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Encyclopedia > Californian redwood
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
Sequoia sempervirens

Sequoia sempervirens in Redwood National and State Parks
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Cupressaceae (Taxaceae by others)
Genus: Sequoia
Species: S. sempervirens
Binomial name
Sequoia sempervirens
(D. Don) Endl.

Sequoia is a genus in the cypress family Cupressaceae (Taxaceae or Taxodiaceae by others), containing the single living species Sequoia sempervirens. Common names include Coast Redwood and California Redwood (it is one of three species of trees known as redwoods). It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living for up to 2,000 years, and is commonly considered the tallest tree in the world, reaching up to 115.5 m (379.1 ft) in height and 7 m (23 ft) diameter at the base. It is thought to be named after the Cherokee Indian leader, Sequoyah, though this is uncertain. Download high resolution version (399x603, 71 KB)Italic textA Coast Redwood File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the... Families Pinaceae, pine family Araucariaceae, araucaria family Podocarpaceae, yellow-wood family Phyllocladaceae Sciadopityaceae, umbrella-pine family Cupressaceae, cypress family Cephalotaxaceae, plum-yew family Taxaceae, yew family The Order Pinales in the Division Pinophyta, Class Pinopsida comprises all the extant conifers. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... Genera Taxaceae sensu stricto Taxus Pseudotaxus Austrotaxus — Cephalotaxaceae Torreya Amentotaxus Cephalotaxus The family Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family, includes three genera and about 7 to 12 species of coniferous plants, or in other interpretations (see Classification, below), six genera and about 30 species. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. ... David Don (21 December 1799 - 15 December 1841) was an English botanist, Professor of Botany at Kings College, London from 1836–1841, and librarian at the Linnean Society of London from 1822–1841. ... Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher (24 June 1804 - 28 March 1849; botanical abbreviation Endl. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... Genera Taxaceae sensu stricto Taxus Pseudotaxus Austrotaxus — Cephalotaxaceae Torreya Amentotaxus Cephalotaxus The family Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family, includes three genera and about 7 to 12 species of coniferous plants, or in other interpretations (see Classification, below), six genera and about 30 species. ... The Taxodiaceae was at one time regarded as a distinct plant family comprising the following ten genera of coniferous trees: Athrotaxis Cryptomeria Cunninghamia Glyptostrobus Metasequoia Sciadopitys Sequoia Sequoiadendron Taiwania Taxodium However, recent research has shown that the Taxodiaceae, with the single exception of Sciadopitys, should be merged into the Family... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... The leaves of evrgreens have a thick, green outer layer to protect them from low temperatures. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The name Sequoia is also used as a general term for the subfamily Sequoioideae in which this genus is classified together with Sequoiadendron (Giant Sequoia) and Metasequoia (Dawn Redwood). Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... Binomial name (Lindl. ... Binomial name Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & Cheng Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn Redwood) is a fast growing tree in the conifer family Cupressaceae (Taxaceae or Taxodiaceae by others)native to the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. ...

Detail: bark

The crown is conical, with horizontal to slightly drooping branches. The bark is very thick, up to 30 cm (12 in), and quite soft, fibrous with a bright red-brown when freshly exposed (hence the name 'redwood'), weathering darker. The root system is composed of shallow, wide-spreading lateral roots. The leaves are variable, being 15-25 mm long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees, and scale-like, 5-10 mm long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees; there is a full range of transition between the two extremes. They are dark green above, and with two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture. The seed cones are ovoid, 15-32 mm long, with 15-25 spirally arranged scales; pollination is in late winter with maturation about 8-9 months after. Each cone scale bears 3-7 seeds, each seed 3-4 mm long and 0.5 mm broad, with two wings 1 mm wide. The seeds are released when the cone scales dry out and open at maturity. The pollen cones are oval, 4-6 mm long. The species is monoecious, with pollen and seed cones on the same plant. Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid (6n) and likely autoallopolyploid (AAAABB). The mitochondrial genome is (unlike other conifers) paternally inherited (Neale et al. 1989). Coast redwood bark detail Taken by Nathan May 14, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coast redwood bark detail Taken by Nathan May 14, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Polyploidy refers to cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ...

Contents

Range and ecology

Sunlight shining through sequoia trees in Muir Woods

Coast Redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land approximately 750 km (470 miles) in length and 8-75 km (5-47 miles) in width along the Pacific coast; the elevation range is mostly from 30-750 m, occasionally down to sea level and up to 920 m or about 3,000 feet (Farjon 2005). They usually grow in the mountains where there is more precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean. The tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, and fog drip is regular. The trees above the fog layer, above about 700 m, are shorter and smaller due to the drier, windier, and colder conditions. In addition, tanoak, pine and Douglas-fir often crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, either, due to intense salt spray, sand and wind. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Muir Woods National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service in Marin County, California, 12 miles (19 km) north of San Francisco. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic subdivisions. ... Binomial name Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Species See text. ...

Fog is of major importance in Coast Redwood ecology. Redwood National Park.

The northern boundary of its range is marked by two groves on the Chetco River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, 25 km (15 miles) north of the California-Oregon border. The largest populations are in Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park (Del Norte County), Redwood National Park and Humboldt Redwoods State Park (Humboldt County). The furthest inland are 75 km from the sea, in Napa County. The southern boundary of the range is marked by a grove in Salmon Creek Canyon in the Santa Lucia Mountains of southern Monterey County. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (426x640, 121 KB) Summary Spring fog in Redwood National Park. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (426x640, 121 KB) Summary Spring fog in Redwood National Park. ... Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ... The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth. ... Chetco River The Chetco River is a river in southwestern Oregon in the United States, approximately 55 mi (88 km) long. ... The Trinity Alps near Granite Lake in July 2005 Rogue River Gorge, Oregon The Klamath Mountains, sometimes called the salmon mountains, are a rugged lightly populated mountain range in northwest California and southwest Oregon, the highest peaks being Mount Eddy (6 ft / 2 m) in Siskiyou County, California, Thompson peak... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Jedediah Smith Redwoods Park, established in 1929, was named after the noted fur trapper Jedediah Smith. ... Del Norte County is the northwesternmost county in the U.S. state of California, located on the Pacific coast south of Oregon. ... Established in 1968 from unprotected land as well as small portions of existing state parks, Redwood National Park is a United States National Park on the northern coast of California between Eureka and Crescent City. ... Humboldt Redwoods State Park in Humboldt County, northern California, 30 miles (50 km) south of Eureka, California. ... Humboldt County is a county located on the northwest coast of the U.S. state of California, on the Pacific Ocean. ... “Napa Valley” redirects here. ... The Santa Lucia Mountains or Santa Lucia Range is a mountain range in coastal California, running from Monterey southeast for 170 km to San Luis Obispo. ... Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. ...


This native area provides a unique environment with heavy seasonal rains (2,500 mm or 100 in annually), cool coastal air and fog keeping this forest constantly damp year round. As this heavy rain has left the soil with few nutrients, these trees depend on the entire biotic community of the forest, and complete recycling of the trees when dead. This forest community includes Douglas-fir, Western Hemlock, Tanoak, Madrone, and other trees along with a wide variety of ferns, Redwood sorrel, mosses and mushrooms. Redwood forests provide habitat for a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Remnant old growth redwood stands provide habitat for the federally threatened Spotted Owl and the California-endangered Marbled Murrelet. Species See text. ... Binomial name Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. ... Binomial name Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. ... Species See text Arbutus is a genus of trees in the family Ericaceae. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Binomial name Oxalis oregana Redwood sorrel (Oxalis Oregana) is a ground cover underneath Coast Redwoods. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1–10 cm tall, though some species are much larger. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Old growth forest, sometimes called late seral forest or ancient forest is an area of forest that has attained great age and exhibits unique biological features. ... Binomial name Strix occidentalis Xantus de Vesey, 1860 The Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis, is a species of owl. ... Binomial name Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin, 1789) The Marbled Murrelet, Brachyramphus marmoratus is a small seabird from the North Pacific. ...


The thick, tannin-rich bark, combined with foliage that starts high above the ground provides good protection from both fire and insect damage, contributing to the Coast Redwood's longevity. The oldest known Coast Redwood is about 2,200 years old[citation needed]; many others in the wild exceed 600 years. Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, peat fire (gambut in Indonesia), bushfire (in Australasia), or hill fire, is an uncontrolled fire that pops up fire often occurring in wildland areas, but which can also consume houses or agricultural resources. ... Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ...


The prehistoric fossil range of the genus is considerably greater, with a subcosmopolitan distribution including Europe and Asia until about 5 million years ago. FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ...


Statistics

Trees over 60 m (200 feet) are common, and many are over 90 m (300 feet).

  • The current tallest tree is Hyperion, measuring at 115.55 m [1] (379.1 feet). The tree was discovered in Redwood National Park during Summer 2006 by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor and has been measured as the world's tallest living thing. The previous record holder was the Stratosphere Giant in the Humboldt Redwoods State Park, at 112.83 m, last measured in 2004 (was 112.34 m in Aug 2000 and 112.56 m in 2002). Until it fell in March 1991, the "Dyerville Giant" was the record holder. It too stood in Humboldt Redwoods State Park; it was 113.4 metres high and estimated to be 1,600 years old.
  • There are 15 known living trees more than 110 m (361 feet) tall.
  • There are 47 trees that are more than 105 m (344.5 feet) tall.
  • A tree claimed to be 115.8 m (380 feet) was cut down in 1912.
  • The tallest non-redwood tree is a 100.3 m (329 foot) tall Douglas-fir.

In 2004, an article in Nature reported that the theoretical maximum potential height of Coast Redwoods (or any other tree) is limited to between 122-130 m (400-425 feet), due to gravity and the friction between water and the vessels through which it flows. Hyperion is the name of a redwood tree in Northern California that has been confirmed to measure 115. ... Stratosphere Giant was considered the tallest tree in the world until September 2006. ... Humboldt Redwoods State Park in Humboldt County, northern California, 30 miles (50 km) south of Eureka, California. ... Species See text. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ...


The largest in volume is the "Del Norte Titan", with an estimated volume of 1,044.7 m³; it is 93.57 m tall with a diameter of 7.22 m. Among current living trees only 15 Giant Sequoias are larger than this; these are shorter, but have thicker trunks, giving the largest Giant Sequoia, General Sherman, a volume of 1,487 cubic metres (52,510 cubic feet). A redwood cut down in 1926 had a claimed volume of 1,794 m³ (63,350 cubic feet), but this is not verified. Binomial name (Lindl. ... General Sherman tree from Sequoia National Park General Sherman is the name of a Giant Sequoia. ...


Reproduction

This is an example of a "fairy ring" sprouted from a stump. All the sprouts are identical clones with exactly the same genomic material.

Coast Redwood reproduces both sexually and asexually. Seed production begins at 10-15 years of age, and large seed crops occur frequently, but viability of the seed is low, typically below 20%. The low viability may be an adaptation to discourage seed predators, which do not want to waste time sorting chaff (empty seeds) from edible seeds. The winged seeds are small and light, weighing 3.3-5 mg (200-300 seeds/g; 5,600-8,500/ounce). The wings are not effective for wide dispersal, and seeds are dispersed by wind an average of only 60-120 m (200-400 feet) from the parent tree. Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2142 KB) This ring of redwoods (specifically, Sequoias), sprouted from the stump of an older tree. ... Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2142 KB) This ring of redwoods (specifically, Sequoias), sprouted from the stump of an older tree. ...

Coast Redwood, Redwood National Park.

Growth of seedlings is very fast, with young trees known to reach 20 m (65 feet) tall in 20 years. Coast Redwoods can also reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting from the root crown, stump, or even fallen branches; if a tree falls over, it will regenerate a row of new trees along the trunk. This is the reason for many trees naturally growing in a straight line. Sprouts originate from dormant or adventitious buds at or under the surface of the bark. The dormant sprouts are stimulated when the main adult stem gets damaged or starts to die. Many sprouts spontaneously erupt and develop around the circumference of the tree trunk. Within a short period after sprouting, each sprout will develop its own root system, with the dominant sprouts forming a ring of trees around the parent root crown or stump. This ring of trees is called a "fairy ring". Sprouts can achieve heights of 2.3 m (8 feet) in a single growing season. Download high resolution version (640x853, 99 KB)Coast Redwood I took this picture and release it Pud 17:44, 11 Jul 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (640x853, 99 KB)Coast Redwood I took this picture and release it Pud 17:44, 11 Jul 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth. ...


Redwoods may also reproduce using burls. A burl is a woody lignotuber that commonly appears on a redwood tree below the soil line, though when above, usually within 3 m of the soil. Burls are capable of sprouting into new trees when detached from the parent tree, though exactly how this happens is yet to be studied. Shoot clones commonly sprout from burls and are often turned into decorative hedges when found in suburbia.


The species is very tolerant of flooding and flood deposits, the roots rapidly growing into thick silt deposits after floods. Picture of flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ...


Cultivation and uses

Coast Redwood plantation at Polipoli, Hawaii.

Coast Redwood is one of the most valuable timber species in California, with 364,000 ha of redwood forest, all second growth, managed for timber production [2]. Coast Redwood lumber is highly valued for its beauty, light weight, and resistance to decay. It is also resistant to fire since it does not burn well due to its lack of resin. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 379 KB) Summary Car (02 Hyundai Sonata) driving through a Coastal Redwood, Leggett, CA. Photo taken by Bobak HaEri (I also obscured the license plate). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 379 KB) Summary Car (02 Hyundai Sonata) driving through a Coastal Redwood, Leggett, CA. Photo taken by Bobak HaEri (I also obscured the license plate). ... 1941 2005 Chandelier Tree is a 315 foot tall coast redwood tree in Leggett, California with a 6 foot wide by 9 foot high hole cut through its base to allow a car to drive through. ... Image File history File links Starr_050831_7731_sequoia_sempervirens. ... Image File history File links Starr_050831_7731_sequoia_sempervirens. ... Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


P. H. Shaughnessy, Chief Engineer of the San Francisco Fire Department wrote: This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

In the recent great fire of San Francisco, that began April 18th, 1906, we succeeded in finally stopping it in nearly all directions where the unburned buildings were almost entirely of frame construction and if the exterior finish of these buildings had not been of redwood lumber, I am satisfied that the area of the burned district would have been greatly extended.

Redwood burls are used in the production of table tops, veneers, and turned goods. The phenolics and tannins present in old growth redwood stock affords excellent termite and water damage protection. Old growth redwood construction is highly prized as a result. Only 3 percent of the present redwood forest is old growth, but not all of it is protected from further exploitation. More and more of the second growth forest is being converted into protected areas with hopes of them taking on old growth forest characteristics. Examples of this are the Big Basin State Park and the recently acquired San Lorenzo River Redwoods. Some of the remaining forest consists of redwood plantations grown on a short (40-70 years) rotation. Other areas are slowly succumbing to suburban sprawl. San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: Ruins in vicinity of Post and Grant Avenue. ... Big Basin Redwoods State Park is a California state park, located in Santa Cruz County about 23 miles northwest of Santa Cruz. ... // This article is about crop plantations. ...


The Coast Redwood is locally naturalized in New Zealand, notably at Rotorua. Other areas of successful cultivation outside of the native range include western Europe from the British Isles south to Portugal, the Queen Charlotte Islands, middle elevations of Hawaii, and the southeastern United States from eastern Texas to North Carolina. In biology, naturalisation is the process when foreign or cultivated plants have spread into the wild, where they multiply by natural regeneration. ... Rotorua is a city located on the southern shore of Lake Rotorua in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), is a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Leaving Skidegate Inlet aboard BC Ferries M/V Queen of Prince Rupert The Queen Charlotte Islands or Haida Gwaii (Land of the Haida) are an archipelago off the northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, consisting of two main islands, Graham Island in the North, and Moresby Island in the south... Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...


See also

  • Cryptomeria japonica - Sugi

Binomial name Cryptomeria japonica (L.f. ...

References and external links

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... New Yorker may refer to: the magazine, The New Yorker a resident of New York City the hotel New Yorker a named passenger train operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad between Detroit, MI and New York, NY This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...

Further reading

  • Preston, Richard "The Wild Trees: A Story of Passion and Daring", Random House, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4000-6489-2.

 
 

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