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Encyclopedia > California recall election, 2003
Arnold Schwarzenegger, winner of the 2003 California recall
Arnold Schwarzenegger, winner of the 2003 California recall

The 2003 California recall was a special election permitted under California law. It resulted in voters replacing sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis with Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The recall effort spanned the summer and fall of 2003. ImageMetadata File history File links Arnold_Schwarzenegger. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Arnold_Schwarzenegger. ... (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe award winning actor, and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe award winning actor, and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After several legal and procedural efforts failed to stop it, California's first-ever gubernatorial recall election was held on October 7, and the results were certified on November 14, 2003, making Davis the first governor recalled in the history of California, and just the second in U.S. history. A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


For detailed election results, see results of the 2003 California recall. The following are the results of the 2003 California recall election held on October 7, 2003 which unseated Gray Davis and propelled actor Arnold Schwarzenegger to the governorship. ...

Contents


Background

California law

Enlarge
California Secretary of State building on October 7, 2003.

Any elected official may be the target of a recall campaign. In order to trigger a recall election, proponents of the recall must gather a certain number of signatures from registered voters within a certain time period. The number of signatures must equal 12% of the number of votes cast in the previous elections. For the 2003 recall elections, that meant a minimum of 900,000 signatures, based on the November 2002 statewide elections. By Daniel Mayer. ... By Daniel Mayer. ... 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for November, 2002. ...


The effort to recall Gray Davis began with Republican Ted Costa and Howard Kaloogian, who filed the petition with the California Secretary of State and started gathering signatures. The effort was not taken seriously, until Rep. Darrell Issa, who hoped to run as a replacement candidate for governor, donated $2 million towards the effort. This infusion of money allowed Costa and Kaloogian to step up their efforts including paying signature gatherers up to $1 per signature. Eventually, about 1.6 million signatures were gathered, which was enough to trigger a recall. Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ... Howard Kaloogian Howard Kaloogian (born 1960) is a conservative Republican politician, who was a California State Assemblyman from 1994-2000 representing portions of San Diego County. ... Darrell E. Issa (pronounced Eye-suh) (born November 1, 1953) is an American politician and former CEO of a consumer electronics company. ...


Under most circumstances in which a recall campaign against a state wide elected official has gathered the required, the governor is required to schedule a special election for the recall vote. If the recall campaign qualified less than 180 days prior to the next regularly scheduled elections, then the recall becomes part of that regularly scheduled elections. In the case of a recall against the governor, the responsibility for scheduling a special election falls on the Lieutenant Governor, which in 2003 was Cruz Bustamante. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ...


Political climate

The political climate was largely shaped by the then-recent and costly California electricity crisis of the late 1990s, in which many saw their monthly energy bills triple in cost. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 followed a failed partial-deregulation, in 1996, of the electricity market in the state. ...


The public, confused by the complex and legalistic nature of the energy fraud, held Davis to some degree of fault. General speculation regarding the factors influencing the recall's outcome continues to center on the idea that Californians simply voted for a "change" —either because Davis had not fought more vigorously for Californians against the energy fraud, or because the fraudulent corporations had prevailed, and a corporate-friendly Republican governor could politically shield California from further corporate fraud. Others speculated that the corporations involved sought not only profit, but were acting in concert with Republican political allies to cause political damage the nationally influential Democrat governor.


Arguments about the recall drive

Backers of the recall effort cited Gray Davis's alleged "lack of leadership" combined with California's weakened and hurt economy. According to the circulated petition:

[Governor Davis's actions were a] "gross mismanagement of California Finances by overspending taxpayers' money, threatening public safety by cutting funds to local governments, failing to account for the exorbitant cost of the energy , and failing in general to deal with the state's major problems until they get to the crisis stage."

Opponents of the recall said the situation was more complicated, for several reasons.


Firstly the entire United States and many of its economic trading partners had been in economic recession. California was hit harder than other states at the end of the speculative bubble known as the "dot-com boom" — from 1996 to 2000 — when Silicon Valley was the center of the internet economy. California state expenditures soared when the government was flush with revenues. Some Californians blamed Davis and the state legislature for continuing to spend heavily while revenues dried up, ultimately leading to record deficits. Currier & Ives print on economic bubbles, 1875. ... Dot-com (also dotcom or redundantly dot. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... A view of downtown San Jose, the self-proclaimed Capital of Silicon Valley. Like many large cities, San Joses downtown is expansive and encompasses much more area than shown in this view. ...


Secondly, the California electricity crisis of 2000-2001 caused great financial damage to the state of California. There is much consternation among the citizens of California regarding Davis' handling of the crisis; see that article for more. The legal issues still were not resolved in time to alleviate California's dire need for electricity, and the state instituted "rolling blackouts" and in some cases instituted penalties for excess energy use. In the recall campaign, Republicans and others opposed to Davis's governance sometimes charge that Davis "did not respond properly" to the crisis. In fact most economists disagree, believing that Davis could do little else-- and anyone in the Governor's office would have had to capitulate as Davis did, in the absence of Federal help. Federal assistance from the Bush administration was flatly rejected as "California's problem." Still, subsequent revelations of corporate accounting scandals and market manipulation by some Texas-based energy companies did little to quiet the criticism of Davis' handling of the crisis. See California electricity crisis for more discussion. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 followed a failed partial-deregulation, in 1996, of the electricity market in the state. ... Rolling blackout refers to an intentionally-engineered electrical power outage, caused by insufficient available resources to meet prevailing demand for electricity. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Economists are scholars conducting research in the field of economics. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Accounting scandals, or corporate accounting scandals are political and business scandals which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by trusted executives of large public corporations. ... Official language(s) None. ... The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 followed a failed partial-deregulation, in 1996, of the electricity market in the state. ...


Furthermore, there is a high correlation between the success of the recall signature gathering effort and the inability for the California Legislature and the governor to agree on a new state budget. The new year's California budget was finally passed on August 1, 2003, several days after the recall was confirmed, and many believe the deadlock involved in the budget negotiations added fuel to the fire driving the recall effort. Some were further antagonized by the fact that the budget ultimately passed relied on loans and borrowing - which they said amounted to not fixing California's budget problems at all. Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Additionally, many Republicans believe that California's taxes are too high, discouraging investment and driving businesses out of the state. Many candidates also criticized Davis' immigration policy, and were particularly enraged by Davis's seeming support of the court ruling striking down most of Proposition 187 as unconstitutional and his more recent support for issuing driver's licenses to illegal immigrants. A tax is a compulsory charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... California Proposition 187 was a proposition introduced in California in 1994 to deny illegal immigrants social services, health care, and public education. ... Illegal immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently, in violation of the law or without documents permitting an immigrant to settle in that country. ...


A perfect storm?

Many other California governors have faced recall attempts and many others have governed through tough economic circumstances, but none ever faced a special recall election until Davis. Some political experts believe a "perfect storm" of circumstances led to the success of the recall drive. A perfect storm is a situation where, by the confluence of specific events, what might have been a minor issue ends up being magnified to proportions that are out of control. ...


Davis swept into the governor's office in 1998 in a landslide victory and a 60% approval rating as California's economy roared to new heights during the dot-com boom. Davis took his mandate from the voters and sought out a centrist position politically, refusing some demands from labor unions and teachers' organizations on the left. The Democratic Davis, already opposed by Republicans, began losing favor among members of his own party. Nevertheless, Davis' approval ratings remained above 50%.


When the California electricity crisis slammed the state in 2001, Davis was blasted for his slow and ineffective response. His approval rating dropped into the 30s and it never recovered. When the energy crisis settled down, Davis' administration was hit with a fund-raising scandal. California had a $95 million contract with Oracle Corporation that was found to be unnecessary and overpriced by the state auditor. Three of Davis' aides were fired or resigned after it was revealed that the governor's technology adviser accepted a $25,000 campaign contribution shortly after the contract was signed. The money was returned, but the scandal fueled close scrutiny of Davis' fundraising for his 2002 re-election bid. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 followed a failed partial-deregulation, in 1996, of the electricity market in the state. ... Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL), one of the major companies developing database management systems, tools for database development, and enterprise resource planning software, customer relationship management software (CRM) and supply chain planning (SCM) software dates from 1977 and has offices in more than 145 countries around the world. ...


In the 2002 primary election, Davis ran unopposed for the Democratic nomination. He spent his campaign funds on attack ads against California Secretary of State Bill Jones and Los Angeles mayor Richard Riordan, the two well known moderates in the Republican primary. The result was that his opponent in the general election was conservative Republican and political newcomer Bill Simon, who was popular within his own party but unknown by the majority of the state population. The intense criticism of both candidates caused Davis and Simon to run one of the most negative campaigns in recent state history. The attacks on both sides turned off voters and suppressed turnout; Davis ultimately won with 47% of the vote as the "lesser of two evils." The suppressed turnout had the effect of lowering the threshold for the 2003 recall petition to qualify. The Secretary of State of California is the states chief elections officer. ... Bill Jones William Leon Jones (born December 20, 1949) is a U.S. politician who served as the 27th Secretary of State of California Born in Coalinga, California, Jones earned his bachelors degree in agribusiness and plant sciences from California State University, Fresno in 1971. ... Nickname: City of Angels Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Richard J. Riordan Richard J. Riordan (born May 1, 1930) is a Republican politician from California, who had served as the California Secretary for Education from 2003–2005 and as Mayor of Los Angeles from 1993–2001. ... William E. Simon, Jr. ...


On December 18, 2002, just over a month after being reelected, Davis announced that California would face a record budget deficit possibly as high as $35 billion, a forecast $13.7 billion higher than one a month earlier. The number was finally estimated to be $38.2 billion, more than all 49 other states' deficits combined. Already suffering from low approval ratings, Davis's numbers hit historic lows in April 2003 with 24% approval and 65% disapproval according to the California Field Poll. Davis was almost universally disliked by both Republicans and Democrats in the state and a recall push was nigh. December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ...


In summary, Davis alienated members of both political parties and was charged with ineffective leadership during the 2001 energy crisis and 2003 budget deficit. Combined with a personality sometimes described as "wooden" and "stiff" and some dubious campaign contributions, Davis faced a recall petition drive despite the lack of any apparent misbehavior or criminal activity.


Recall campaign

Image of official recall petition form
Official petition form circulated to call for a special recall election. The petition includes the proponents' grounds for recall as well as the Governor's rebuttal. Click here for original PDF version (144KB PDF file)

On February 5, 2003, anti-tax crusader Ted Costa announced a plan to start a petition drive to recall Davis. Several committees were formed to collect signatures, but the Recall Gray Davis Committee created by conservative businessman Howard Kaloogian was the only one authorized by the state to submit signatures. Image of official recall petition form. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A petition is a request to an authority, most commonly a government official or public entity. ... Howard Kaloogian Howard Kaloogian (born 1960) is a conservative Republican politician, who was a California State Assemblyman from 1994-2000 representing portions of San Diego County. ...


By law, the committee had to collect signatures from registered California voters amounting to 12% of the number of Californians who voted in the previous gubernatorial election (November 2002) for the special recall vote to take place. The organization was given the go-ahead to collect signatures on March 25, 2003. Organizers had 160 days to collect signatures. Specifically, they had to collect at least 897,158 valid signatures from registered voters by September 2, 2003. March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (246th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The recall movement began slowly, largely relying on talk radio, a website, cooperative e-mail, word-of-mouth, and grassroots campaigning to drive the signature gathering. Davis derided the effort as "partisan mischief" by "a handful of right-wing politicians" and called the proponents "losers." Nevertheless, by mid-May recall proponents said they had gathered 300,000 signatures. They sought to gather the necessary signatures by July in order to get the special election in the fall of 2003 instead of March 2004 during the Democratic presidential primary election, when Democratic Party turnout would presumably be higher. The effort continued to gather signatures, but the recall was far from a sure thing and the proponents were short on cash to promote their cause. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2004 U.S. Democratic Party presidential nomination process was a series of primaries and caucuses culminating in the Democratic National Convention that decided which pair of candidates would represent the Democrats in the 2004 election for President and Vice President of the United States. ...


The movement took off when wealthy U.S. Representative Darrell Issa, a Republican representing San Diego, California, announced on May 6 that he would use his personal money to push the effort. All told, he contributed $1.7 million of his own money to finance advertisements and professional signature-gatherers. With the movement accelerated, the recall effort began to make national news and soon appeared to be almost a sure thing. The only question was whether signatures would be collected quickly enough to force the special election to take place in late 2003 rather than in March 2004. Darrell E. Issa (pronounced Eye-suh) (born November 1, 1953) is an American politician and former CEO of a consumer electronics company. ... Nickname: Americas Finest City Motto: Official website: http://www. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ...


The recall committee's e-mail claimed that California Secretary of State Kevin Shelley, belonging to the same party as the Governor, resisted certification of the recall signatures as long as possible. By mid-May, the recall organization was calling for funds to begin a lawsuit against the secretary, and publicly considered a separate recall effort for the Secretary of State (also an elected official in California). The Secretary of State of California is the states chief elections officer. ... Kevin Francis Shelley (born November 16, 1955 in San Francisco, California) is a California politician, who was the 28th California Secretary of State from January 6, 2003, until his resignation on March 4, 2005. ...


However, by July 23, 2003, recall advocates turned in over 110% of the required signatures, and the Secretary of State announced that the signatures had been certified and a recall election would take place. Proponents had set a goal of 1.2 million to provide a buffer in case of invalid signatures. In the end, there were 1,363,411 valid signatures out of 1,660,245 collected. The next day Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante announced that Davis would face a recall election on October 7. California's Constitution requires that a recall election be held within 80 days of the date the recall petition is certified, or within 180 days if a regularly scheduled statewide election comes within that time. Had the petition been certified at the deadline of September 2, the election would have been held in March 2004, the next scheduled statewide election. Instead, Bustamante chose a date 76 days from the date of certification, October 7th. This was to be the second gubernatorial recall election in the United States history and the first in the history of California. July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... Although the present-day State of California has been occupied for millennia, the lack of a written record and the significant marginalization in the population of native inhabitants after European colonization means that most of the known history of California begins with European exploration. ...


Later that month, the committee's periodic e-mail said that state funds were being illegally used to fight the recall effort. In particular, four million dollars of California State University funds were said to have been funded to educate union members in "Workers Against Recall" or "WAR." Recall supporters organized an authorized (licensed by local police) march opposite a hotel hosting a WAR seminar on August 15, 2003. News video showed a dozen union members with WAR t-shirts crossing the street and assaulting marchers, sending one to a hospital. The California State University (CSU) is one of three public higher education systems in the state of California. ...


Court challenges

Who is eligible to vote for a replacement

On July 29, 2003, Federal judge Barry Moskowitz ruled section 11382 of the California election code unconstitutional. The provision required that a voter must first cast a ballot for or against recall before voting for a candidate for governor. The judge ruled that a voter could abstain in the recall election and still vote for a candidate. [1] Secretary of State, Kevin Shelley did not contest the ruling, thereby setting a legal precedent. July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A judge or justice is an official who presides over a court. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Kevin Francis Shelley (born November 16, 1955 in San Francisco, California) is a California politician, who was the 28th California Secretary of State from January 6, 2003, until his resignation on March 4, 2005. ...


Election logistics

Availability of Spanish speaking poll workers

In August, a federal judge in San Jose announced that he was considering issuing an order postponing the recall election. Activists in Monterey County had filed suit, claiming that Monterey County, and other counties of California affected by the Voting Rights Act were violating the act by announcing that, because of budgetary constraints, they were planning on hiring fewer Spanish-speaking poll watchers, and were going to cut back by almost half the number of polling places. On September 5, a three-member panel of federal judges ruled that the county's election plans did not constitute a violation of the federal Voting Rights Act. Nickname: Capital of Silicon Valley Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Location in the state of California Formed 1850 Seat Salinas Area  - Total  - Water 9,767 km² (3,771 mi²) 1,163 km² (449 mi²) 11. ... Originally, in continental Europe, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count. ... The Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-10) outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ...


Punch card ballots

A lawsuit filed in Los Angeles by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) claimed that the use of the "hanging chad" style punch-card ballots still in use in six California counties (Los Angeles, Mendocino, Sacramento, San Diego, Santa Clara, and Solano) were in violation of fair election laws. U.S. District Judge Stephen V. Wilson in Los Angeles ruled on August 20 that the election would not be delayed because of the punch-card ballots. The ruling was appealed, and heard by three judges in the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. On September 15 the judges issued a unanimous ruling postponing the recall election until March 2004 on the grounds that the existence of allegedly obsolete voting equipment in some counties violated equal protection, thus overruling the lower district court which had rejected this argument. Nickname: City of Angels Motto: Official website: http://www. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non-governmental organization (NGO) whose stated goal is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person . ... Chads are paper particles created when holes are made in a computer punched tape or punch card. ... Los Angeles County is a county in California with 10,179,716 residents (as of July 2004)[1], the most populous county in the United States. ... Mendocino County is a county located on Californias north coast, north of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sonoma County and west of the Central Valley. ... Sacramento County is a county of the U.S. state of California. ... Official website: http://www. ... Location of Santa Clara County within California. ... Solano County is a county located in central part of the U.S. state of California, about halfway between San Francisco and Sacramento. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Deaths • 08 Abu Abbas • 20 Queen Juliana • 28 Peter Ustinov • 30 Alistair Cooke More March 2004 deaths Ongoing events EU Enlargement Exploration of Mars: Rovers Haiti Rebellion Israeli-Palestinian conflict Occupation of Iraq Same-sex marriage in... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ...


Recall proponents questioned why punch-card ballots were adequate enough to elect Governor Davis, but were not good enough to recall him. Proponents planned to appeal the postponement to the U.S. Supreme Court. However, an 11-judge panel, also from the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals quickly gathered to rehear the controversial case. On the morning of September 23, the panel reversed the three-judge ruling in a unanimous decision, arguing that the concerns about the punch-card ballots were outweighed by the harm that would be done by postponing the election. The Supreme Court of the United States is the supreme court in the United States. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...


Further legal appeals were discussed but did not occur. The ACLU announced it would not make an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, and Davis was widely quoted in the press as saying "Let's just get it over with." Thus the election proceeded as planned on October 7. October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ...


Recall election

Sample ballot; the recall alone fills the first three columns
Sample ballot; the recall alone fills the first three columns

The ballot consisted of two questions; voters could vote on one or the other, or on both. The first question asked whether Gray Davis should be recalled. It was a simple yes/no question, and if a majority voted "no", then the second question would become irrelevant and Gray Davis would remain California governor. If a majority voted "yes", then Davis would be removed from office once the vote was certified, and the second question would determine his successor. Voters had to choose one candidate from a long list of 135 candidates. Voters who voted against recalling Gray Davis could still vote for a candidate to replace him in case the recall vote succeeded. The candidate receiving the most votes (a plurality) would then become the next governor of California. (It had previously been determined that Davis could not run as a candidate to succeed himself.) Certification by the Secretary of State would require completion within 39 days of the election, and history indicated that it could require that entire time frame to certify the statewide election results. Once the results were certified, a newly-elected governor would have to be sworn into office within 10 days. Download high resolution version (1005x1590, 181 KB)70th Assembly District (in Orange County) sample ballot for the October 7, 2003 California recall election. ... Download high resolution version (1005x1590, 181 KB)70th Assembly District (in Orange County) sample ballot for the October 7, 2003 California recall election. ... A plurality (or relative majority) is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ...


As the mechanics of the recall became widely known, some observers noted that it could produce a seemingly undemocratic result. Davis would be removed from office if a simple majority of voters (50 percent plus 1 vote) chose "yes" on the recall question; but, with only a plurality required to choose his successor and more than two candidates running, the winner of the race to succeed him could end up with significantly less than 50 percent of the vote. For instance, if 51 percent of voters had voted "yes" on the first question, 49 percent would have tacitly voted for Davis for governor. If the leading candidate to replace Davis had received only 47 percent of the vote, he or she would have defeated the governor while receiving fewer votes.


Those Californians wishing to run for governor were given until August 9 to file. The requirements to run were relatively low and attracted a number of interesting and strange candidates. A California citizen needed only to gather 65 signatures from their own party and pay a nonrefundable $3,500 fee to become a candidate, or "in lieu" of the fee collect up to 10,000 signatures from any party, the fee being prorated by the fraction of 10,000 valid signatures the candidate filed. No candidate in fact collected more than a handful of signatures-in-lieu, so that all paid almost the entire fee. In addition, however, candidates from recognized third parties were allowed on the ballot with no fee if they could collect 150 signatures from their own party. August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ...


The low requirements attracted many "average joes" with no political experience to file as well as several celebrity candidates. Many prominent potential candidates chose not to run. These included Democratic U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein, widely regarded as the most popular statewide office-holding Democrat in California, who cited her own experience with a recall drive while she was mayor of San Francisco. Darrell Issa, who bankrolled the recall effort and said he would run for governor, abruptly dropped out of the race on August 7 among accusations that he had bankrolled the recall effort solely to get himself into office. Former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan and actor Arnold Schwarzenegger (a fellow Republican) agreed that only one of them would run; when Schwarzenegger announced on The Tonight Show that he would be a candidate, Riordan dropped out of the race. State Insurance Commissioner John Garamendi (a Democrat) announced on August 7 that he would be a candidate for governor. However, just two days later and only hours before the deadline to file, he announced "I will not engage in this election as a candidate," adding, "this recall election has become a circus." Garamendi had been under tremendous pressure to drop out from fellow Democrats who feared a split of the Democratic vote between him and Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante should the recall succeed. Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (born June 22, 1933) is a Democratic U.S. Senator from California, a position she has held since 1992. ... A mayor (from the Latin maīor, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... A mayor (from the Latin maīor, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... Richard J. Riordan Richard J. Riordan (born May 1, 1930) is a Republican politician from California, who had served as the California Secretary for Education from 2003–2005 and as Mayor of Los Angeles from 1993–2001. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe award winning actor, and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... The Tonight Show is NBCs long-running late-night talk and variety show, currently hosted by Jay Leno in Burbank, CA (near Los Angeles). ... John Garamendi (born 1945) is a U.S. politician and a member of the Democratic Party. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ...


On September 3, five top candidates—independent Arianna Huffington, Democratic Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante, Green Party candidate Peter Camejo, Republican State Senator Tom McClintock, and former baseball commissioner Peter Ueberroth—participated in a live television debate. Noticeably absent was Arnold Schwarzenegger (as he has repeatedly stated that he would not participate in such events until later in the election cycle), who opponents charged was not adequately prepared. [2] Prior to this first debate, Gov. Davis spent 30 minutes answering questions from a panel of journalists and voters. September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... Arianna Huffington talks to the media while campaigning for governor of California at UC Berkeley on September 11, 2003. ... Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ... Peter Miguel Camejo (born December 31, 1939) is a financier, businessman, political activist, environmentalist, author, and one of the founders of the socially responsible investment movement. ... Thomas Miller McClintock (born July 10, 1956) is a Republican California State Senator. ... Peter Victor Ueberroth (born September 2, 1937 in Evanston, Illinois) is an American sports executive. ... (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe award winning actor, and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ...


Several candidates who would still be listed on the ballot dropped out of the campaign before the October 7 election. On August 23, Republican Bill Simon (the 2002 party nominee) announced he was dropping out. He said, "There are too many Republicans in this race and the people of our state simply cannot risk a continuation of the Gray Davis legacy." Simon did not endorse any candidates at the time, but several weeks later he endorsed front-runner Arnold Schwarzenegger, as did Darrell Issa, who had not filed for the race. On September 9, former MLB commissioner and Los Angeles Olympic Committee President Peter Ueberroth withdrew his candidacy in the recall election. August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... William E. Simon, Jr. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Major League Baseball (MLB) is the highest level of play in professional baseball in the world. ... Nickname: City of Angels Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... Peter Victor Ueberroth (born September 2, 1937 in Evanston, Illinois) is an American sports executive. ...

Newsvans at Schwarzenegger inauguration.
Newsvans at Schwarzenegger inauguration.

On September 24, the remaining top five candidates (Schwarzenegger, Bustamante, Huffington, McClintock, and Camejo) gathered in the University Ballroom at California State University, Sacramento, for a live televised debate [3] that resembled the red-carpet premiere of a movie in Hollywood. Schwarzenegger's marquee name had attracted large crowds, a carnival atmosphere, and an army of five hundred credentialed media and paparazzi from around the world [4], including reporters and crews from infotainment shows such as Entertainment Tonight, Access Hollywood, Extra, and the E! Channel. Cropped and resized photo by User:Maveric149. ... Cropped and resized photo by User:Maveric149. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... California State University, Sacramento, also known as Sacramento State or Sac State, is a public university located in the city of Sacramento, California. ... ... Paparazzi is a plural term (paparazzo is the singular form) for photographers who take candid photographs of celebrities, usually by relentlessly shadowing them in their public and private activities. ... Infotainment or soft news, refers to a general type of news media broadcast program which either provides a combination of current events news and entertainment programming, or an entertainment program structured in a news format. ...


The aftermath of the debate was swift. On September 30, author Arianna Huffington withdrew her candidacy on the Larry King television program and announced that she was opposing the recall entirely in light of Arnold Schwarzenegger's surge in the polls. Apparently in response to her withdrawal, Cruz Bustamante endorsed her plan for public financing of election campaigns, an intended anti-corruption measure. September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 92 days remaining. ... Arianna Huffington talks to the media while campaigning for governor of California at UC Berkeley on September 11, 2003. ... For other people named Larry King, see Larry King (disambiguation). ... (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe award winning actor, and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ...


On October 7 the recall election was held, and voters decisively voted to recall Davis and to elect Schwarzenegger as his replacement. At 10 p.m. local time, Davis conceded that he had lost to Schwarzenegger, saying, "We've had a lot of good nights over the last 20 years, but tonight the people did decide that it's time for someone else to serve, and I accept their judgment." About 40 minutes later, in his acceptance speech, Schwarzenegger said, "Today California has given me the greatest gift of all: You've given me your trust by voting for me. I will do everything I can to live up to that trust. I will not fail you." October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ...


The result was officially certified on November 14 and Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17. 4,206,284 voters chose Schwarzenegger for governor, while 4,007,783 voted to keep Davis in office; thus, worries about a potentially anomalous result were assuaged. See results of the 2003 California recall for more details. November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ... The following are the results of the 2003 California recall election held on October 7, 2003 which unseated Gray Davis and propelled actor Arnold Schwarzenegger to the governorship. ...


Public opinion

Public opinion was divided on the recall with many passionately-held positions on both sides of the recall election. Californians were fairly united in their disapproval of Governor Davis's handling of the state with his approval numbers in the mid-20's. On the question of whether he should be recalled, Californians were more divided, but polls in the weeks leading up to the election consistently showed that a majority would vote to remove him.


Polls also showed that the two leading candidates, Lt. Governor Cruz Bustamante, a Democrat, and Hollywood actor Arnold Schwarzenegger, a Republican, were neck and neck with about 25-35% of the vote each, and Bustamante with a slight lead in most polls. Republican state senator Tom McClintock also polled in the double-digits. Remaining candidates polled in the low single digits. Polls in the final week leading up to the election showed support for Davis slipping and support for Schwarzenegger growing. Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ... (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe award winning actor, and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... Thomas Miller McClintock (born July 10, 1956) is a Republican California State Senator. ...


Many observers outside California, and some members of the press, consistently called the recall "chaos" and "madness" as well as a "media circus" and "nightmare." (See Gropegate.) With the candidacies of a few celebrities and many regular Californians, the entire affair became a joke to some (there were tongue-in-cheek references to Total Recall) and an "only in California" event. Nevertheless, most Californians took the recall seriously with the future of the Governor's office at stake. The election drew in many Californians who had never voted before and voter registration increased. INS agents recover Elián González by force from his uncles house; this photo, taken by AP photographer Alan Diaz, won him a Pulitzer Prize. ... The entire collection of events surrounding the allegations of Arnold Schwarzenegger groping women on movie sets is referred to as Gropegate. ... Total recall may mean: Total recall (memory), a term for Eidetic or Photographic memory. ...


California recall history

The recall process became available to Californians in 1911 by the Progressive Era reforms that spread across the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The ability to recall elected officials came along with the initiative and referendum processes. The movement in California was spearheaded by Republican then-Governor Hiram Johnson, a reformist, who called the recall process a "precautionary measure by which a recalcitrant official can be removed." No illegality has to be committed by politicians in order them to be recalled. If an elected official commits a crime while in office, the state legislature can hold impeachment trials. For a recall, only the will of the people is necessary to remove an official. [5] 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... In the United States of America, the Progressive Era was a period of reform that began in Americas urban regions from, approximately the 1890s and lasted through the 1920s, although some experts say it lasted from 1900 to 1920. ... In political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizens initiative) provides a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866–August 6, 1945) was a leading American Progressive politician from California; he served as Governor from 1911 to 1917, and as a United States Senator from 1917 to 1945. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


Before the successful recall of Gray Davis, no California statewide official had ever been recalled, though there had been 117 previous attempts. Only seven of those even made it onto the ballot, all for state legislators. Every governor since Ronald Reagan in 1968 has been subject to a recall effort, but Gray Davis was the first governor whose opponents gathered the necessary signatures to qualify for a special election. Gray Davis also faced a recall petition in 1999, but that effort failed to gain enough signatures to qualify for the ballot. The 1999 recall effort was prompted by several actions taken by Gray Davis, including: Davis's preventing the enactment of Proposition 187, by keeping it from being appealed to the US Supreme Court; also, Davis signed two new highly restrictive gun-control laws. (Note: Nearly all provisions of Prop. 187 were declared unconstitutional by the Federal District Court in Los Angeles, including the provision revoking U.S. citizenship for American-born children of illegal immigrants.) Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... California Proposition 187 was a proposition introduced in California in 1994 to deny illegal immigrants social services, health care, and public education. ...


Eighteen states allow the recall of state officials, but with Davis's recall, only two governors have ever been successfully recalled. The other occurred in 1921 when North Dakota's Lynn J. Frazier was recalled over a dispute about state-owned industries, and was replaced by Ragnvald A. Nestos. For more information about the 1921 North Dakota Recall, please see 1921 North Dakota recall. Gray Davis was the first California governor subject to a special recall election and the first to be successfully recalled. 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 19th 183 272 km² 340 km 545 km 2. ... Lynn Frazier Lynn Joseph Frazier (December 21, 1874 - January 11, 1947) was a U.S. Senator from North Dakota (1923-1941) and the Governor of that state from 1917 until being recalled in 1921. ... Ragnvald Anderson Nestos (April 12, 1877–July 15, 1942) was the governor of the U.S. state of North Dakota from 1921 through 1925. ... The 1921 North Dakota Recall was a recall election of North Dakota Governor Lynn Frazier in 1921. ...


Notable recall candidates

The October 7 recall election had many declared candidates, several of whom are prominent celebrities. In total, there were 135 candidates who qualified for the ballot in this election (see results of the 2003 California recall for a complete list), including: For the 1998 movie, see Celebrity (film). ... The following are the results of the 2003 California recall election held on October 7, 2003 which unseated Gray Davis and propelled actor Arnold Schwarzenegger to the governorship. ...


Republicans

Thomas Miller McClintock (born July 10, 1956) is a Republican California State Senator. ... (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe award winning actor, and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... ... William E. Simon, Jr. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Victor Ueberroth (born September 2, 1937 in Evanston, Illinois) is an American sports executive. ... Major League Baseball (MLB) is the highest level of play in professional baseball in the world. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For months before the Olympic Games, runners relay the Olympic Flame from Olympia to the opening ceremony. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Democrats

  • Cruz Bustamante, lieutenant governor
  • Larry Flynt, publisher of Hustler magazine
  • Georgina Russell, Software Engineer, grabbed the media spotlight with her innovative campaign

Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ... Larry Flynt Larry Claxton Flynt, Jr. ... Hustler (April, 2004) Hustler (June, 1978), perhaps the most controversial issue due to the perceived misogyny of the cover image Larry Flynts Hustler, a monthly pornographic magazine published in the United States, was first issued in 1974. ...

Greens

Peter Miguel Camejo (born December 31, 1939) is a financier, businessman, political activist, environmentalist, author, and one of the founders of the socially responsible investment movement. ... In United States politics, the Green Party has been active as a third party since the 1980s. ... Daniel Watts was a Wheel of Fortune  winner and a Green Party candidate for the governorship of California in the 2003 recall election. ... In United States politics, the Green Party has been active as a third party since the 1980s. ... Wheel of Fortune intro (1983–1989) Wheel of Fortune is a television game show originally devised by Merv Griffin which runs in local editions around the world. ...

Independents

Angelyne is a model and sometime actress who has become an icon of Hollywood and Los Angeles best known for purchasing billboards advertising herself. ... Gary Coleman Gary Wayne Coleman (born February 8, 1968, in Zion, Illinois) is an American actor. ... Arianna Huffington talks to the media while campaigning for governor of California at UC Berkeley on September 11, 2003. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 92 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gallagher during the 80s Gallagher (born Leo Anthony Gallagher on July 24, 1947 in Fort Bragg, North Carolina) is an American comedian and prop comic. ... Sumo (相撲 Sumō, alternatively 大相撲 Ōzumō), or Sumo wrestling, is a competition contact sport wherein two wrestlers or rikishi face off in a circular area. ... Mary Carey (born Mary Ellen Cook on June 15, 1980) is an American erotic actress and tongue-mostly-in-cheek politician. ... A pornographic actor or a porn star is somebody who appears in pornographic movies, live sex shows or peep shows. ...

Results

Main article: Results of the 2003 California recall

The voters of California decided to recall governor Gray Davis by a margin of 55.4% in favor to 44.6% against. Voters elected Arnold Schwarzenegger to become Davis's replacement by a plurality of 48.6% to runner-up Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante's 31.5%. The following are the results of the 2003 California recall election held on October 7, 2003 which unseated Gray Davis and propelled actor Arnold Schwarzenegger to the governorship. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ... (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe award winning actor, and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... A plurality (or relative majority) is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. ... Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ...


External links

  • Rescue California
  • Recall Gray Davis Committee

Recall information

  • Summary of returns
  • Statewide Special Election Results
  • Recall information from CA Secretary of State
  • News article with historical information
  • Another article with recall history
  • Article 2 of the California state constitution governs initiatives, referenda, and recall
  • California Elections Code, ss. 11381 - 11386 govern the conduct of recall elections

  Results from FactBites:
 
California recall election, 2003 information - Search.com (4314 words)
California was hit harder than other states at the end of the speculative bubble known as the "dot-com boom" — from 1996 to 2000 — when Silicon Valley was the center of the internet economy.
California had a $95 million contract with Oracle Corporation that was found to be unnecessary and overpriced by the state auditor.
On October 7 the recall election was held, and voters decisively voted to recall Davis and to elect Schwarzenegger as his replacement.
California recall election, 2003 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4344 words)
For the 2003 recall elections, that meant a minimum of 900,000 signatures, based on the November 2002 statewide elections.
California had a $95 million contract with Oracle Corporation that was found to be unnecessary and overpriced by the state auditor.
On October 7 the recall election was held, and voters decisively voted to recall Davis and to elect Schwarzenegger as his replacement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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