helvetia (also known as New Helvetia or New Switzerland) was a Mexican-era California settlement. ... “Sacramento” redirects here. ...


That town was made famous in the 1848 California gold rush after miners found gold on the banks of the American River. When thousands of American settlers came to the conquered lands, long-time Californios helped the newcomers raise livestock and crops. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill. ... The American River, located in the US state of California, has a prominent place in American history for being the site of Sutters Mill, where gold was found in 1848, leading to the California Gold Rush. ...


Key Californio battles

The Mexican-American war campaign in California is said to ended by July 1847, when the U.S. cavalry seized Pio Pico's adobe in present-day Bell, California south of Los Angeles, and the arrest of Mexican-Californio noble Don Antonio Lugo in his adobe near present-day Chino, California. [citation needed] Well, Mexican-American, was a very long war; it lasted for two whole years. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jose Antonio Carrillo was a Californio rancher, officer, and politician in 1800s California. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The Battle of San Pascual was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican_American War in what is now San Diego County, California, on the 6 and 7 December 1846. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Cavalry was, in various forms from 1775 to 1942, historically a horse-mounted cavalry force. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image:StephenWKearney. ... General Don Andrés Pico (1810-1876) was the brother of Pio Pico. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... The Temecula Massacre took place in December 1846 east of present day Temecula, California. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Cahuilla are a group of Native Americans that have inhabited California for more than 2000 years, originally covering an area of about 2,400 square miles (6,200 km²). Evidence shows that when the Cahuilla first moved into the area a large body of water now called Lake Cahuilla... The Luiseño are a Native American people who at the time of the first contacts with the Spanish in the 16th century inhabited the coastal area of southern California, ranging 50 miles from the southern part of Los Angeles County, California to the northern part of San Diego County... The Pauma Massacre occurred in December 1846, north of Escondido, California. ... Temecula is a city located in Riverside County, California. ... Combatants United States of America Californios, Mexico Commanders Robert F. Stockton Stephen Watts Kearny José Mariá Flores Strength U.S. naval and army forces 600 sailors, marines and dragoons Californios 160 Militia soldiers Casualties 143 80 The Battle of Rio San Gabriel was a decisive action of the California campaign... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The Battle of La Mesa occurred on January 9, 1847 in present-day Vernon, in which the outgunned and outnumbered Californios (The Americans having rifles, the Californios fighting on horseback with only lances)almost gained the advantage, but they fell back and camped at present-day Pasadena, giving up Los... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Commodore Robert Field Stockton Robert Field Stockton (20 August 1795–7 October 1866) was an United States naval officer, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813-July 13, 1890), birth name John Charles Fremon [Harvey, p. ... View of Montebello and Pico Rivera from Rose Hills Memorial Park in Whittier, notice the Downtown Los Angeles skyline in the distant background Montebello is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Bell is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Chino is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ...


The end of Mexican rule

In the 1830s Californios differentiated themselves from Mexicanos, migrants from the Mexican interior, by asserting exclusionary land grant laws after the dissolution of the mission lands in 1834. These laws created the conditions for favoritism in parcelling of mission lands that had been worked by Indians for many years at this point. Many Indians were, however, able to assert their rights to mission lands, but unfortunately they were not given official papers documenting the same.


Following the discovery of gold in 1848, Congress set up a Board of Land Commissioners to determine the validity of Spanish and Mexican land grants in California. California Senator William M. Gwin presented a bill that, when approved by the Senate and the House, became the Act of March 3, 1851.[1] Unless grantees presented evidence supporting their title within two years, the property would automatically pass into the public domain.[2] This proviso was contrary to Articles VII and IX of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which guaranteed full protection of all property rights for Mexican citizens. Although the Commission eventually confirmed 604 of the 813 claims received, the cost of litigation forced most Californios to lose their property. This land in turn was parcelled out to immigrant squatters under the 1862 Homestead Act. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill. ... A land grant is a gift of land made by the government for projects such as roads, railroads, or especially academic institutions. ... William McKendree Gwin William McKendree Gwin (October 9, 1805 – September 3, 1885) was an American medical doctor and politician. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ... The Homestead Act was a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres (one quarter section or about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West. ...


Californios after U.S. annexation

The mysterious "disappearance" of Californios after 1850 in state history is debated. Some Mexican Americans and Latinos residing in California claim to have genealogical roots with Californios before the arrival of Anglo-Americans. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ...


But the romantic history of Californios has even fueled the political volatile issues of the La raza movement by some Hispanic activists who depict "Mexican" Californios as the state's original people, instead of the native Coast Miwok, Ohlone, Wintun, Yokuts and other Native Americans who inhabited the region for centuries before European contact. They maintain the political ideology this was a "lost land" of the Southwest U.S., where there was a Latin American culture: Californios, along with Tejanos of Texas, Hispanos of New Mexico, Chicanos – a 20th century designation – and some are preferably identified as Spanish Americans. La Raza is a Spanish-language term (literally meaning the race, but also connoting el pueblo or la gente, both of which mean the people), which refers generally to the people of Latin America who share the cultural and political legacies of Spanish colonialism, including the Spanish language and culture... Bodega Bay as viewed from present-day Dillon Beach, was ancient homeland of the Coastal Miwok. ... For the college of the same name, see Ohlone College. ... Pre-contact distribution of Wintun peoples Wintun (also Wintuan, Wintoon) is the name generally given to a group of related Native American tribes who lived in Northern California, including the Wintu, Nomlaki, Patwin and Southern Patwin tribes. ... Yokutsan (also Yokuts) is a family of languages spoken in the interior of southern California in and around the San Joaquin valley. ... Tejano is also the name of Texans of Spanish origin. ... In Spain and Spanish-speaking Latin America, Hispano (Hispanic in English) is ascribed as indicating a derivation from Spain, her people and culture. ... A Chicano is a person of Mexican descent born in the United States. ... Spanish Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the southwest European nation of Spain. ...


Many Californios continued to live in pueblos alongside Native peoples and Mexicanos well into the 20th century because the agricultural economy of California allowed several of these communities: Santa Ana, San Diego, San Fernando, San Jose, Monterey, Los Alamitos, San Juan Capistrano, San Bernardino, Hornitos, Santa Barbara and Indio. Location of Santa Ana within Orange County, California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... San Fernando (Spanish for Saint Ferdinand) may refer to: Argentina San Fernando, Buenos Aires, city of the Greater Buenos Aires. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... For other uses, see Monterey (disambiguation). ... City Hall Los Alamitos is a city located in Orange County, California. ... San Juan Capistrano is a city located in southern Orange County, California, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 33,826. ... San Bernardino is the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - City 111. ... The Indio Fashion Mall. ...


They lived in relative autonomy, although some social acts of segregation by custom, but maintaining Spanish language newspapers, entertainment, schools, bars or clubs, and cultural practices often tied to local churches and mutual aid societies. The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation...


Their "official" history, however, has historically been subsumed by the official modes of record-keeping (census takers, city records, etc.) that at some point (around the 1910s) lumped together all Californios, Mexicanos, and Native ("Indio") peoples with Spanish surnames under the terms "Spanish", "Mexican", and sometimes, "colored".[citation needed]


Californio identity in the 20th century

Until recently, especially within long-standing Mexican communities in Southern California, a number of people who claimed Native Californian and Californio ancestry could be found. However in the 1970 and 1980 US census reports, less than 1,000 Americans of Mexican descent in California called themselves Californios. It is often believed that these communities have become extinct, or that they have become absorbed or integrated with the more recent Immigrants form Mexico and Central America over the recent decades. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ...


But, Californios and Mexicanos has varied on many things in regard of the two groups' cultural differences. In the 1910s and 1920's when a large wave of Mexican immigrants poured into their communities in California and the Southwest US, social friction took place between the two Hispanic groups, as the older generation felt more "American" than recent arrivals from Mexico. [citation needed]


There are strong historical ties between Mexicanos, many whose families emigrated to the U.S. between 1900 and WWII, and the Californios and Native Californians. There was a constant exchange of culture and language between mainland Mexico and these enclaves of Mexicano/Californio/Indio culture, evidenced by marriage, migratory trends, and linguistic evolution in the region. To attempt to differentiate culturally between Californios and Mexicanos in the 20th century is very difficult at this point. [citation needed]


Notable Californios

José María de Jesus Alviso (November 19, 1798 - June 18, 1853) was an early settler of the Silicon Valley in California, alcalde (mayor) of San José, and grantee of Rancho Milpitas. ... Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Bautista de Anza Bezerra Nieto (July 1736 - December 19, 1788) was a Novo-Spanish explorer for the Spanish Empire. ... José Antonio Estudillo about 1830 José Antonio Estudillo (1805–July 20, 1852) was an early settler of San Diego, California José Antonio Estudillo was born 1805 in Monterey, Alta California to Captain José María Estudillo. ... José María Estudillo (–April 8, 1830) was an early settler of San Diego, California. ... Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker (1825–1912) wealthy Los Angeles landowner Arcadia Bandini born 1825 in San Diego, California, the eldest of three daughters of Juan Bandini and Marie de los Dolores Estudio. ... For other uses, see Santa Monica (disambiguation). ... Juan Bandini (1800–November 4, 1859) was an early settler of San Diego, California. ... José Raimundo Carrillo (1749–1809) was an early settler of San Diego, California and founder of the Carrillo family in California. ... Captain José Antonio Carrillo (1796-1862) was a Californio rancher, officer, and politician in the early years of California. ... Manuel Dominguez, (1804 - (1882), born in Alta California, New Spain at the Mission San Juan Capistrano, was the eldest son of Cristobal Dominguez, who was the nephew of Juan Jose Dominguez, a retired Spanish soldier who came to San Diego, California with the Gaspar de Portolà expedition and later to... William Edward Petty Hartnell William Edward Petty Hartnell, a. ... On December 15, 1799, six-week old Robert Thomas Livermore was christened at a parish church in Springfield, England. ... Livermore is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Joaquin Murietta (sometimes spelled Murieta or Murrieta) (b. ... For other uses, see Zorro (disambiguation). ... General Don Andrés Pico (1810-1876) was the brother of Pio Pico. ... Pío de Jesus Pico Lopez (May 5, 1801–September 11, 1894) was the last Mexican Governor of Alta California, now the U.S. state of California. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... Sepulveda is a name of families of Spanish descent. ... John Temple may refer to John Meredith Temple (1910–1994), British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Sir John Temple (1632 - 1704), Attorney General of Ireland Category: ... Don Mariano Guadeloupe Vallejo (4 July 1807 - 18 January 1890) was a Californian military commander, politician, and rancher. ... Vallejo (pronounced IPA: in English; in the original Spanish) is a city in Solano County, California, United States. ... Tiburcio Vasquez Tiburcio Vasquez (August 11, 1839–March 19, 1875) was a Mexican bandit who was active in California from as early as 1857 to his last capture in 1874. ... Benjamin Davis Wilson, (December 1, 1811 to March 11, 1878, San Gabriel, California; statesman and politician. ... José Antonio Yorba (1746-1825), known also as Don José Antonio Yorba I, was one of the important early settlers of Spanish California (then known as Alta California). ...

Californios in literature

Richard Henry Dana, Jr., recorded his 1834 visit as a sailor to California in Two Years Before the Mast. Other Americans such as Joseph Chapman, a land realtor hailed the first Yankee to reside in the old Pueblo de Los Angeles in 1831, described Southern California as a paradise yet to be developed. He mentions of a civilization by a Spanish-speaking colony, "Californios" thrived in pueblos, the missions and ranchos. Richard Henry Dana Richard Henry Dana Jr. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Two Years Before the Mast a book by the American author Richard Henry Dana, Jr. ...


The Squatter and the Don by Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton, a novel written and set in 1880s California, depicts a very wealthy Californio family's legal struggles with emigrant squatters on their land. The novel was based on the legal struggles of General Mariano G. Vallejo, the author's good friend. While the novel is by no means representative of the majority of Californios' lives and standard of living, it is truthful in its depiction of the legal process by which Californios were often "relieved" of their land. This process was long (most Californios spent upwards of fifteen years defending their grants before the courts) and the legal fees alone were enough to make many Californios landless. Californios felt confused about having to pay land taxes to American officials, because they opposed the idea on paying for land ownership that wasn't in Mexican law. In some cases Californios had little fluid capital because their economy had operated on a barter system, and they often lost their land because they were unable to pay the taxes. They could not compete economically with all the European and Anglo-American emigrants who arrived in the region with large amounts of money. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (7 July 1808 - 12 January 1890) was born at Monterey, California, entered the Monterey Presidial Academy in 1823. ...


The end of Californio culture is depicted in the novel Ramona, written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1884. The fictional Zorro has grown to become the most identifiable Californio due to short stories, motion pictures and by the 1950s on television; although the historical truth of the era is sometimes lost in the story-telling. Ramona is a novel written by Helen Hunt Jackson and published in 1884. ... Helen Maria Hunt Jackson (October 18, 1831-August 12, 1885) was an American writer. ... See also: 1883 in literature, other events of 1884, 1885 in literature, list of years in literature. ... For other uses, see Zorro (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...


See also

Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... In the colonial caste system of Spanish America, a peninsular was a citizen born in the metropolitan part of the Spanish Empire, modernly called just Spain, in Iberian Peninsula. ... ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... “Spaniard” redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ Robinson, p. 100
  2. ^ House Executive Document 46, pp. 1116-1117

External links

  • Californios, a People and a Culture, a personal website
  • Californios ~ early Mexican San Diegans
  • "Mexican Americans in California," FIVE VIEWS: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California, California Department of Parks and Recreation Office of Historic Preservation, December 1988 (includes discussion on Californios)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gold Fever California on the Eve - Californios (344 words)
These ranchers were known as Californios, members of great land-holding families.
Mariano Vallejo stated: We were the pioneers of the Pacific coast, building towns and Missions while General Washington was carrying on the War of the Revolution.
But most Californios were poor ranch hands who maintained herds of cattle.
Riding in lightness (740 words)
Californio Style Horsemanship is how a rider might express the skills of the caballeros that came to the New World.
A Californio is generally accepted to be a person born in the region now known as the State of California (Alta California of old) in the period following discovery and exploration and ending when the United States wrested control from Mexico.
The Californio discussion group, hosted at Yahoo groups and moderated by Bob Sagely, and this web site, will try to educate folks about the Old Californio traditions, particularly the equestrian ways of the vaqueros, amansadores and the arreindadores.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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