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Encyclopedia > California in the Civil War
History of California
To 1899
Gold Rush (1849)
  American Civil War (1861-1865)  
1900 to present
Maritime
Los Angeles
San Diego
San Francisco

Among the states, remote California played the least role in the American Civil War. It provided few troops or supplies, but its gold shipments were quite helpful to stabilizing the Union economy. Republican supporters of Lincoln took control of the state in 1861, minimizing the influence of the large southern population. The great success was in obtaining a Pacific railroad land grant and authorization to build the Central Pacific as the western half of the transcontinental railroad. California was settled primarily by Midwestern and Southern farmers, miners and businessmen. The southerners tended to favor the Confederacy, the state did not have slavery, and they were generally powerless during the war itself. California was home for powerful capitalists who played a significant role in Californian politics through their control of mines, shipping, and finance, and the Republican party. Plans were underway to split the state north and south, but the national government would not approve, and the idea was dead by 1861 when a fervor of patriotism swept California after the attack on Ft. Sumter. Download high resolution version (700x900, 118 KB)Image of a California Poppy flower. ... A field of California golden poppies circa 1910. ... The California Gold Rush was a period in American history marked by great world-wide interest concerning a gold discovery in Northern California. ... The J.P. Gillis Flag. ... This article continues the history of California in the 20th century after its first 50 years of statehood. ... Map showing Island of California, circa 1650 Maritime history of California is a term used to describe significant past events relating to the U.S. State of California in areas concerning shipping, shipwrecks, and military installations and lighthouses constructed to protect or aid navigation and development of the state. ... The recorded history of Los Angeles, California is a complicated one, going back to the 16th century and a tiny Spanish settlement sometimes called Bahía de los fumos (Bay of the Smokes). // Historical population growth At the end of 2004, the population is estimated to be 3,912,200. ... The recorded history of the San Diego , California region goes back to the Spanish penetration of California in the 16th century. ... The history of San Francisco, California has been greatly influenced by its coastal location, which has made it a natural center for maritime trade and military activity. ... A field of California golden poppies circa 1910. ... The Civil War is by far the most common term for this conflict; see Naming the American Civil War. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Southern United StatesThe states shown in dark red are usually included in the South, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Southern United States. ...


California's involvement in the war included recruiting or funding a limited number of combat units, maintaining numerous fortifications, and sending east some of the war's most famous generals. It was also plagued by bandit gangs looking for gold shipments that some people have likened to guerrilla warfare skirmishes. Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents


From Statehood to the Civil War

California State Shield.
Enlarge
California State Shield.

When California was admitted as a state in 1850, Californians had already decided it was to be a free state--the constitutional convention of 1849 unanimously abolished slavery. As a result, Southerners in Congress voted against admission in 1850 while Northerners pushed it through, pointing to its population of 93,000 and its vast wealth in gold. Northern California, which was dominated by mining, shipping, and commercial elites of San Francisco, favored becoming a state. However, some people in lightly populated, rural Southern California wanted territorial status, or at least separation from Northern California. Flag Seal Nickname: The City by the Bay; The City That Knows How; Golden Mountain (historic Chinese name) Location Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: , Government City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Geographical characteristics Area     City 600. ...


In 1860 California gave a small plurality of 734 votes 32% to Abraham Lincoln, whose 32% of the total vote was enough to win all its electoral votes; 68% voted for the other three candidates. [1][2] It has been suggested that Abraham Lincoln in popular culture be merged into this article or section. ...

1860 Presidential Candidate Party Popular Vote %
Abraham Lincoln Republican 38,733 32.3
Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat 37,999 31.7
John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat 33,969 28.3
John Bell Constitutional Union 9,111 7.6

Confederate designs on Arizona Territory prompted fears that southern California might also try to join the Confederacy. This became impossible when pro-Union military units were formed. Several units of volunteers were sworn in under the supervision of public officials such as sheriffs and judges, most notably in Los Angeles and San Diego counties in the south, and Sonoma County in the north. Most famous among these were the Los Angeles Mounted Rifles, which included more than a few Californios. These were pro-Union forces. A few pro-Confederates made it across the desert into the Confederate Territory of Arizona, including the California Greys and the Los Angeles Mounted Rifles—who disbanded when they reached their goal of the Arizona Territorial capital of Mesilla (now in New Mexico). It has been suggested that Abraham Lincoln in popular culture be merged into this article or section. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813 – June 3, 1861), American politician from Illinois, was one of the Democratic Party nominees for President in 1860. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... John Bell John Bell (February 15, 1797–September 10, 1869) was a U.S. politician. ... The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860. ... Los Angeles County is a county in California, and the most populous county in the United States, with 10,179,716 residents (as of July 2004)[1]. The county seat is the city of Los Angeles. ... Official website: http://www. ... Sonoma County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, north of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Territories in Arizona and New Mexico in 1863. ... Mesilla is a town located in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. ... Official language(s) English Spanish Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ...


Outbreak of the Civil War

The J.P. Gillis Flag.
The J.P. Gillis Flag.

At the time of the war's outbreak, Federal troops were under the command of Colonel (Brevet Brigadier General) Albert Sidney Johnston, headquartered at the Department of the Pacific in Benicia. General Johnston strongly believed that the South represented the cause of freedom, and traditional American democracy of popular sovereignty. The majority of Southern sympathizers in the state made plans to secede with Oregon to form a "Pacific Republic." Their plans rested on the cooperation of General Johnston. Johnston understood this, and met with the men, but he declined. He said he had sworn an oath to defend the Union, and although he believed that Lincoln had violated and destroyed the Constitution holding the Union together, he would not go against his word. Thus the plans for California to secede from the United States never came to fruition. Johnston soon resigned his commission and joined the fight in the east as a general with the Confederacy. The Los Angeles Mounted Rifles escorted him across the desert, crossing the Colorado River on July 4, 1861. Like other units leaving California for the Confederacy, the volunteers joined up principally with Texas regiments. General Johnston was later killed at the Battle of Shiloh. Source: http://www. ... Source: http://www. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... The Department of the Pacific was a major command (Department) of the United States Army during the 19th century. ... Benicia is a city located in Solano County, California. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River is a river in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately 1,450 mi (2,330 km) long, draining a part of the... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408...


Thereafter, the first Republican governor of California was elected, Leland Stanford, a powerful capitalist from the Northeast, on September 4, 1861.[3] The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... Amasa Leland Stanford (March 9, 1824–June 21, 1893) was an American business tycoon, politician and founder of Stanford University. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...

1861 Gubernatorial Candidate Party Popular Vote %
Leland Stanford Republican 56,056 46.4
John R. McConnell Southern Democrat 33,750 28.0
John Conness Northern Democrat 30,944 25.6

Lincoln won the 1864 election with almost 59% in California.[4] Amasa Leland Stanford (March 9, 1824–June 21, 1893) was an American business tycoon, politician and founder of Stanford University. ... John Conness (September 22, 1821 – January 10, 1909) was a first-generation Irish-American businessman who served as a U.S. Senator from California. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

1864 Presidential Candidate Party Popular Vote %
Abraham Lincoln Republican 62,053 58.6
George B. McClellan Northern Democrat 43,837 41.4

Eighty-eight battles of various sizes were fought in California, many of them against outlaws trying to capture gold for the own benefit. (No captured gold was sent to the Confederacy.) Most of the fights were guerrilla battles, or in the terminology of the day, battles with "partisan rangers." Indeed, a few men left the guerrillas under the command of the ruthless school teacher, William Quantrill, in Missouri, and came to California to train supporters there. One partisan warrior, Dan Showalter, once robbed a stagecoach of all its gold, leaving a receipt behind with the driver to keep him out of trouble with his bosses. The westernmost attack related to the Civil War occurred just outside downtown San Jose. A bronze historical plaque marking the site identifies it as a battle with "outlaws," rather than a battle of the American Civil War. George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... William Clark Quantrill of Quantrills Raiders William Clarke Quantrill (July 31, 1837 – June 6, 1865), was a pro-Confederate guerrilla fighter during the American Civil War whose actions, particularly a bloody raid on Lawrence, Kansas, remain controversial to this day. ... Buffalo soldiers guard a Concord style stagecoach somewhere in the American West, ca. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Capital of Silicon Valley Location Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... The Civil War is by far the most common term for this conflict; see Naming the American Civil War. ...


Civil War Era forts

At this time, the U.S. had a number of military forts to defend against the Indian threat, and to solidify the U.S. claim to the state.


New forts were founded to protect ports, defend against the Indians, and to hold Confederate soldiers and sympathizers, such as Fort MacArthur, at the head of San Pedro Bay and at Two Harbors on Catalina Island. Fort MacArthur is a former U.S. Army installation in San Pedro, California (now the port community of Los Angeles), named for General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. ... San Pedro Bay is an inlet on the Pacific Ocean coast of southern California, United States. ... view of Two Harbors from the sea Two Harbors is a small island village on Santa Catalina Island, California with a population of about 150. ... Avalon Bay is a beautiful bay on Catalina Island. ...


The coastal fortifications of San Pedro, and the San Diego and San Francisco Bays were also important. San Pedro was protected by the Drum Barracks. In San Francisco, Fort Point was built at the edge of the Presidio, as well as Fort Baker on the Marin Headlands. The San Francisco Bay was also protected by the Navy at Mare Island, the Benicia Arsenal, Fort Mason with the posts at San Francisco's Point San Jose, and Fort McDowell on Angel Island. San Pedro is the Spanish language form of Saint Peter. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Drum Barracks in Wilmington, California (a district of Los Angeles), is the only major American Civil War landmark in Southern California. ... Fort Point is a location at the south entrance to San Francisco Bay. ... The Parade Grounds at the Presidio of San Francisco. ... An aerial view of Fort Baker Fort Baker[1] is one of the most famous components of Californias Golden Gate National Recreation Area. ... View to the northwest, towards the Marin headlands The Golden Gate Bridge in morning fog, viewed from the north, just below and east of the headlands. ... Aerial photo of the southern part of Mare Island Mare Island is an island in Vallejo, California, about 30 miles northeast of San Francisco. ... Benicia Arsenal was a large military reservation located next to Suisun Bay in Benicia, California. ... Historic wharves near Fort Mason Fort Mason in San Francisco, California is a former U.S. Army base located at the northern Marina District, alongside San Francisco Bay. ... Angel Island Angel Island is an island in the middle of San Francisco Bay, offering spectacular views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin Headlands and Mount Tamalpais. ...


Some forts were bereft of troops who were sent east to the war, such as Fort Tejon, which lies in the Tejon Pass, protecting San Joaquin Valley from the south and east. Fort Tejon is now the site of Civil War reenactments of battles of the east by descendants of the North and South. Fort Tejon was established by the United States Army in 1854 and was active for ten years. ... Tejon Pass Tejon Pass (elevation 4,183 ft/1,275 m) is a mountain pass at the southwest end of the Tehachapi Mountains in southern California in the United States. ... The eight-county San Joaquin Valley is the part of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in Stockton. ... An American Civil War reenactment is an effort to recreate a particular battle or similar event associated with the American Civil War by hobbyists known (in the United States) as Civil War reenactors. ...


There was Fort Miller in the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas in Fresno County; Los Angeles had Fort Moore; San Diego County had Camp Wright; and Camp Babbitt outside the town of Visalia, in Tulare County. The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in eastern California. ... Fresno County is a county located in Californias Central Valley, south of Stockton and north of Bakersfield. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... San Diego County is a county located on the Pacific Ocean in the far southwest of California, along the border with Mexico. ... Visalia is the name of several places in the United States: Visalia in California Visalia in Kentucky This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tulare County is a county located in U.S. state of Californias Central Valley, south of Fresno. ...


One Civil War-era fort, Post of Alcatraz Island or Fort Alcatraz, on a rocky island just inside the Golden Gate, later became an infamous Federal penitentiary, Alcatraz. Fort Humboldt, established to assist maintain peace between the Native Americans and new settlers was briefly commanded by Ulysses S. Grant prior to the war. Alcatraz Island is located in the middle of San Francisco Bay in California. ... Fort Humboldt State Historic Park, is a California State Park located on the south of Eureka, California just off Highway 101. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


US military units in California during the Civil War

Due to its location, the state's local militia companies remained under state status because of the great number of Southern sympathizers, the Indian threat, and possible foreign attack. A number of state militias disbanded and went east. Therefore, the state dispensed with the usual military practice of mustering militia companies into regiments. Volunteers maintained military posts vacated by the regular army units that were ordered east. Several companies did offer their services and were accepted by the Union Army. The Regular Army is the name given to the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime. ...

Company Guidon, Company A ('California' 100), raised in Massachusetts
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Company Guidon, Company A ('California' 100), raised in Massachusetts

In 1862, five companies of the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry (also known as The California 100 and the California Cavalry Battalion) were enrolled and mustered into service in California. They left San Francisco by sea for service on the east. The California Battalion consisted of Companies A, C, F, L, and M. They participated in 51 battles, campaigns, and skirmishes.


California U.S. Senator Edward D. Baker raised a regiment of men on the East Coast. These former Californians and others were generally known as the "California Regiment," but later designated the 71st Pennsylvania Infantry. Col. Roderick N. Matheson was the leader of the 32nd New York Infantry, also known as the 1st California Regiment. The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Edward Dickinson Baker (February 24, 1811 – October 21, 1861) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois, a Senator from Oregon, a Colonel during the American Civil War, and a close friend of the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. ...


In October 1861, Colonel Baker was authorized to increase his command to a brigade. The additional regiments were commanded by Colonels Joshua T. Owen, Dewitt Clinton Baxter, and Turner G. Morehead, all from Philadelphia, respectively designated the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th California Regiments. The 4th California Regiment, as planned, was composed of artillery and cavalry. These troops were soon detached. After Baker was killed in the Battle of Ball's Bluff, Pennsylvania claimed these four infantry regiments as a part of its quota, and they became known as the "Philadelphia Brigade" of Pennsylvania Volunteers. They were initially commanded by Brig. Gen. William W. Burns and first served in John Sedgwick's Division of the II Corps, Army of the Potomac. They had a distinguished service career, highlighted by their actions at the Battle of Antietam and their prominent position in the defense against Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg. The Battle of Balls Bluff, also known as the Battle of Harrison’s Landing or the Battle of Leesburg, took place on October 21, 1861, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of Major General George B. McClellans operations in northern Virginia during the American Civil War. ... Major General John Sedgwick John Sedgwick (September 13, 1813 – May 9, 1864) was a teacher, a career military officer, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 83,289 75,054 Casualties 23,049 (3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded, 5,365 captured/missing) 28,000 (3,500 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,500 captured/missing) The Battle of...


The units recruited inside California included two full regiments and one battalion of cavalry, eight full regiments of infantry, and one battalion of infantry called mountaineers. The California Troops, known as the California Column, were under the command of General James H. Carleton and were composed of the 1st Regiment of Cavalry, 1st Battalion of Native Cavalry, and the 1st, 5th and 7th Infantry Regiments, which served in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. James Henry Carleton (December 27, 1814 – January 7, 1873) was an officer in the Union army during the Civil War. ...


The 2nd Regiment of Cavalry and the 3rd Regiment of Infantry under P. Edward Connor kept the overland route to California open. The 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th Infantry Regiments and 1st Battalion of Mountaineers provided internal security in Northern California, Oregon, and Washington by preventing Indian attacks. The First Regiment, Washington Territory Infantry Volunteers, had eight companies that were recruited in California. Patrick Edward Connor (March 17, 1820 – December 17, 1891) was a Union general during the American Civil War, most famous for his campaigns against Indians in the American Old West. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Washington history | U.S. historical regions and territories ...


Trivia

During California's legislative tumult over the war, an unusual seventeen-star version of the Confederate Stars and Bars (the First National Flag of the South) was flown in the state capital (Sacramento) very briefly during California's legislative tumult over the war. This is the Major Gillis Flag, also known as the "Biderman" flag, and it has six more stars than normal. These stars were apparently for the border states of Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and for Arizona (a Confederate territory), which were all traditionally identified with the South—and California. The only surviving story about the flag is from the Biderman family, which had it in its possession. The Bidermans were pro-North, and according to them, one of their family took the flag barehanded from an Army major in a fist fight. California's Confederate flag is currently held in the California Military Museum of Sacramento[5]. Historian Laurence Talbott of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, stated, "It is truly a Californian flag, of unique design." The following flags were used by the Confederate States of America. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Trees Location Location of Sacramento in California Government County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Geographical characteristics Area     City 99. ... California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (also known as Cal Poly) is located in San Luis Obispo, California. ...


California Civil War regiments

California volunteer regiments

  • 1st Battalion of Mountaineers
  • 1st Battalion of Native Cavalry
  • 1st Regiment of Cavalry
  • 1st Regiment of Infantry
  • 2nd Regiment of Cavalry
  • 2nd Regiment of Infantry
  • 3rd Regiment of Infantry
  • 4th Regiment of Infantry
  • 5th Regiment of Infantry
  • 6th Regiment of Infantry
  • 7th Regiment of Infantry
  • 8th Regiment of Infantry

California Civil War militia units

  • Auburn Greys
  • Coloma Greys
  • Gibsonville Blues
  • Los Angeles Mounted Rifles
  • National Guard, Downieville
  • Nevada Rifles
  • Oroville Guard
  • Petaluma Guard
  • Plumas Rangers
  • Sierra Greys
  • Stockton Blues

Californians in the Civil War

Edward Dickinson Baker (February 24, 1811 – October 21, 1861) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois, a Senator from Oregon, a Colonel during the American Civil War, and a close friend of the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. ... US Brigadier General Edward Fitzgerald Ned Beale (February 4, 1822 - April 22, 1893) is best known for his carrying out former Secretary of War Jefferson Davis Camel Corps experiment in the Coachella Valley of California. ... James Henry Carleton (December 27, 1814 – January 7, 1873) was an officer in the Union army during the Civil War. ... Patrick Edward Connor (March 17, 1820 – December 17, 1891) was a Union general during the American Civil War, most famous for his campaigns against Indians in the American Old West. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813–July 13, 1890), born John Charles Fremon, was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer who served with distinction as a general in the American Civil War and ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States in 1880. ... Portrait of Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Lowe in the Intrepid observing at Battle of Fair Oaks Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (born Jefferson, New Hampshire, August 20, 1832–died Pasadena, California, January 18, 1913) was an American aeronaut, scientist and inventor. ... Edward Otho Cresap Ord (1818-1883) was the designer of Fort Sam Houston, and a United States army officer who saw action in the Seminole War, the Indian Wars, and the Civil War. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. ... Portrait of George Stoneman during the Civil War George Stoneman (August 22, 1822 – September 5, 1894) was a career U.S. Army officer, a Union cavalry general in the American Civil War, and the Governor of California between 1883 and 1887. ... Joseph Rodman West (September 19, 1822 - October 31, 1898) was a United States Senator from Louisiana. ...

The Navy and the Civil War

The Pacific Squadron, also known as the Pacific Station, was part of the United States Navy in the 1800s and early 1900s. ...

References

  • Fischer, LeRoy H. (Editor) (1977). The Western Territories in the Civil War. Sunflower University Press.
  • Fischer, LeRoy H.(Editor) (1981). Civil War Battles in the West. Sunflower University Press.
  • Hunt, Aurora (1951). Army of the Pacific. Arthur Clark Company.
  • Hunt, Aurora (1958). Western Frontier Dragoon. Arthur Clark Company.
  • Lash, Gary (2001). Duty Well Done: Edward D. Baker's California Regiment (71st Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry). Butternut and Blue.
  • McLean, James (2000). California Sabers. Indiana University Press.
  • Orton, Brigadier General Richard H. (1890). The Records of California Men in the War of the Rebellion. Adjutant-General of California.
  • Strobridge, William F. (1994). Regulars in the Redwoods, The U.S. Army in Northern California, 1852-1861. Arthur Clark Company.
  • Talbott, Laurence F. (1998). California in the War for Southern Independence. Hale & Co., Los Angeles, CA.
  • (1865) Official Army Register of Volunteer Force of U.S. Army for Years 1861-1865. (8 parts). Part 7 - Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, California, Kansas, Oregon, Nevada Listing of military units, with officers by rank or position; and individual deaths, promotions, transfers, desertions, missing personnel, discharges; battles; enlisted men who received medals of honor. Alphabetical index in back.. United States, War Department. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
  • (1978) Personal Name Index to the Records of California Men in the War of the rebellion, 1861 to 1867. Gale Research Co., Detroit, MI.
  • "The J.P. Gillis Flag, or the 'Biderman' Flag of California" article from the August 27, 2002 issue of The Vidette, the newsletter of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, California Division.

Notes

  1.   Johannsen, Robert W. . Lincoln, the South, and Slavery: The Political Dimension, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991).
  2.   Popular vote in 1860
  3.   California State Museum
  4.   U.S. Genealogy Network
  5.   Popular vote in 1864

Further reading

  • Carson, James F. "California: Gold to Help Finance the War." Journal of the West 1975 14(1): 25-41. Issn: 0022-5169
  • Chandler, Robert J. "California's 1863 Loyalty Oaths: Another Look." Arizona and the West 1979 21(3): 215-234. Issn: 0004-1408. Republicans and Free Soil (Douglas) Democrats formed a Unionist coalition in California in 1862 to counter the pro-Southern (Breckinridge) Democrats who defended state sovereignty and white supremacy and had controlled the state government for a decade. The next year the Unionists forced a loyalty oath statute through the legislature. It required all attorneys in the state's courts and plaintiffs in civil cases to support the government of the United States. For five years, this political weapon weakened the role of Breckinridge Democrats in state politics. They also tarnished the image of the Democratic Party in the state.
  • Chandler, Robert J. "Fighting Words: Censoring Civil War Journalism in California." California Territorial Quarterly 2002 (51): 4-17. Issn: 1080-7594 Reports the Republican Party dominated the state government and used its power to censor or suppress newspapers favoring the Democratic or pro-South viewpoint. By the end of the war two-thirds of the Democratic papers were out of business due to government repression, canceled subscriptions, and lack of advertising.
  • Colwell, Wayne. "The California Hundred." Pacific Historian 1969 13(3): 63-75. Issn: 0030-8676. Owing to political divisions at the time of the Civil War and to the limited transportation facilities for moving troops great distances, the Lincoln administration did not request California troops for Eastern battlefields but instead called for volunteers to replace regular troops stationed at western garrisons. Unhappy at being denied the opportunity for fame and glory, a group of San Francisco residents arranged with the governor of Massachusetts to raise a cavalry company of 100 men in California to be credited to the Massachusetts quota. Commanded by J. Sewell Reed, the Californians first took to the field near Yorktown, Virginia. From July 1863 to July 1864 the California Hundred engaged in numerous skirmishes with John S. Mosby's Confederate guerrillas. They also participated in battles in the Shenandoah Valley. of the original three officers and 101 enlisted men, 40 were present the day the company disbanded. About 12 had died, others were discharged because of sickness or wounds or were transferred to other units, and 10 deserted, a greater desertion rate than from any other Massachusetts regiment. Nevertheless, Mosby later declared that the Californians had been his most formidable opponents.
  • Crandell, John. "Winfield Hancock and His Grievous Angels - Revisited" Southern California Quarterly (1997) 79(1): 1-28. Issn: 0038-3929. : Describes the actions of a number of people who left Los Angeles at the start of the Civil War to join the Union or Confederate armies. Winfield Scott Hancock fought for the North; Albert Sydney Johnston, Cameron Thom, Richard Garnett, and Lewis Armistead joined the Confederate Army. Hancock and Thom rose to political prominence after the war, the others were killed in battle.
  • Edwards, G. Thomas. "Holding the Far West for the Union: the Army in 1861." Civil War History 1968 14(4): 307-324. Issn: 0009-8078; online in JSTOR. A review of military and political events in the Department of the Pacific (chiefly in California) from January through September 1861. General Albert Sidney Johnston (1803-62), was in command in the early months. He ruled wisely and impartially, but was removed in late April because of his southern connections and rumors of disunionist plots. The principal mission of the new commander, General Edwin Vose Sumner (1797-1863), was to check the secessionist movement. Exploiting Unionist feelings, cowing the disunionists by a show of military power, yet carefully respecting the civil rights of all, Sumner successfully executed his assignment. The loyalty of the Far West was established without serious incident.
  • Generous, Tom. "Over the River Jordan: California Volunteers in Utah During the Civil War." California History 1984 63(3): 200-211. Issn: 0162-2897. Describes the western campaigns of the California Volunteers under the command of Colonel Patrick Edward Connor during the Civil War. Although the Volunteers hoped to fight Confederates, their infantry regiment and five cavalry companies were assigned to patrol the overland mail route between St. Louis and Placerville. Connor hated Indians, and his forces were responsible for several Indian massacres, most notoriously at Bear River in January 1863. In their relations with the Mormons, Connor and his men had political rather than military confrontations, but tensions between the Volunteers and Brigham Young's people were almost constant. The nativism and prejudice of the Volunteers formed a bridge of hostility between the Know-Nothings of the 1840's and the imperialism and Jim Crow era of the 1890's.
  • Gilbert, Benjamin F. "The Confederate Minority in California," California Historical Society Quarterly, (1941)
  • Gilbert, Benjamin Franklin. "California and the Civil War." California Historical Society Quarterly 1961 40(4): 289-308. ISSN: 0008-1175. Annotated bibliography of works pertaining to the participation of Californians in the Civil War, 1860-65, under the headings: bibliography, loyalty, Confederate secret societies and sympathizers, civil liberties, political conditions, military operations, naval operations, Sanitary Commission, economic conditions, and archival and manuscript sources.
  • Goldberg, Mitchell S. "Naval Operations of the United States Pacific Squadron in 1861." American Neptune 1973 33(1): 41-48, 49-51. Issn: 0003-0155. A review of eastern Pacific naval operations during the first year of the Civil War. Fleets and vessels stationed abroad were hurriedly called home to establish a blockade of the Confederacy, but not the eastern Pacific Fleet, which was needed for the sake of forestalling southern action along the poorly fortified west coast and for guarding the valuable shipments of gold bullion from California. Small, poorly equipped and maintained, the fleet did not fire its guns during 1861, but its very presence may have deterred hostile action
  • Jaffee, Walter W. "Rebel Pirates and California Gold." Civil War Times Illustrated 1995 34(2): 48-50, 53-55. Issn: 0009-8094. Describes the 1862-63 efforts of Confederate sympathizers in San Francisco, led by Asbury Harpending, to steal federal gold shipments and recounts the subsequent capture of the Confederate pirates and their sentencing to Alcatraz.
  • Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. (1991). The Civil War in the American West. Vintage Books,New York.
  • Kibby, Leo P. "Some Aspects of California's Military Problems During the Civil War" Civil War History 1959 5(3): 251-262. Issn: 0009-8078 online at JSTOR. Examines the unique military problems of the State of California during the Civil War. Though the State was not assigned a quota, there were numerous volunteers for the Union cause. California soldiers did not participate in any of the major battles of the war, but were concerned with a variety of assignments, all in the West. These assignments included 1) guarding overland mail routes against Indian attacks; 2) suppressing minority elements which supported directly or indirectly the Confederate cause; 3) preventing Confederate forces from gaining a foothold in the western territories and in California, and 4) relieving Union regular troops stationed at western outposts so that they might be reassigned to active duty in the main theaters of the war.
  • Langellier, John Phillip and Colwell, Wayne. "Cavaliers from California" Gateway Heritage 1984-1985 5(3): 16-21. Issn: 0198-9375. Few California recruits for Union armies served in separate California units during the Civil War. But one group, the "California 100," was permitted to retain its identity with the 2d Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry under its own commander, J. Sewell Reed. Four other companies of Californians later augmented the "California 100." These 500 cavalrymen provided horsemen's skills at a time when most Union Army recruits lacked such skills.
  • Miller, Darlis A. The California Column in New Mexico. U. of New Mexico Pr., 1982. 318 pp. 2,350 men in the California Column marched east across Arizona in 1862 under the command of Colonel James H. Carleton to expel the Confederates from New Mexico. The Californians spent most of their time fighting hostile Indians and guarding the Southwest against a possible Confederate invasion.
  • Monzingo, Robert. Thomas Starr King: Eminent Californian, Civil War Statesman, Unitarian Minister. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Boxwood, 1991. 251 pp. Thomas Starr King (1824-64) was a leader in the campaign to raise funds in California for the US Sanitary Commission during the Civil War. The Sanitary Commission was created to provide medical care for Northern wounded and to enforce hygiene practices in army camps. Reverend King, a Unitarian minister who came to California in 1860, strongly supported the Union in the Civil War and made the Sanitary Commission his personal cause, speaking in towns and mining camps throughout the state to raise money. California responded to King's humanitarian efforts by contributing more than one million of the four million dollars raised for the Sanitary Commission.
  • Leonard Pitt and Ramon A. Gutierrez, Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Californias, 1846-1890 (1999)
  • Prezelski, Tom. "Lives of the Californio Lancers: the First Battalion of Native California Cavalry, 1863-1866" Journal of Arizona History (1999) 40(1): 29-52. Issn: 0021-9053. The First Battalion of Native California Cavalry was raised during the Civil War, modeled on romantic notions of Spanish vaquero lancers. Although the battalion did include some Californios from haciendas in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties, it included diverse ethnic groups from northern California and was commanded by an Anglo. Before being sent to Fort Mason, Arizona, individual companies campaigned against Chimeheuvi, Hupe, and Wintun Indians. In Arizona, the battalion defended the border, confronted French imperial forces in northern Mexico, and protected the refugee Republican governor of Sonora. They tried to catch Cochise and other Mescaleros. The battalion mustered out at San Francisco's presidio in 1866.
  • Rawls, J. and Bean, W. (1997). California: An Interpretive History. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. ISBN 0-07-052411-4.
  • Rice, Richard B. et al, The Elusive Eden: A New History of California (1988)
  • Robinson, John W. "A California Copperhead: Henry Hamilton and the Los Angeles Star." Arizona and the West 1981 23(3): 213-230. Issn: 0004-1408. Henry Hamilton (1826?-91) served as editor of the Los Angeles Star, 1856-68. An outspoken Confederate sympathizer and rabid slavery advocate, he used the Star as a platform to rally Southern Democrats and to violently denounce the Lincoln administration. He gloated over Confederate battlefield victories. He survived arrest and won election to the California legislature. Hamilton closely gauged the varying intensity of pro-Southern feeling in southern California during the Civil War.
  • Shover, Michele. "John Bidwell: Civil War Politics, and the Indian Crisis of 1862." Dogtown Territorial Quarterly (2001) (46): 4-24, 34-37. Issn: 1080-7594. Examines the conflicts between supporters of the North and South in Butte County during the Civil War, centering on Chico pioneer John Bidwell and his political allies and enemies. Bidwell's memoirs and other recollections conflate two issues that inflamed residents of the region. One was the attack of Mill Creek Indians on settlers in 1862, prompting public debate and accusations that Bidwell, who employed Indians on his ranch, was hypocritical for supporting abolition. The other issue involved Union soldiers sent to Butte County and their intimidation of Southern sympathizers. Bidwell had been a Union Democrat but in 1864 switched to the Republican Party. Despite its isolation from Civil War battles, Butte settlers brought their homeland views to California, provoking hostile and at times violent actions against those who opposed them.
  • Shutes, Milton H. Lincoln and California (1945)
  • Stanley, Gerald. "Civil War Politics in California." Southern California Quarterly 1982 64(2): 115-132. Issn: 0038-3929. The state Republican Party changed its stance from opposition to abolition before the Civil War to endorsement of the Emancipation Proclamation and condemnation of slavery by the war's end. In 1860 little difference existed between Republicans and Democrats on race and slavery issues; Republicans argued that the central issue of the Civil War was to preserve the Union. Once the war began, however, Republicans found it politically expedient to justify emancipation as a military measure, and to condemn slavery on moral grounds and to insist that slavery must be ended to win the war. By 1864 Republicans and Democrats were sharply divided on the race issue. The Republican transformation thus mirrored Republican politics on the national scene.
  • Stanley, Gerald. "Senator William Gwin: Moderate or Racist?" California Historical Quarterly 1971 50(3): 243-255. Issn: 0097-6059. Recent authors, revising earlier estimates of Gwin's political allegiances, have considered him a moderate in political and social issues surrounding slavery and the Civil War. Actually, Gwin was a political opportunist who brought his Mississippi sympathies with him to California. Gwin opposed the migration of free Negroes to California; his vote against a slavery provision for the 1849 State constitution was based less on principle than on political considerations. In the 1860 election, Gwin supported Breckinridge rather than Douglas, the regular Democratic candidate. His intrigues on behalf of the Confederacy and the institution of slavery during and after the Civil War belie the moderate image Gwin sought for himself in later life.
  • Starr, Kevin H.; Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915 Oxford University Press, 1973
  • Williams, David A. "California Democrats of 1860: Division, Disruption, Defeat." Southern California Quarterly 1973 55(3): 239-252. Issn: 0038-3929. Recounts California's participation in the 1860 Democratic National Convention. Heavily pro-slavery and anti-Stephen A. Douglas, California and Oregon supported the Southern states at the Charleston meeting. Although Douglas supporters were in the majority at the convention, they lacked the two-thirds vote necessary to put their candidate and platform across. On a number of key issues California voted on the side of the South, and after 57 ballots the deadlocked convention adjourned. When it met again in Baltimore 45 days later, California and the southern states walked out. The Baltimore convention went on to nominate Douglas, while California and the southern states nominated John C. Breckinridge at a rump convention in Richmond. In November California narrowly went for Lincoln and the Republicans.
  • Wilson, John P. "From the Colorado to the Rio Grande: Across Arizona and New Mexico with the California Column." New Mexico Historical Review (2001) 76(3): 255-283. Issn: 0028-6206 Uses the letters of news correspondents to describe the activities of the California Column, which marched from California to New Mexico. Its goal was to block Confederates, who intended to capture New Mexico and California. In their letters to San Francisco newspapers, the correspondents provide more vivid accounts than might be found in official reports or diaries. They describe encounters with friendly Indians and skirmishes with hostile ones, the hardships of travel, the capture and escape of Union officers and men from the Confederates, poor food, and the retreat of the Confederates.
  • Woolsey, Ronald C. "The Politics of a Lost Cause: 'Seceshers' and Democrats in Southern California During the Civil War." California History (1990-1991) 69(4): 372-383. Issn: 0162-2897. Describes the effect of the Civil War on Southern California Democrats. The war provoked sectional loyalties and a concern for wartime issues. Pro-Southern Democrats supported the Confederacy as was evidenced by voting patterns that rejected Republican candidates. Democratic newspaper editors editorialized against the Union or advocated peace as an alternative for the Union's war policy. By 1864, however, Democratic influence was on the decline as the Union won military victories and the state's Republicans captured statewide posts. California's wartime experience demonstrated the strong economic and political ties between state and Union that could not be broken by geographic distance or wartime loyalties.
  • Woolsey, Ronald C. "Disunion or Dissent? A New Look at an Old Problem in Southern California Attitudes Toward the Civil War." Southern California Quarterly 1984 66(3): 185-205. ISSN: 0038-3929. Argues that Southern California's pro-South sympathies in the Civil War were due more to local political issues and regional problems than to a direct concern for such North-South issues as slavery and states' rights. Southern Californians objected to Lincoln administration policies that affected them financially, resented unfair taxation by the state legislature in which they were underrepresented, and experienced hardship because of disasters in the cattle industry. To them the Civil War was distant and expensive, and it thus provided a platform on which they could air their grievances.

See also

  • History of California


  A field of California golden poppies circa 1910. ...

American Civil WarNavigate through History:
Issues & Combatants

Prelude: OriginsTimelineAntebellumBleeding KansasSecessionBorder statesAnaconda Plan
Slavery: African-AmericansEmancipation ProclamationFugitive slave laws • Slavery • Slave powerUncle Tom's Cabin
Abolition: AbolitionismJohn BrownFrederick DouglassHarriet TubmanUnderground Railroad
Combatants: Union (USA)Union ArmyUnion NavyConfederacy (CSA)Confederate States ArmyConfederate States Navy Image File history File links US_flag_34_stars. ... The Civil War is by far the most common term for this conflict; see Naming the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links CSA_FLAG_4. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... This is a timeline of significant events leading to the American Civil War. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before the war (ante means before and bellum war). ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in the history of Kansas as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  The border states  Bleeding Kansas, the more contentious of the Kansas-Nebraska Act states stood in the path of the border states  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential order in 1863 that freed most (but not all) of the slaves in the United States. ... The fugitive slave laws were statutes passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another or into a public territory. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what in 1776 became the United States. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... Uncle Toms Cabin Uncle Toms Cabin is a novel by American abolitionist author Harriet Beecher Stowe which treats slavery as a central theme. ... This French poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... John Browns Oath Engraving from daguerreotype by Augustus Washington, ca. ... Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (February 14, 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer. ... Harriet Tubman in 1880 Harriet Tubman (born 1820 or 1822 in Dorchester County, Maryland, died March 10, 1913 in Auburn, New York), also known as Black Moses, Grandma Moses, or Moses of Her People, was an African-American abolitionist. ... Map of some Underground Railroad routes This page is about the slave escape route. ... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... Navy Department Seal The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861 responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. ...

Theaters & Campaigns

Theaters: Union naval blockadeEasternWesternLower Seaboard • Trans-Mississippi • Pacific Coast
1862: New MexicoJackson's ValleyPeninsulaNorthern VirginiaMarylandStones River
1863: VicksburgTullahomaGettysburgMorgan's RaidChickamaugaBristoe
1864: Red RiverOverlandAtlantaValley 1864Bermuda HundredRichmond-Petersburg • Franklin-Nashville • Sherman's March
1865: CarolinasAppomattox The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms... President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military operations in the Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War. ... The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports... Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, was a series of battles fought in September, 1862—Robert E. Lees first invasion of the North—during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Stones River Conflict American Civil War Date December 31, 1862 – January 3, 1863 Place Murfreesboro, Tennessee Result Both sides claimed victory, but the Confederate Army withdrew The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro (in the South, simply the Battle of Murfreesboro), was fought from December... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... Battle of Hoovers Gap Conflict American Civil War Date June 24– 26, 1862 Place Bedford County, Tennessee and Rutherford County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Hoovers Gap was the principal battle fought in the Tullahoma Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan Morgans Raid was a highly publicized incursion by Confederate cavalry into the Northern states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Chickamauga, fought September 18–20, 1863, marked the end of a Union offensive in south-central Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign. ... The Bristoe Campaign was a series of battles fought in Virginia during October and November, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... The Red River Campaign or Red River Expedition consisted of a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864. ... Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee The Overland Campaign, or Grants Overland Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March 25... The Franklin-Nashville Campaign, also known as Hoods Tennessee Campaign, was a series of battles fought in the fall of 1864 in Alabama, Tennessee, and northwestern Georgia during the American Civil War. ... Engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting Shermans March Shermans March to the Sea is the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign, conducted in late 1864 by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ...

Major Battles

List by stateList by dateNaval battlesAntietamAtlanta1st Bull Run2nd Bull RunChancellorsvilleChattanoogaChickamaugaCold HarborFive ForksFort DonelsonFort SumterFranklinFredericksburgGettysburgHampton RoadsMobile BayNew OrleansNashvillePea RidgePerryvillePetersburgPickett's ChargeSeven DaysSeven PinesShilohSpotsylvaniaStones RiverVicksburgWilderness The Battles of the American Civil War can be organized in a variety of ways, including chronologically, alphabetically by state, by winner, by casualty statistics, etc. ... The Battles of the American Civil War can be organized in a variety of ways, including chronologically, alphabetically by state, by winner, by casualty statistics, etc. ... Naval battles of the American Civil War were a common occurrence just as they are with many wars. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman James B. McPherson† John B. Hood Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 3,641 8,499 The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta campaign fought during the American Civil War... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 28,450 32,230 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle of Bull... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee Thomas J. Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run, or... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 16,839 (1,574 killed, 9,554 wounded, 5,711 missing) 13,156 (1,683 killed, 9,277 wounded, 2,196 missing) The Battle of Chancellorsville was... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (~80,000) Army of Tennessee (~50,000) Casualties 5,815 6,670 The Third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 23–25... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (66,000) Casualties 1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing 2,312 killed, 14,674 wounded, 1... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 soldiers 62,000 soldiers Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... Battle of Five Forks Conflict American Civil War Date April 1, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865, was the final Union offensive in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought February 12–16, 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Robert Anderson P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 soldiers 500 soldiers Casualties 2 dead, 5 injured 0 The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861), a relatively minor military engagement at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, began... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John M. Schofield John B. Hood Strength IV and XXIII Army Corps (Army of the Ohio and Cumberland) Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,326 6,261 The Second Battle of Franklin (more popularly known as The Battle of Franklin) was... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 83,289 75,054 Casualties 23,049 (3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded, 5,365 captured/missing) 28,000 (3,500 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,500 captured/missing) The Battle of... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, 2 tenders Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7... Combatants United States of America (U.S. Navy) Confederate States of America (Confederate States Navy) Commanders David Farragut (navy) Gordon Granger (army) Franklin Buchanan (navy) Dabney H. Maury (army) Strength 14 wooden ships (including 2 gunboats) 4 ironclad monitors 5,500 Land Force Three gunboats One ironclad Casualties 322 men... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Officer David G. Farragut and Maj. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George H. Thomas John Bell Hood Strength IV Corps, XXIII Corps, detachment of Army of the Tennessee, provisional detachment, and Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,900 approximately 13,000 The Battle of Nashville was a two-day battle... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Samuel R. Curtis Earl Van Dorn Strength Army of the Southwest, 11,000 men Army of the West, 14,000 men Casualties 1,349 (mostly killed and wounded) 4,600 (mostly captured) The Battle of Pea Ridge (also known as... The Battle of Perryville was an important but largely neglected encounter in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March 25... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Lee and McClellan of the Seven Days The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 100,000 52,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength Army of the Tennessee Army of Vicksburg Casualties 10,142 9,091 (30,000 paroled) The Battle of Vicksburg or Siege of Vicksburg was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 The Battle of the Wilderness was the first battle of Lieut. ...

Key CSA
Leaders

Military: AndersonBeauregardBraggCooperEarlyEwellForrestGorgasA.P. HillHoodJacksonA.S. JohnstonJ.E. JohnstonLeeLongstreetMorganMosbyPriceQuantrillSemmesE. K. SmithStuartTaylorWheeler
Civilian: BenjaminDavisMallorySeddonStephens Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Nathan Bedford Forrest Nathan Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877), was a Confederate general and perhaps the American Civil Wars most highly regarded cavalry and partisan ranger (guerrilla leader). ... Josiah Gorgas Josiah Gorgas (July 1, 1818 – May 15, 1883) was one of the few Northern-born Confederate generals in the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 – April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood John Bell Hood (June 1, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824–May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... John Mosby John Singleton Mosby (December 6, 1833 – May 30, 1916), also known as the Gray Ghost, was a Confederate partisan ranger (guerrilla fighter) in the American Civil War. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... William Clark Quantrill of Quantrills Raiders William Clarke Quantrill (July 31, 1837 – June 6, 1865), was a pro-Confederate guerrilla fighter during the American Civil War whose actions, particularly a bloody raid on Lawrence, Kansas, remain controversial to this day. ... Raphael Semmes (September 27, 1809 – August 30, 1877) was an officer in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1860 and the Confederate States Navy from 1860 to 1865. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Joseph Wheeler Joseph Wheeler (September 10, 1836 – January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician who fought during the Civil War and Spanish-American War and served as a U.S. Representative from Alabama. ... Judah P. Benjamin Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811–May 6, 1884) was a British-American politician and lawyer, who served as a representative in the Louisiana State Legislature, as U.S. Senator for Louisiana, in three successive cabinet posts in the government of the Confederate States of America, and... Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808–December 6, 1889) was an American soldier and politician, most famous for serving as the only President of the Confederate States, leading the Confederate States of America to defeat during the American Civil War, 1861-65. ... Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... James Seddon James Alexander SeddonBorn 9/1/1988 James seddon is a pupil at sutton high and isnt a very good one. ... Alexander Hamilton Stephens (February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ...

Key USA
Leaders

Military: AndersonBuellButlerBurnsidedu PontFarragutFooteGrant • Halleck • Hooker • Hunt • McClellanMcDowellMeadeMeigsPopePorterRosecransScottSheridanShermanThomas
Civilian: AdamsChaseEricssonLincolnPinkertonSewardStantonStevensWadeWelles Major Robert Anderson Robert Anderson (June 14, 1805 – October 26, 1871) was a Union Army officer in the American Civil War, known for his command of Fort Sumter at the start of the war. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Samuel Francis du Pont by Daniel Huntington 1867-68, oil on canvas National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC Samuel Francis du Pont (September 27, 1803 – June 23, 1865) was an officer in the United States Navy who achieved the rank of rear admiral. ... Admiral David Glasgow Farragut Admiral David Glasgow Farragut David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... Andrew Hull Foote Andrew Hull Foote (September 12, 1806 – June 26, 1863) was an admiral in the United States Navy who served during the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Portrait of Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Note: This article is about Gen. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... George Meade George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and engineer involved in coastal construction. ... Montgomery C. Meigs Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (IPA: ) (May 3, 1816 – January 2, 1892) was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, construction engineer for a number of facilities in Washington, D.C., and Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of David Dixon Porter during the Civil War David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States admiral who became one of the most noted naval heroes of the Civil War. ... William Rosecrans William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, and diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Charles Francis Adams (August 18, 1807, Boston - November 21, 1886, Boston), the son of John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat and writer. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... John Ericsson (1803-1889) John Ericsson (July 31, 1803 – March 8, 1889) was a Swedish inventor and mechanical engineer, as was his brother, Nils Ericson. ... It has been suggested that Abraham Lincoln in popular culture be merged into this article or section. ... Portrait of Allan Pinkerton from Harpers Weekly, 1884 Allan Pinkerton (August 25, 1819 – July 1, 1884) was a U.S. detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton Agency, the first detective agency. ... William H. Seward William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era. ... Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 - August 11, 1868), also known as The Great Commoner, was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania. ... Benjamin Franklin Wade (October 27, 1800–March 2, 1878) was a U.S. lawyer. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ...

Aftermath

13th Amendment14th Amendment15th AmendmentAlabama ClaimsCarpetbaggersFreedmen's BureauJim Crow lawsKu Klux KlanReconstructionRedeemers Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution abolished slavery and, with the exception of allowing punishments for crimes, prohibits involuntary servitude. ... The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. ... Contemporary drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution grants voting rights regardless of race. ... During the American Civil War, Confederate States of America raiders (the most famous being the CSS Alabama) were built in Britain and did significant damage to Union naval forces. ... In United States history, the term carpetbagger was a term for Northerners (Yankees) who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ... A Bureau agent stands between an armed group of angry Southern whites, and another group of freed slaves in this 1868 cartoon The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmens Bureau, was an agency of the government of the United States that was formed... Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and in force between 1876 and 1964 that required racial segregation, especially of African-Americans, in all public facilities. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... // Reconstruction was the period in United States history, 1865–77, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ...

Other Topics

ACW TopicsDraft RiotsNaming the WarPhotographyRail TransportSupreme Court CasesTurning points
State involvement: ALCACO • CT • DE • FLGA • ID • IL • IN • KY • LA • ME • MD • MA • MI • MN • MSMO • NH • NJ • NY • NCOH • OK • OR • PA • RI • SCTNTXVAVTWV • WI
Military: CavalryField ArtilleryMilitary LeadershipOfficial Records
Politics: CopperheadsCommittee on the ConductPolitical GeneralRadical RepublicansTrent AffairWar Democrats
Prisons: AndersonvilleCamp ChaseCamp DouglasFort DelawareJohnson's IslandLibby Prison This is a list of topics relating to the American Civil War. ... The New York Draft Riots in (New York City, July 13 - July 16, 1863) began as protests against President Abraham Lincolns Enrollment Act of Conscription drafting men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. ... The American Civil War has been known by numerous alternative names that reflect the historical, political, and cultural sensitivities of different groups and regions. ... Two photographers having lunch in the Bull Run area before the second battle, 1862. ... Confederate railroads During the American Civil War, the Confederacy depended heavily on railroads to get supplies to their lines. ... A number of cases were tried before the Supreme Court of the United States during the period of the American Civil War. ... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... The state of Alabama was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War after seceding from the United States of America on January 11, 1861. ... Illinois infantry regimental flag (77th IL is shown) ROCHER MEANNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNAmerican Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. ... During the American Civil War, nearly 320,000 Ohioans served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York and Pennsylvania. ... This is a list of battles that took place within the boundaries of what is now West Virginia. ... U.S. Army Cavalry Sergeant, 1866 Cavalry was a branch of army service in a process of transition during the American Civil War. ... Field Artillery played a crucial role in the American Civil War. ... Military leadership in the American Civil War was influenced by professional military education and the hard-earned pragmatism of command experience. ... The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ... The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was a United States Congressional investigating committee created to handle issues surrounding the American Civil War. ... A Political general was a general during the US Civil War who was given a high position in command due to political connections or to appease certain political blocks. ... The Radical Republicans were an influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. ... The Trent Affair, also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair was an international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... Andersonville prison The Andersonville prison, located at Camp Sumter, was the largest Confederate military prison during the American Civil War. ... Camp Chase Cemetery. ... Camp Douglas Camp Douglas was a Union prisoner-of-war camp in Chicago, Illinois, USA, during the American Civil War. ... Fort Delaware is a harbor defense facility built in 1859 on Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River. ... Johnsons Island was the site of a prisoner-of-war camp for Confederate officers captured during the American Civil War. ... Libby Prison, located in Richmond, Virginia, was a former tobacco warehouse located on Tobacco Row, converted into prison used by the Confederacy to house captured Union officers during the American Civil War. ...

Categories

American Civil War • American Civil War people • Battles • Union Army generals • Union armies • Union Army corps • Confederate States of America (CSA) • Confederate Army generals • Confederate armies • National Battlefields • Veterans' Organizations

InterWiki

 American Civil War from Wiktionary •  ACW Textbooks from Wikibooks •  ACW Quotations from Wikiquote Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


 ACW Source texts from Wikisource •  ACW Images and media from Commons •  ACW News stories from Wikinews Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
California and the Civil War: The California Column and the March to Tucson, 1862 (1356 words)
California and the Civil War: The California Column and the March to Tucson, 1862
At the begining of the Civil War in 1861 the United States withdrew all regular U. Army troops from the west and southwest to the east, leaving only local militia and volunteers to defend the frontier.
Ordered to march and occupy Fort Yuma on the California side of the Colorado River plus the town of Yuma on the Arizona side which at that time was the second largest settlement in Arizona, population 1,400.
Civil War in the West--Last updated 02/04/02 (1292 words)
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Civil War in New Mexico Many people do not know that the Civil War was fought as far west as New Mexico, but in fact there was a vigorous campaign conducted there.
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