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Encyclopedia > California Academy of Sciences

The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world. It is located in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco. The Steinhart Aquarium and the Morrison Planetarium are housed within its walls. The Academy began life in 1853 as a learned society and still carries out a large amount of original research, though its main role is now public education. The Academy's main buildings in Golden Gate Park are closed for major refurbishment until 2008, though it has reopened in temporary accommodation at 875 Howard Street as of May 1, 2004. Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now usually viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines. ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... An aerial view of the Golden Gate Park The Golden Gate Park is the largest urban park in San Francisco, California, USA. At 1017 acres (4. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Aquarium (disambiguation). ... // A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Refurbishment is the process of major maintenance and minor repair of an item, both aesthetically and mechanically. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Public education

While in Golden Gate Park, the Academy attracted around half a million visitors each year. The main thrust of the exhibits is natural history, with halls containing specimens from across the world and the "Life through Time" gallery housing a large display on evolution. There is particular emphasis on aquatic biology, with the aquarium housing fish specimens from all over the world, and a "fish roundabout" offering a unique aquarium experience -- visitors stand in the middle of a large ring-shaped tank watching fish swimming endlessly against a small generated current. This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Other sciences are also covered: as well as the astronomy shows in the planetarium, there is a "Gem & Mineral Hall" containing many samples, and a section of the Academy devoted to earthquakes — appropriately enough considering the influence that these phenomena have had on San Francisco in general and the Academy in particular — including a simulator which recreates the experience of the Kobe earthquake. A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... Categories: Japan-related stubs | 1995 | Earthquakes | Japanese history ...

Currently at the Academy
Currently at the Academy
Snake Head Turtle
Snake Head Turtle

The focus of the public exhibits in the Academy's temporary quarters will be the aquarium, since live fish cannot be stored in the same way as the other displays, though there will also be a shifting schedule of temporary exhibits trying out new ideas for the re-opening. Artificial Coral Reef at the California Academy of Science Currently available at the temporary location. ... Artificial Coral Reef at the California Academy of Science Currently available at the temporary location. ... Taken at the temporary quarters of the California Academy of Sciences Photo taken by Kirk Abbott, 2005 This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... Taken at the temporary quarters of the California Academy of Sciences Photo taken by Kirk Abbott, 2005 This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ...

Research

The Academy carries out research in a number of fields, largely but not exclusively branches of biology: anthropology, aquatic biology, botany, entomology, geology, herpetology, ichthyology, invertebrate zoology, mammalogy and ornithology. There is a strong emphasis on environmental concerns, with all the various departments collaborating closely to focus on systematic biology and biodiversity. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthropolology (from the Greek word , man or person+knowledge) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the origin of words. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Herpetology (Greek herpeton = to creep, to ramp and logos = in this context explanation or reason) is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians. ... Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ... Zoology (rarely spelled zoölogy) is the biological discipline which involves the study of non-human animals. ... In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems. ... Ornithology (from the Greek ornis = bird and logos = word/science) is the branch of zoology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


History

The California Academy of Natural Sciences was founded in 1853, only three years after California joined the United States, becoming the first society of its kind in the Western US. Its stated aim was to undertake "a thorough systematic survey of every portion of the State and the collection of a cabinet of her rare and rich productions". It was renamed to the more inclusive "California Academy of Sciences" in 1868. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


The Academy had a forward-thinking approach to the involvement of women in science, passing a resolution that the members "highly approve of the aid of females in every department of natural science, and invite their cooperation" in its first year of existence. This led to several female botanists, entomologists and others finding work at the Academy during the 19th Century, when opportunities for women in the sciences were limited, and often restricted to menial cataloguing and calculation work. Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the origin of words. ...


The Academy's first official museum was opened in 1874 on the corner of California and Dupont Streets, and drew 80,000 visitors a year. To accommodate this popularity, the Academy moved in 1891 to a new, larger building on Market Street, funded by the legacy of James Lick. However, only fifteen years later it fell victim to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which also wiped out large swathes of the Academy's library and specimen collections. Luckily, an expedition to the Galapagos Islands (the first of several sponsored by the Academy) was already underway, and it returned seven months later, instantly providing replacement collections. Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... James Lick James Lick (August 25, 1796 – October 1, 1876) was an American carpenter, piano builder, land baron, and patron of the sciences. ... Arnold Genthes famous photograph of San Francisco following the earthquake, looking toward the fire on Sacramento Street The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco and the coast of northern California at 5:12 A.M. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. ... NASA Satellite photo of the Galápagos archipelago. ...


It was not until 1916 that the Academy moved to the North American Hall of Birds and Mammals in Golden Gate Park, the first building on the site that was to become its permanent home. In 1923 the Steinhart Aquarium was added, followed in 1934 by the Simson African Hall. Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... An aerial view of the Golden Gate Park The Golden Gate Park is the largest urban park in San Francisco, California, USA. At 1017 acres (4. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


During World War II, the Academy contributed to the American war effort by using its workshop facilities to repair optical and navigational equipment for navy ships (San Francisco being a major port for the Pacific War). The post-war years saw a flurry of new construction on the site; the Science Hall was added in 1951, followed by the Morrison Planetarium in 1952. The Morrison Planetarium was the seventh major planetarium to open in the United States and featured a one-of-a-kind star projector, built by Academy staff (in part using the expertise gained doing the optical work for the U.S. Navy during World War II). The Academy Projector produced a remarkably natural-looking starfield. It projected irregularly shaped stars, rather than the circular stars projected by many optical star projectors. The irregular shapes were created by hand-placing variously sized grains of carborundum onto the glass starplates, then aluminizing the plates, and brushing away the carborundum grains. In 1959, the Malliard Library, Eastwood Hall of Botany and Livermore Room were all added. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of China (from 1937) Chinese Communist Party (from 1937) U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) British India (1941) Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Mongolia (from 1945) Empire of Japan Nanjing... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Throughout the 1960s, universities concentrating on the new field of molecular biology divested themselves of their specimen collections, entrusting them to the Academy and leading to a rapid growth of the Academy's holdings. 1969 saw another new building, Cowell Hall, added to the site. In 1976 several new galleries were opened, and the following year saw the construction of the "fish roundabout". The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

Academy of Sciences before 2005 construction.
Academy of Sciences before 2005 construction.

In 1989, the buildings were damaged in the Loma Prieta earthquake. Subsequently, the Bird Hall building was closed to ensure public safety. The Steinhart Aquarium had suffered dramatic seismic damage. Image File history File links California_Academy_of_Sciences2003. ... Image File history File links California_Academy_of_Sciences2003. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on Tuesday October 17, 1989, in the greater San Francisco Bay Area in California at 5:04 p. ...


As plans were made to repair the damage and make the buildings seismically stable, it was realised that a considerable amount of work would be needed to bring the buildings up to modern standards. This led to the idea of giving the Academy a complete overhaul, thus motivating the current closure of the main site. On September 12, 2005 construction began on the new building, while the exhibits were moved to 875 Howard Street for a temporary museum. The main contractor for this museum replacement project is Webcor Builders. When reopened in 2008, the new building will be at the forefront of environmentally-friendly design, in keeping with the Academy's focus on environmental concerns. As a result of its environmentally-friendly design and other unique features, this project was featured on the Discovery Channel's Extreme Engineering series in 2006. For other uses, see Building (disambiguation). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Webcor Builders is the largest construction contractor in San Francisco. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Channel is a property of Discovery Communications primarily packaged as a network entertainment brand distributed in virtually every pay-television market in the world. ... Extreme Engineering is a series of programs on the Discovery Channel which deal with futuristic engineering challenges. ...


See also

49-Mile Scenic Drive 49-Mile Scenic Drive sign The 49-Mile Scenic Drive (also known as 49-Mile Drive) in and around San Francisco highlights many of The Citys major attractions and historic structures. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
California Academy of Sciences - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (911 words)
The Academy's main buildings in Golden Gate Park are closed for major refurbishment until 2008, though it has reopened in temporary accommodation at 875 Howard Street as of May 1, 2004.
The Academy had a forward-thinking approach to the involvement of women in science, passing a resolution that the members "highly approve of the aid of females in every department of natural science, and invite their cooperation" in its first year of existence.
The Academy's first official museum was opened in 1874 on the corner of California and Dupont Streets, and drew 80,000 visitors a year.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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