FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
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Encyclopedia > California
State of California
Flag of California State seal of California
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Golden State
Motto(s): Eureka[1]
before statehood, known as
the California Republic
Map of the United States with California highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Californian
Capital Sacramento
Largest city Los Angeles
Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles
Area  Ranked 3rd in the US
 - Total 163,696 sq mi
(423,970 km2)
 - Width 250 miles (400 km)
 - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)
 - % water 4.7
 - Latitude 32° 32′ N to 42° N
 - Longitude 114° 8′ W to 124° 26′ W
Population  Ranked 1st in the US
 - Total 36,961,664 (2009 est.)[2]
33,871,648 (2000)
 - Density 234.4/sq mi  (90.49/km2)
Ranked 11th in the US
 - Median income  US$54,385 (11th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mount Whitney[3]
14,494 ft  (4,418 m)
 - Mean 2,900[4] ft  (884 m)
 - Lowest point Death Valley[3]
-282 ft  (-86 m)
Admission to Union  September 9, 1850 (31st)
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R)
Lieutenant Governor vacant
U.S. Senators Dianne Feinstein (D)
Barbara Boxer (D)
U.S. House delegation 34 Democrats, 19 Republicans (list)
Time zone Pacific: UTC-8/-7
Abbreviations CA Calif. US-CA
Website http://ca.gov
California State Symbols
Flag of California.svg
The Flag of California.

Seal of California.svg
The Seal of California.

Animate insignia
Bird(s) California Quail
Fish Golden Trout
Flower(s) California Poppy
Grass Purple Needlegrass
Insect California Dogface Butterfly
Mammal(s) California grizzly bear (State Animal)[1]
Reptile Desert Tortoise
Tree California Redwood

Inanimate insignia
Beverage Wine
Colors Blue & Gold
Dance West Coast Swing
Fossil Sabre-toothed cat
Gemstone Benitoite
Mineral Native Gold
Soil San Joaquin
Song(s) "I Love You, California"
Tartan California State Tartan

Route marker(s)
California Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of California
Released in 2005

Lists of United States state insignia

California Listeni /kælɪˈfɔrnjə/ is the most populous state in the United States,[2] and the third largest by area. California is the second most populous sub-national entity in the Americas, behind only São Paulo, Brazil. It is located on the West Coast of the United States, and is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Its four largest cities are Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, and San Francisco.[5] The state is home to the nation's second and sixth largest census statistical areas as well as eight of the nation's fifty most populous cities. California has a varied climate and geography, and a diverse population. The name California can refer to many places and things. ... The modern Bear Flag of California The flag of California was first flown during the Bear Flag Revolt as the flag of the California Republic, and a modified version was then adopted by the California state legislature in 1911 as the state flag. ... The Great Seal of the U.S. state of California. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames -- both official and traditional (official state nicknames are in bold). ... Eureka (Eureka!, or Heureka; Greek (later ); IPA: (modern Greek), (ancient Greek, both former and later forms), Anglicised as ) is a famous exclamation attributed to Archimedes. ... The Bear Flag Capital Sonoma, California Language(s) English and Spanish (de facto) Government Republic President William B. Ide History  - Independence from Mexico June 14, 1846  - Annexation by the United States of America July 9, 1846 The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, was the result of a... The United States does not have an official language, but English is spoken by about 82% of the population as a native language, with a majority of English speakers being monolingual. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... Sacramento redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... Walt Disney Concert Hall, Frank Gehry, architect The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and Orange Counties) is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the county of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Map of states populations (2007) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2007, according to the 2007 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... Mount Whitney is the highest point in the contiguous United States at elevation 14,505 feet (4,421 meters). ... For other uses, see Death Valley (disambiguation). ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... GOP redirects here. ... The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into U.S. Congressional Delegations from California. ... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (IPA: ) (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U.S. Senator from California, having held office as a senator since 1992. ... Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... These are tables of congressional delegations from California in the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ...  PST or UTC-8 The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-8). ... UTC redirects here. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... ISO 3166-2 codes for the United States of America cover 50 states, 1 district, 6 outlying areas (including 9 minor outlying islands under separate ISO 3166-1 country code UM). ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... The modern Bear Flag of California The flag of California was first flown during the Bear Flag Revolt as the flag of the California Republic, and a modified version was then adopted by the California state legislature in 1911 as the state flag. ... The Great Seal of the U.S. state of California. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Callipepla californica (Shaw, 1798) The California Quail, Callipepla californica, is a small ground-dwelling bird in the New World quail family. ... This is a list of official U.S. state fish: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus aguabonita (Jordan, 1892) The pink trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita), is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family (family Salmonidae) of order Salmoniformes. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ State Flower of Alabama. ... Binomial name Cham. ... . ... It has been suggested that List of U.S. state butterflies be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Zerene eurydice Boisduval, 1855 The California dogface butterfly (Zerene eurydice, or Colias eurydice Boisduval) has been the state insect of the U.S. state of California since 1972. ... A state mammal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... This is a list of official U.S. state reptiles: Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ Official Alabama Reptile. ... Binomial name Gopherus agassizii Cooper, 1863 The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is a species of tortoise native to the Mojave desert and Sonoran desert of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... This article is about the species commonly called Coast Redwood. For the species commonly called Giant Sequoia, see Sequoiadendron. ... This is a list of official state beverages:[1] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... This is a list of U.S. state colors:[1] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... This article is about the colour. ... Gold is a shade of the color yellow closest to that of gold metal. ... This is a list of official U.S. state dances:[1] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... West Coast Swing (WCS) is a partner dance derived from Lindy Hop. ... Though every state in the United States has a State Bird and a State Flower, not every state in the United States has a State Fossil. ... For the record label, see Smilodon Records. ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... Benitoite is a rare blue silicate mineral, found in hydrothermally altered serpentinite. ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This is a list of official U.S. state soils: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... San Joaquin soil profile San Joaquin is an officially designated state insignia, the State Soil of California. ... Forty-nine states of the United States (all except New Jersey) have one or more state songs, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... Californias official state song I Love You, California was written by F. B. Silverwood, a Los Angeles merchant. ... This is a list of official U.S. state tartans: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The California State Tartan is the official tartan of the State of California. ... Highways in the United States are split into at least four different types of systems. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program (Pub. ... Map of states populations (2007) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2007, according to the 2007 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Subnational entities redirects here. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Motto Pro Brasilia Fiant Eximia (Latin) For Brazil Great Things Are Done Anthem Bandeirantes Anthem Capital (and largest city) São Paulo Demonym Paulista Government  -  Governor José Serra  -  Vice Governor Alberto Goldman Area  -  Total 248. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Baja California Country Capital Municipalities 5 Largest City Tijuana Government  - Governor José Guadalupe Osuna Millán (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 8  - Federal Senators Alejandro González (PAN) Rafael Díaz (PAN) Fernando Castro (PRI) Area Ranked 12th  - Total 69,921 km² (26,996. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Walt Disney Concert Hall, Frank Gehry, architect The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and Orange Counties) is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the county of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... Map of the Core Based Statistical Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico (MSAs in red and μSAs in blue) Map of the Combined Statistical Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico // The following sortable table lists the 718 primary census statistical areas[1] of the United States... Ten most populous cities in the United States Los Angeles San Jose San Diego Phoenix Chicago New York City Houston San Antonio Dallas Philadelphia The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places in the United States. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...


California is the third-largest U.S. state by land area, after Alaska and Texas. Its geography ranges from the Pacific coast to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, to Mojave desert areas in the southeast and the RedwoodDouglas fir forests of the northwest. The center of the state is dominated by the Central Valley, one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. California is the most geographically diverse state in the nation, and contains the highest (Mount Whitney) and lowest (Death Valley) points in the contiguous United States. Almost 40% of California is forested,[6] a high amount for a relatively arid state. This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ... This article is about the species commonly called Coast Redwood. For the species commonly called Giant Sequoia, see Sequoiadendron. ... Species See text Douglas-fir is the common name applied to coniferous trees of the genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... The California Central Valley Part of the Valley as seen from overhead A typical Central Valley scene at ground level The California Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ...


Beginning in the late 18th century, the area known as Alta California was colonized by the Spanish Empire. In 1821, Mexico, including Alta California, became the First Mexican Empire, beginning as a monarchy, before shifting to a republic. In 1846 a group of American settlers in Sonoma declared the independence of a California Republic. As a result of the Mexican-American War, Mexico ceded California to the United States. It became the 31st state admitted to the union on September 9, 1850. Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sonoma City Hall in the town plaza Sonoma is a historically significant city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, USA. It is centered around its historic town plaza, a remnant of the towns Spanish colonial past. ... The Bear Flag Capital Sonoma, California Language(s) English and Spanish (de facto) Government Republic President William B. Ide History  - Independence from Mexico June 14, 1846  - Annexation by the United States of America July 9, 1846 The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, was the result of a... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Note: this article name (or a redirect to it) is a homophone with session. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ...


In the 19th century, the California Gold Rush brought about dramatic social, economic, and demographic change in California, with a large influx of people and an economic boom that caused San Francisco to grow from a hamlet of tents to a world-renowned boomtown. Key developments in the early 20th century included the emergence of Los Angeles as center of the American entertainment industry, and the growth of a large, state-wide tourism sector. In addition to California's prosperous agricultural industry, other important contributors to the economy include aerospace, petroleum, and information technology. If California were a country, it would rank among the ten largest economies in the world, with a GDP similar to that of Italy. It would be the 35th most populous country. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... A boomtown is a community that experiences sudden and rapid population and economic growth. ... The entertainment industry consists of a large number of sub-industries devoted to entertainment. ... Tourist redirects here. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Petro redirects here. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... US states shown with other countries on map of nominal GDP This is a comparison between US states and countries nominal Gross Domestic Product. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word California originally referred to the entire region composed of what is today the state of California, plus all or parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Wyoming, and the Mexican peninsula of Baja California. It has been suggested that Califas be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ...


The name California is most commonly believed to have derived from a fictional paradise peopled by Black Amazons and ruled by a Queen Califia (perhaps from caliph[7]). The myth of Califia is recorded in a 1510 work The Exploits of Esplandian, written as a sequel to Amadís de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo.[8][7][9] The kingdom of Queen Califia or Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts and rich in gold. Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Califia (or Calafia) is the name of a legendary Black Amazon warrior queen, associated with the mythical Island of California. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Las Sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián) is the fifth book in a series of novels on Spanish chivalry by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, which began with Amadís de Gaula. ... Amadís de Gaula (English, Amadis of Gaul) is a landmark work among the knight-errantry tales which were in vogue in 16th century Spain, and formed the earliest reading of many Renaissance and Baroque writers. ... Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo (or Garci Ordoñez de Montalvo) was a Spanish author (d. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ...

Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island named California, very close to that part of the terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women, without a single man among them, and that they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body, with strong and passionate hearts and great virtues. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks. Their weapons were all made of gold. The island everywhere abounds with gold and precious stones, and upon it no other metal was found.[10][verification needed]

The name California is the fifth-oldest surviving European place-name in the U.S. and was applied to what is now the southern tip of Baja California as the island of California by a Spanish expedition led by Diego de Becerra and Fortun Ximenez, who landed there in 1533 at the behest of Hernando Cortes.[note 1] Location within Mexico Municipalities of Baja California Country Capital Municipalities 5 Largest City Tijuana Government  - Governor José Guadalupe Osuna Millán (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 8  - Federal Senators Alejandro González (PAN) Rafael Díaz (PAN) Fernando Castro (PRI) Area Ranked 12th  - Total 69,921 km² (26,996. ... Fortún Ximénez (d. ... Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valle de Oaxaca (Spanish pronunciation: ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the King of Castile, in...

Geography and environment

California adjoins the Pacific Ocean, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, and the Mexican state of Baja California. With an area of 160,000 square miles (414,000 km2), it is the third-largest state in the United States in size, after Alaska and Texas.[12] If it were a country, California would be the 59th-largest in the world in area. Digitally colored elevation map of California The Geography of California is rich and diverse. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Baja California Country Capital Municipalities 5 Largest City Tijuana Government  - Governor José Guadalupe Osuna Millán (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 8  - Federal Senators Alejandro González (PAN) Rafael Díaz (PAN) Fernando Castro (PRI) Area Ranked 12th  - Total 69,921 km² (26,996. ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Countries by area. ...

Mount Shasta overlooks the town of the same name.

In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Sierra Nevada to the east, the Cascade Range in the north and the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is California's agricultural heartland and grows approximately one-third of the nation's food.[13][verification needed][unreliable source?] Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River; both areas derive their names from the rivers that transit them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained sufficiently deep that several inland cities are seaports. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta serves as a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is routed through an extensive network of canals and pumps out of the delta, that traverse nearly the length of the state, including the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project. Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population, and provides water to farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Channel Islands are located off the southern coast. This article is about the city. ... The California Central Valley Part of the Valley as seen from overhead A typical Central Valley scene at ground level The California Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U.S. state of California. ... The Pacific Coast Ranges are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the west coast of North America from Alaska to northern and central Mexico. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... “Cascades” redirects here. ... The Tehachapi Mountains (IPA: ) are a short transverse range in southern California in the United States, running SW-NE connecting the Coast Ranges on the west with the southern end of the Sierra Nevada mountains on the east. ... The San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta. ... The Sacramento Valley is the portion of the California Central Valley that lies to the north of the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta. ... The Sacramento River is the longest river in the U.S. state of California. ... The Central Valley of California The San Joaquin Valley (English pronunciation in IPA: [sæn wɑˈkin]) refers to the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in Stockton. ... The San Joaquin River, 330 miles (530 km) long, is the second-longest river in California, United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... The Channel Islands of California, also called the Santa Barbara Islands, are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ...

Bridalveil Fall flows from a U-shaped hanging valley that was created by a tributary glacier.

The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous forty-eight states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 ft (4,421 m).[3] The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume. This article is about Bridalveil Fall in Yosemite. ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ... Mount Whitney is the highest point in the contiguous United States at elevation 14,505 feet (4,421 meters). ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron) trees in the Giant Forest Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Visalia, California in the United States of America. ... Binomial name Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl. ... This article is about the lake in California/Nevada. ...


To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Though Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States. Owens Valley is the arid ranching valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. ... Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America[citation needed]. // Satellite photo of Mono Lake Mono Craters to the right of the image are rhyolitic... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... Clear Lake is the largest natural lake entirely in California, and has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake entirely in California, the tenth largest by capacity. ...


About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; one Bristlecone pine has an age of 4,700 years. The White Mountains along the east side of the Owens Valley The White Mountains of California are a small mountain range that runs along the eastern side of the upper Owens Valley, just across from the Sierra Nevada. ... Species Pinus aristata Pinus longaeva Pinus balfouriana Gnarled bristlecone pine wood The bristlecone pines are a small group of pine trees (Family Pinaceae, genus Pinus, subsection Balfourianae) that can reach an age far greater than that of any other single living organism known, up to nearly 5,000 years. ...


In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest, hottest point in North America, Badwater Basin. The distance from the lowest point of Death Valley to the peak of Mount Whitney is less than 200 miles (322 km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. For the film, see The Salton Sea. ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ... For other uses, see Death Valley (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Badwater Basin elevation sign Badwater is a site in Californias Death Valley noted as the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere, with an elevation of 282 feet (86 m) below sea level. ...


Along the California coast are several major metropolitan areas, including Greater Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area, and San Diego. Walt Disney Concert Hall, Frank Gehry, architect The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and Orange Counties) is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the county of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Bay Area redirects here. ...


As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. It sees numerous earthquakes due to several faults, in particular the San Andreas Fault. “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Santa Ana Winds may refer to: 1. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... A volcano (plural, volcanoes) is a geological landform (usually a mountain) where magma (rock of the earths interior made molten or liquid by high pressure and temperature) erupts through the surface of the planet. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ...

Climate

Coastline at Big Sur.

California climate varies from Mediterranean to subarctic. Fog at the Golden Gate Bridge Californias climate changes varies widely, from arid to subarctic, depending on latitude, elevation, and proximity to the coast. ... For other uses, see Big Sur (disambiguation). ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. ...


Much of the state has a Mediterranean climate, with cool, rainy winters and dry summers. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Further inland, one encounters colder winters and hotter summers.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... The California Current is a Pacific Ocean current that moves south along the western coast of North America, beginning off southern British Columbia, and ending off southern Baja California. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ...


Northern parts of the state average higher annual rainfall than the south. California's mountain ranges influence the climate as well: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have a mountain climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... Mountain climate (also highland climate) is something of a crude geographical term used for the kind of climate in the mountains and generally in the high country. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ...

The east side of California's mountains produce a rain shadow, creating expansive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California see hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the southern California mountains experience hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest location in North America; the highest temperature in the Western Hemisphere, 134 °F (57 °C), was recorded there on July 10, 1913. For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... For the Australian television series see Rain Shadow (TV series). ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Eastern California is not a well-defined term. ... For other uses, see Death Valley (disambiguation). ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... North American redirects here. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...

Ecology

California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is part of the Nearctic ecozone and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions. The ecology of California is diverse. ... The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... Ecoregions are defined by the World Wildlife Fund as relatively large units of land or water containing a distinct assemblage of natural communities and species, with boundaries that approximate the original extent of natural communities prior to major land-use change. Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from freshwater...

California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina Ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat. Discovery Tree stump Calaveras Big Trees State Park, located 4 miles (6 km) northeast of Arnold, California in the middle altitudes of the Sierra Nevada in Calaveras County, became a State Park in 1931 to preserve the North Calaveras Grove of Giant Sequoias. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... Species See text Ceanothus L., is a genus of about 50-60 species of shrubs or small trees in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. ... For other uses, see Log. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... Sweet clover (Melilotus sp. ...


California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California's native grasses are perennial plants.[14] After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer. Binomial name Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl. ... Binomial name Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. ... Binomial name Pinus longaeva D.K.Bailey The Great Basin Bristlecone Pine (Pinus longaeva) is one of the bristlecone pines, a group of three species of pine found in the higher mountains of the southwest United States. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...

Rivers

The most prominent rivers within California are the Sacramento River, the Pit River and the San Joaquin River, which drain the Central Valley and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and flow to the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. Some other important rivers are the Klamath River and the Trinity River, in the north, and the Colorado River, on the southeast border. The Owens River takes runoff from the southeastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada and flows into Owens Lake. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges and bisects Southern California. The following is a partial listing of rivers in the state of California, United States of America. ... The Sacramento River is the longest river in the U.S. state of California. ... The Pit River is a tributary of the Sacramento River, approximately 110 mi (176 km) long, in northeastern California in the United States. ... The San Joaquin River, 330 miles (530 km) long, is the second-longest river in California, United States. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... The Klamath River, approximately 263 miles (400 km) long, is a major river in southern Oregon and northern California in the United States. ... The Trinity River is the longest tributary of the Klamath River, approximately 130 mi (209 km) long, in northwestern California in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... Owens Valley The Owens River is a river in eastern California in the United States, approximately 120 mi (193 km) long. ... The Eel River is a major river of the northern Pacific coast of California in the United States. ... The Salinas River is a major river of the central coast of California in the United States, approximately 150 mi (240 km) long. ... The Mojave River is a river in the Mojave Desert, California. ... The Santa Ana River begins in San Bernardino County, California in the San Bernardino National Forest. ... The Transverse ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, part of the North American Coast Ranges that run along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Mexico. ...

Regions

Telegraph Peak in San Gabriel Mountains.

History

Californian poppy
History of California
To 1899
Gold Rush (1848)
US Civil War (1861-1865)
Since 1900
Maritime
Railroad
Highways
Slavery
Los Angeles
Sacramento
San Diego
San Francisco
San Jose

Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America; the area was inhabited by more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans. Large, settled populations lived on the coast and hunted sea mammals, fished for salmon and gathered shellfish; groups in the interior hunted terrestrial game, and gathered nuts, acorns and berries. California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups. The San Gabriel Mountains are located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, USA. The mountain range forms a barrier between the Greater Los Angeles Area and the Mojave Desert. ... This article is about Californias Central Valley. ... Counties commonly seen as constituting coastal California. ... Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Central California can refer to one of several divisions or regions of the U.S state of California: The state is sometimes described as being in three main sections: Northern California (the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento Valley northward), Southern California (south of the Tehachapis), and Central California (the... Bay Area redirects here. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... For other uses, see Upstate. ... Eastern California is not a well-defined term. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... Walt Disney Concert Hall, Frank Gehry, architect The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and Orange Counties) is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the county of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... This article is about the region in California. ... The History of California is divided into the following articles. ... Californias Yosemite Valley. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... Among the states, remote California played the least role in the American Civil War. ... This article continues the history of California in the years 1900 and later; for events through 1899, see History of California to 1899. ... Map showing Island of California, circa 1650 Maritime history of California is a term used to describe significant past events relating to the U.S. State of California in areas concerning shipping, shipwrecks, and military installations and lighthouses constructed to protect or aid navigation and development of the state. ... Slavery in California existed among the native peoples of that region long before the arrival of the first European colonists. ... // Pre-Sutter History – Through 1838 Indigenous people such as the Miwok and Maidu Indians had dwelt in the present-day Sacramento area for perhaps as long as thousands of years (the precise length of time is subject to dispute among historians, anthropologists, and Native American studies scholars, although no sources... // For thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers, the area now known as San Jose was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. ... The History of California is divided into the following articles. ... North American redirects here. ... // Classification of Native Americans: United States and Canada Ethnographers commonly classify the native peoples of the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (called cultural areas). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... Rafael, a Chumash in the 1800s Pre-contact distribution of the Chumash The Chumash are a Native American tribe who historically inhabit mainly the southern coastal regions of California, in the vicinity of what is now Santa Barbara and Ventura, extending as far south as Malibu. ... The Pomo people are a linguistic branch of Native American people of Northern California. ... The Salinan Native Americans lived in what is now Northern California, in the Salinas Valley. ...


The first European to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was the Portuguese João Rodrigues Cabrilho, in 1542, sailing for the Spanish Empire. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California in 1602 for New Spain. The Russian River downstream of Duncans Mills The Russian River rises in the coastal mountains of Mendocino County, north of Ukiah, in Northern California. ... The Cabrillo National Monument in San Diego, CA João Rodrigues Cabrilho, (ca 1499 – January 3, 1543) was a Portuguese explorer noted for his exploration of the west coast of North America while sailing for Spain. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... A painting of a Spanish galleon. ... Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624) was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, Alta California, and Japan. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ...


Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions along the coast of what became known as Alta California (Upper California), together with small towns and presidios. In 1821 the Mexican War of Independence gave Mexico (including California) independence from Spain; for the next 25 years, Alta California remained a remote northern province of the nation of Mexico. Cattle ranches, or ranchos, emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. After Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and were secularized by 1832. The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians) who had received land grants, and traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Postcard of the reconstructed Mission Santa Bárbara The California missions are a series of settlements established by Spanish Catholic Franciscans, to Christianize the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier land. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... The Spanish Missions of California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans, to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier... Secularization is a process of transformation as a state slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... A Californio was a Spanish-speaking inhabitant of Alta California who lived there when it was a part of Mexico, before it was taken by the United States after the Mexican-American War. ... Boston redirects here. ...


Beginning in the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the U.S. and Canada began to arrive in Northern California, harbingers of the great changes that would later sweep the Mexican territory. These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts surrounding California. In this period, Imperial Russia explored the California coast and established a trading post at Fort Ross. The Siskiyou Trail stretched from Californias Central Valley to Oregons Willamette Valley; modern-day Interstate 5 follows this pioneer path. ... Main route of California Trail (thick red line), including Applegate-Lassen and Beckwourth variations (thinner red lines) The California Trail was a major overland emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th century. ... For other uses, see Oregon Trail (disambiguation). ... The Old Spanish Trail is a historic trade route which connected the northern New Mexican settlement of Santa Fé with that of Los Ángeles in California. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Fort Ross is a former Russian fur trade outpost in what is now Sonoma County, California (United States). ...

The Bear Flag of the Republic of California.

In 1846 settlers rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt. Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma. The modern Bear Flag of California The flag of California was first flown during the Bear Flag Revolt and was adopted by the California state legislature in 1911. ... The first Bear Flag. ... The modern Bear Flag of California The flag of California was first flown during the Bear Flag Revolt and was adopted by the California state legislature in 1911. ...

[We] overthrow a Government which has seized upon the property of the Missions for its individual aggrandizement; which has ruined and shamefully oppressed the laboring people of California.

—William Ide, Declaration from the Bear Flag Revolt For other uses, see Greed (disambiguation). ...

The Republic's first and only president was William B. Ide,[15] who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. His term lasted 22 days and concluded when California was occupied by U.S. forces during the Mexican-American War. William Brown Ide (March 28, 1796 - December 1852) was a California pioneer and president of the short-lived California Republic. ... The first Bear Flag. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


The California Republic was short lived. The same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican-American War (1846–1848). When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States. Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the U.S. forces. After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, including The Siege of Los Angeles, the Battle of Dominguez Rancho, the Battle of San Pasqual, the Battle of Rio San Gabriel and the Battle of La Mesa, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California. Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the war, the region was divided between Mexico and the U.S.; the western territory of Alta California, was to become the U.S. state of California, and Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah became U.S. Territories, while the lower region of California, Baja California, remained in the possession of Mexico. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Commodore John D. Sloat John Drake Sloat (July 6, 1781 – November 28, 1867) was a commodore in the United States Navy and, in 1846, claimed California for the United States. ... USN redirects here. ... A view of Monterey Bay Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean, on the coast of California, south of San Francisco. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... The Terra Cotta relief on the current Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial Fort Moore was a historic fort in Los Angeles, California, during the Mexican-American War. ... Well, Mexican-American, was a very long war; it lasted for two whole years. ... Combatants United States of America Mexico Californios Commanders Stephen Watts Kearny Andrés Pico Strength 139 150 Casualties 17 killed 18 wounded 1 missing 2 killed 18 wounded The Battle of San Pasqual (also spelled San Pascual) was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican-American War in what... Combatants United States of America Californios, Mexico Commanders Robert F. Stockton Stephen Watts Kearny José Mariá Flores Strength U.S. naval and army forces 600 sailors, marines and dragoons Californios 160 Militia soldiers Casualties 143 80 The Battle of Rio San Gabriel was a decisive action of the California campaign... The Battle of La Mesa occurred on January 9, 1847 in present-day Vernon, in which the outgunned and outnumbered Californios (The Americans having rifles, the Californios fighting on horseback with only lances)almost gained the advantage, but they fell back and camped at present-day Pasadena, giving up Los... The Treaty of Cahuenga ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in California. ... A Californio was a Spanish-speaking inhabitant of Alta California who lived there when it was a part of Mexico, before it was taken by the United States after the Mexican-American War. ... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Baja California Country Capital Municipalities 5 Largest City Tijuana Government  - Governor José Guadalupe Osuna Millán (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 8  - Federal Senators Alejandro González (PAN) Rafael Díaz (PAN) Fernando Castro (PRI) Area Ranked 12th  - Total 69,921 km² (26,996. ...


In 1848 the non-native population of California was estimated to be no more than 15,000. But after gold was discovered, the population burgeoned with U.S. citizens, Europeans and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California was admitted to the United States as a free state (one in which slavery was prohibited). The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ... The free and slave states as of 1861, with free states in blue and slave states in red. ...


The seat of government for California under Mexican rule was located at Monterey from 1777 until 1835, when Mexican authorities abandoned California, leaving their missions and military forts behind.[16][verification needed] In 1849 the Constitutional Convention was first held there. Among the duties was the task of determining the location for the new state capital. The first legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851). Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. The capital has been located in Sacramento since 1854[17] with only a short break in 1861 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento. For other uses, see Monterey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... Vallejo (pronounced or in English; in the original Spanish) is a city in Solano County, California, United States. ... Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, California, United States. ... Sacramento redirects here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Travel between California and the central and eastern parts of the U.S. was time consuming and dangerous. A more direct connection came in 1869 with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad through Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada mountains. After this rail link was established, hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens came west, where new Californians were discovering that land in the state, if irrigated during the dry summer months, was extremely well-suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere. This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... Donner Pass (el. ...


During the early-20th century, migration to California accelerated with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. In the period from 1900 to 1965 the population grew from fewer than one million to become the most populous state in the Union. The state is regarded as a world center of technology and engineering businesses, of the entertainment and music industries, and as the U.S. center of agricultural production. For the Australian highway, see Lincoln Highway (Australia). ...

Demographics

Population

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1850 92,597
1860 379,994 310.4%
1870 560,247 47.4%
1880 864,694 54.3%
1890 1,213,398 40.3%
1900 1,485,053 22.4%
1910 2,377,549 60.1%
1920 3,426,861 44.1%
1930 5,677,251 65.7%
1940 6,907,387 21.7%
1950 10,586,223 53.3%
1960 15,717,204 48.5%
1970 19,953,134 27.0%
1980 23,667,902 18.6%
1990 29,760,021 25.7%
2000 33,871,648 13.8%
Est. 2009[2] 36,961,664 9.1%
California Population Density Map

California's population is estimated by the US Census Bureau at 36,961,664 for the year 2009, making it the most populous state.[2] This includes a natural increase of 3,090,016 since the last census (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths).[18] During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people.[18] The state of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009.[5] California Population Density Map The Demographics of California is a complex topic, which is undergoing dynamic change. ... Filled-out census-takers form from 1850 US Census, including household of Abraham Lincoln The United States Census of 1850 was the seventh census of the United States. ... 1860 US Census The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. ... The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880. ... 1890 Census form The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 2, 1890. ... The twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on 1 June 1900,1 determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21. ... The Fourteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15. ... The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from , 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 150,520,798, an increase of 14. ... The Eighteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 179,323,175, an increase of 18. ... The Nineteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 203,302,031, an increase of 13. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... (Redirected from 2000 United States census) The United States 2000 census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ...


California is the second-most-populous sub-national entity of the Western Hemisphere, exceeded only by São Paulo, Brazil.[19][improper synthesis?][unreliable source?] California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world.[20][21] Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous U.S. county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 U.S. states.[22][23] The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow, Kern County.[note 2] The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Motto Pro Brasilia Fiant Eximia (Latin) For Brazil Great Things Are Done Anthem Bandeirantes Anthem Capital (and largest city) São Paulo Demonym Paulista Government  -  Governor José Serra  -  Vice Governor Alberto Goldman Area  -  Total 248. ... Map of California showing Los Angeles County. ... Center of population is a subject of study in the field of demographics. ... Buttonwillow is a census-designated place located in Kern County, California. ... Kern County is a county located in the southern Central Valley of the U.S. state of California. ...

Cities

California is home to eight of the 50 most populous cities in the United States.[citation needed] Ten most populous cities in the United States Los Angeles San Jose San Diego Phoenix Chicago New York City Houston San Antonio Dallas Philadelphia The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places in the United States. ...

Racial and ancestral makeup

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, California's population is:[25] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

With regard to demographics, California has the largest population of White Americans in the U.S., an estimated 22,189,514 residents, although most demographic surveys do not measure actual genetic ancestry. The state has the fifth-largest population of African Americans in the U.S., an estimated 2,250,630 residents. California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4 million, approximately one-third of the nation's 13.1 million Asian Americans. California's Native American population of 285,162 is the most of any state.[26] The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ...


According to estimates from 2008, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 57 percent of the state population.[25] Non-Hispanic whites decreased from 80% of the state's population in 1970 to 42% in 2008.[27][25] While the population of minorities account for 102 million of 301 million U.S. residents, 20% of the national total live in California.[26][28] US states and districts in which non-Hispanic whites are a plurality/minority. ...

Armed forces

As of 2002, the US Department of Defense had [29][unreliable source?] The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...

As of 2000 there were 2,569,340 veterans of US military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean conflict, 754,682 during the Vietnam era, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War).[29] The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ...


California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps. It has been suggested that National Guard Bureau be merged into this article or section. ... The California State Military Reserve is the state defense force of California . ... The California Cadet Corps was originally called the California High School Cadets, created by an act of legislature on April 5, 1911. ...

Languages

As of 2005, 57.59% of California residents age five and older spoke English as a first language at home, while 28.21% spoke Spanish. In addition to English and Spanish, 2.04% spoke Filipino, 1.59% spoke Chinese (which included Cantonese [0.63%] and Mandarin [0.43%]), 1.4% spoke Vietnamese, and 1.05% spoke Korean as their mother tongue. In total, 42.4% of the population spoke languages other than English.[30][31] California is viewed as one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world (the indigenous languages were derived from 64 root languages in 6 language families).[32][33] About half of the indigenous languages are no longer spoken, and all of California's living indigenous languages are endangered and there are some efforts toward language revitalization.[which?] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or learned at home. ...


The official language of California has been English since the passage of Proposition 63 in 1986.[34] However, many state, city, and local government agencies still continue to print official public documents in numerous languages.[35][verification needed] An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...

Culture

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and East Asia. California is a true melting pot as well as an international crossroad to the U.S.[36] The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its roots in the culture of the United States. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... For the Hispanic population of the United States, see Hispanic and Latino Americans. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th Century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as the Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers. The Beach Boys, originally the Beech Boys, a small team of four brothers from the south of Poland, emigrated to America in the early 1950s in search of a fortune to be made in the Arizonian logging industry. When it soon became evident they had been the victims of...


In terms of socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. In some ways, California is the quintessential Blue State-- accepting of alternative lifestyles, not uniformly religious, and preoccupied with environmental issues. American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ... ...


The gold rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ...

Religion

Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph in San Jose

The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 10,079,310; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 529,575; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 471,119. Jewish congregations had 994,000 adherents.[37] For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based Christian denomination that consists of numerous agencies including six seminaries, two mission boards and a variety of other organizations such as: the Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention, which can act for the SBC ad interim between annual meetings... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


There are about 1 million Muslims, which has the largest population than any other state, mainly of African American descent and immigrant populations.[38][improper synthesis?] The Federal Bureau of Investigation estimates that approximately 100,000 Muslims reside in San Diego.[39] F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin...


As the twentieth century came to a close, forty percent of all Buddhists in America resided in Southern California. The Los Angeles Metropolitan Area has become unique in the Buddhist world as the only place where representative organizations of every major school of Buddhism can be found in a single urban center.[40][verification needed] The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Northern California and Hsi Lai Temple in Southern California are two of the largest Buddhist temples in the Western Hemisphere. Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... The Greater Los Angeles Area is the suburban area around the city of Los Angeles, California. ... The mountain gate to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... The Path To Buddhahood, linking both the Bodhisattva hall and the Main Shrine. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ...


California has more members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Temples than any state except Utah.[41] Latter-day Saints (Mormons) have played important roles in the settlement of California throughout the state's history. For example, a group of a few hundred Mormon converts from the Northeastern United States and Europe arrived at what would become San Francisco in the 1840s aboard the ship Brooklyn, more than doubling the population of the small town. Before being called back to Utah by Brigham Young these settlers helped build up the city of Yerba Buena. A group of Mormons also established the city of San Bernardino in Southern California in 1851.[42] According to the LDS Church 2007 statistics, just over 750,000 Mormons reside in the state of California, attending almost 1400 congregations statewide.[42] Temples of the LDS Church The Nauvoo Temple: built in 1846, destroyed soon after, and rebuilt in 2002 Temple in Salt Lake City on Temple Square circa 1897 The Arizona Temple, one of three patterned after the Temple of Solomon The Columbus Ohio Temple, an example of smaller temples built... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and should not to be confused with the different, though similar term Latter Day Saint. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... San Bernardino may refer to: Guatemala San Bernardino, Suchitepéquez Italy San Bernardo alle Terme Paraguay San Bernardino, Paraguay San Bernardino District Philippines San Bernardino Strait Switzerland San Bernardino, Graubünden San Bernardino (road tunnel) San Bernardino Pass United States San Bernardino, California San Bernardino County, California San Bernardino Valley...


However, a Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the US: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of the belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important," compared to 56 percent nationally.[43] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Economy

Were California an independent country, its gross domestic product would be ranked between seventh and tenth in the world[44][45][46]

As of 2007, the gross state product (GSP) is about $1.812 trillion, the largest in the United States. California is responsible for 13 percent of the United States gross domestic product (GDP). As of 2006, California's GDP is larger than all but eight countries in the world (all but eleven countries by Purchasing Power Parity). However, California is facing a $26.3 billion budget deficit for the 2009–2010 budget year.[47] While the legislative bodies had appeared to address the problem in 2008 with the three-month delayed passage of a budget they in fact only postponed the deficit to 2009 and due to the late 2008 decline in the economy and the credit crisis the problem became urgent in November 2008. One problem is that a substantial portion of the state income comes from income taxes on a small proportion of wealthy citizens. For example, in 2004, the richest 3% of state taxpayers paid approximately 60% of all state taxes.[48] The taxable income of this population is highly dependent upon capital gains, which has been severely impacted by the stock market declines of this period. The governor has proposed a combination of extensive program cuts and tax increases to address this problem, but owing to longstanding problems in the legislature these proposals are likely to be difficult to pass as legislation. The economy of California is a dominant force in the economy of the United States, with California paying more to the federal system than it receives in direct monetary benefits. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Gross state product is a measurment of the economic output of a U.S. state or an Australian state. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... GDP redirects here. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... This article is about budget deficits. ... The financial crisis of 2007–present is a financial crisis triggered by a liquidity shortfall in the United States banking system. ...


State spending increased from $56 billion in 1998 to $131 billion in 2008, and the state was facing a budget deficit of $40 billion in 2008.[49] California is facing another budget gap for 2010,[50] with $72 billion in debt.[51] California's unemployment rate exceeds 12%.[52]

Gross Domestic Product of California by sector for 2008[53]

In terms of jobs, the five largest sectors in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In terms of output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.


California currently has the 5th highest unemployment rate in the nation at 12.5% as of January 2010 and continues to rise, up significantly from 5.9% in 2007.[54][55]


California's economy is very dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for approximately one-quarter of the state’s economy. In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006.[56] Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.[56]


Agriculture remains a very important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales have more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004.[57][dated info] This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.[57]


Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation.[58] Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. Recently, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the U.S., on par with the region of Appalachia.[59] Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the U.S. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust. California is the thirteenth-richest state in the United States of America, with a per capita income of $22,711 (2000) and a personal per capita income of $33,749 (2003). ... Migrant farm worker, New York A migrant worker is someone who regularly works away from home, if they even have a home. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... The Central Valley of California The San Joaquin Valley (English pronunciation in IPA: [sæn wɑˈkin]) refers to the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in Stockton. ... Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter. ... For the Nintendo 64 game, see Space Station Silicon Valley. ... Santa Clara County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... San Mateo County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ...


California levies a 9.3 percent maximum variable rate income tax, with six tax brackets. It collects about $40 billion per year in income taxes. California has a state sales tax of 8.25%, which can total up to 10.75% with local sales tax included[60]. All real property is taxable annually, the tax based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase. This tax does not increase based on a rise in real property values (see Proposition 13). Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Tax brackets are the divisions at which tax rates change in a progressive tax system (or an explicitly regressive tax system, although this is much rarer). ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        A sales tax is a tax on consumption and is normally a certain percentage that is added onto the price of goods or services that are purchased. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Proposition 13, officially titled the Peoples Initiative to Limit Property Taxation, was a ballot initiative to amend the constitution of the state of California. ...


In 2009 the California economic crisis became severe as the state faced insolvency.[61][dated info] In June 2009 Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger said "Our wallet is empty, our bank is closed and our credit is dried up."[62] He called for massive budget cuts of $24 billion, about 14 of the state's budget.[62] Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ...

Energy

Due to its mild weather and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any U.S. state.[63] California, as the most populous U.S. state and home of Silicon Valley, is one of the countrys largest users of energy. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1984, the Davis City Council declared the city to be a nuclear free zone. California has banned the approval of new nuclear reactors since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.[64][note 3]

Transportation

The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, one of California's most famous landmarks

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of freeways, expressways, and highways. California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and a recurring issue in California politics is whether the state should continue to aggressively expand its freeway network or concentrate on improving mass transit networks in urban areas. Californias most famous bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge Californias transportation system is dynamic and usually functional, however, in a state with over 30 million people, rapid population expansion, and often difficult terrain and weather, that system is under pressure to stay ahead of population growth and transportation needs. ... The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... Over the course of the 20th century, the automobile rapidly developed from an expensive technological wonder into the de facto standard for passanger transport. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Caltrans logo The soaring ramps in the stack interchanges favored by Caltrans often provide stunning views. ...


One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge was completed in 1937. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. It is simultaneously designated as U.S. Route 101 which is part of the El Camino Real (Spanish for Royal Road or King's Highway), and State Route 1 which is also known as the Pacific Coast Highway. Another of the seven bridges in the San Francisco Bay Area is the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge, completed in 1936. This bridge transports approximately 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks, with its two sections meeting at Yerba Buena Island. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. ... U.S. Route 101, also known as Highway 101, The 101 in Southern California, and simply 101 in Northern California, is one of the last remaining and longest U.S. Routes still active in California. ... A map produced in 1920 illustrating the route of El Camino Real in 1821, along with the 21 Alta California Franciscan missions. ... State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along a large length of the Pacific coast of the U.S. State of California. ... Scene from highway 1 (Near Half Moon Bay) State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along a large length of the Pacific coast of the U.S. State of California. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... Aerial photo of Treasure Island (top) and Yerba Buena Island (bottom). ...


Los Angeles International Airport and San Francisco International Airport are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state. LAX and KLAX redirect here. ... For the television series, see San Francisco International Airport (TV series). ... A general aviation scene at Kemble Airfield, England. ...


California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, handles trade from the Pacific Rim and delivers most of the ocean containers passing through Northern California to the entire USA. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... General Information Founded December 9, 1907 Coordinates  - Latitude  - Longitude 33º4239 N 118º1459 W Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 7500 acres 4200 acres 3300 acres Available Berths 270 Vessel Arrivals 2,813 (FY 2004) Annual container volume 7. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Bob Foster Area  - City  65. ... The Port of Oakland was the first major port on the Pacific Coast of the United States to build terminals for container ships. ...

Caltrans builds tall "stack" interchanges with soaring ramps that offer impressive views

Intercity rail travel is provided by Amtrak California, which manages the three busiest intercity rail lines in the US outside the Northeast Corridor. Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster). The California High Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 700 mile (1127 km) rail system. Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, a $9.95 billion state bond will go toward its construction. Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound and Amtrak Thruway Coach. Caltrans logo The soaring ramps in the stack interchanges favored by Caltrans often provide stunning views. ... High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... Amtrak California is a brand name used by Caltrans Division of Rail on all state supported and Amtrak operated rail routes within the State of California. ... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Light rail is a particular class of urban and suburban passenger railway that utilizes equipment and infrastructure that is typically less massive than that used for metro systems and heavy railways. ... A picture taken of a Gold Line train in the Los Angeles suburb of Pasadena, California The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, commonly referred to as LACMTA, MTA, or Metro, is the agency charged to provide public transportation to the county of Los Angeles. ... The San Francisco Municipal Railway, or Muni as it is commonly known, is the public transit system for the city and county of San Francisco, California. ... The San Diego Trolley is a trolley-style light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego, California. ... The Sacramento Regional Transit District, commonly referred to as the RT, is the agency responsible for public transportation in the Sacramento, California area. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... The Altamont Commuter Express leaving Pleasanton station. ... A westbound BART train with aerodynamic design A car in downtown San Francisco. ... Caltrain is a commuter rail line on the San Francisco Peninsula and the Santa Clara Valley in the United States. ... Metrolink (AAR reporting marks SCAX) is a Regional rail system that serves the Southern California region. ... Interstate 5 Oceanside Carlsbad Village Carlsbad Poinsettia Encinitas Solana Beach Del Mar Sorrento Valley Interstates 5 and 805 I-805, State Route 52 Interstate 8 Old Town San Diego Interstate 5 Downtown San Diego      Coaster route map (with other commuter lines included) Coaster F40PH-2C #2103 at Encinitas station. ... California High Speed Rail is a proposed high speed rail system in the state of California. ... Autobus redirects here. ... This article is about the US bus line. ...

Government and politics

State government

Capitol Building in Sacramento

California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government: the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. The state also allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. California allows each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. The state's capital is Sacramento. California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government, the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California and the other elected constitutional officers, the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate, and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. ... Sacramento is a Spanish- and Portuguese-language word meaning sacrament; it is a common toponym in parts of the world where those tongues were or are spoken. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ... The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa May 2005). ... initiative, see Initiative (disambiguation). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction or approval to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... A closed primary is a type of direct primary limited to registered party members, who must declare their party affiliation in order to vote. ... In politics, an independent is a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. ... Sacramento redirects here. ...


The Governor of California and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Californias Capitol, where the State Legislature meets California State Assembly chamber California state Senate chamber The California Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of California. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... This article is about constitutional law; for the book by Vince Flynn see Term Limits (novel). ...


In the 2007–2008 session, there were 48 Democrats and 32 Republicans in the Assembly. In the Senate, there are 25 Democrats and 15 Republicans. The governor is Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ...


California's legal system is explicitly based on English common law[66] (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Texas is far more active in carrying out executions). California's "Death Row" is in San Quentin State Prison situated north of San Francisco in Marin County. Executions in California are currently on hold indefinitely as human rights issues are addressed.[67] The number of inmates in California prisons has soared from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007.[68] This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Executions in California are carried out at the San Quentin State Prison. ... For information about the Record company see Death Row Records For information about the computer game see Deathrow (game) Death Row is a term that refers to the section of a prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The sprawling San Quentin prison complex. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


California's judiciary is the largest in the United States (with a total of 1,600 judges, while the federal system has only about 840). It is supervised by the seven Justices of the Supreme Court of California. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa May 2005). ...

Federal politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 36.91% 5,011,781 60.94% 8,274,473
2004 44.36% 5,509,826 54.40% 6,745,485
2000 41.65% 4,567,429 53.45% 5,861,203
1996 38.21% 3,828,380 51.10% 5,119,835
1992 32.61% 3,630,574 46.01% 5,121,325
1988 51.13% 5,054,917 47.56% 4,702,233
1984 57.51% 5,467,009 41.27% 3,922,519
1980 52.69% 4,524,858 35.91% 3,083,661
1976 49.35% 3,882,244 47.57% 3,742,284
1972 55.01% 4,602,096 41.54% 3,475,847
1968 47.82% 3,467,664 44.74% 3,244,318
1964 40.79% 2,879,108 59.11% 4,171,877
1960 50.10% 3,259,722 49.55% 3,224,099

California has an idiosyncratic political culture. It was the second state to legalize abortion and the second state to legalize marriage for gay couples (by judicial review, which was later revoked by the ballot initiative, Proposition 8). The recent and current politics of the U.S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests. ... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... Presidential electoral votes. ... The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George Bush; Democrat Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas; and independent candidate Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. ... The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Matrimony redirects here. ...


Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Governor Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered "Moderate Republicans" and more centrist than the national party. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (IPA: ) (born on July 30, 1947) is an Austrian American bodybuilder, actor and Republican politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ...


Democratic strength is centered in coastal regions of Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area. The Democrats also hold a majority in Sacramento. Republican strength is greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County also remains mostly Republican. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Counties commonly seen as constituting coastal California. ... Map of California showing Los Angeles County. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... GOP redirects here. ... -1...


California politics has trended towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party. The trend is most obvious in presidential elections. Additionally, the Democrats have easily won every U.S. Senate race since 1992 and have maintained consistent majorities in both houses of the state legislature. In the U.S. House, the Democrats hold a 34–19 edge for the 110th United States Congress. The U.S senators are Dianne Feinstein (D), a native of San Francisco, and Barbara Boxer (D). The districts in California are usually dominated by one or the other party with very few districts that could be considered competitive. Once very conservative having elected Republicans, California is now a reliable Democratic state. According to political analysts, California should soon gain three more seats, for a total of 58 electoral votes – the most electoral votes in the nation.[69] The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (IPA: ) (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U.S. Senator from California, having held office as a senator since 1992. ... Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... This article is about the political process. ...

Cities, towns and counties

For lists of cities, towns, and counties in California, see List of counties in California, List of cities in California (by population), List of cities in California, List of urbanized areas in California (by population), and California locations by per capita income.

The state's local government is divided into 58 counties and 480 incorporated cities and towns; of which 458 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".[70] The U.S. state of California is divided into 58 counties. ... The following is list showing the 100 largest incorporated cities in the state of California ranked by population, based on California Department of Finance estimates for January 1, 2007. ... There are 478 incorporated cities in California, 22 of which are styled Town of (Name) instead of City of (Name). ... A list of urbanized areas in California (sorted into groups by population) is below. ... California is the thirteenth-richest state in the United States of America, with a per capita income of $22,711 (2000) and a personal per capita income of $33,749 (2003). ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state. ... The U.S. state of California is divided into 58 counties. ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ...


Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850.[71] San Jose, San Diego and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850.[72][73][74] Menifee became the state's most recent and 480th incorporated municipality on October 1, 2008.[75] Sacramento redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... San Diego redirects here. ... Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, California, United States. ... Menifee is an unincorporated area of Riverside County, California, United States. ...


The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas. Sixty-eight percent of California's population lives in its three largest metropolitan areas, Greater Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area, and the Riverside-San Bernardino Area (Inland Empire). Although smaller, the other two large population centers are the San Diego and the Sacramento metro areas. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Walt Disney Concert Hall, Frank Gehry, architect The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and Orange Counties) is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the county of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... This article is about the region in California. ... Location of the Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area in California The Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville, California Metropolitan Statistical Area, also known as the Sacramento metropolitan area or Greater Sacramento, is an area consisting of four counties in Californias Central Valley, and El Dorado foothills, anchored by the...


The state recognizes two kinds of cities: charter and general law.[70] General law cities owe their existence to state law and are consequentially governed by it; charter cities are governed by their own city charters. Cities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter cities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Incorporated town. ...

Education

Torrance High School is one of the oldest high schools in continuous use in California and a popular location for television and motion picture production.

Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K-12 and community colleges which grows with the economy and student enrollment figures.[76] Torrance High School, the oldest of four high schools in the Torrance Unified School District in Torrance, California, is one of the oldest high schools in continuous use in California and a popular location for television and motion picture production. ... The California education system consists of a full range of public and private schools in California, from the University of California system, to well-known private colleges, to an extensive network of secondary and primary education schools. ... This is a list of colleges and universities in California. ... As part of education in the United States, secondary education usually covers grades 5, 6, or 7 through twelve. ... Not to be confused with Secondary school. ... California Proposition 98 requires a minimum percentage of the state budget to be spent on K-14 education (K-12 schools and community colleges) in California. ... A community college is a type of educational institution. ...


California had over 6.2 million school students in the 2005–06 school year. Funding and staffing levels in California schools lag behind other states. In expenditure per pupil, California ranked 29th of the 51 states (including the District of Columbia) in 2005–06. In teaching staff expenditure per pupil, California ranked 49th of 51. In overall teacher-pupil ratio, California was also 49th, with 21 students per teacher. Only Arizona and Utah were lower.[77] For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


California's public postsecondary education offers a unique three tiered system: Post-secondary education is a form of secondary education that is taken after first attending a secondary school, such as a high school. ...

  • The research university system in the state is the University of California (UC), a public university system. There are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system.
  • The California State University (CSU) system has almost 450,000 students, making it the largest university system in the United States. It is intended to accept the top one-third of high school students. The 23 CSU schools are primarily intended for undergraduate education.[78]
  • The California Community Colleges system provides lower division coursework as well as basic skills and workforce training. It is the largest network of higher education in the US, composed of 110 colleges serving a student population of over 2.9 million.[79]

California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California (USC), the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and the Claremont Colleges (including Harvey Mudd College and Pomona College). California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The California State University (CSU) is one of three public higher education systems in the state of California, the other two being the University of California system and the California Community College System. ... Administered by The Chancellor’s Office located in Sacramento, the California Community Colleges system consists of 109 community colleges and 72 community college districts in California. ... Stanford redirects here. ... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... The Claremont Colleges are a consortium of five undergraduate and two graduate schools of higher education located in Claremont, California. ... Harvey Mudd College is a highly selective, private college of science, engineering, and mathematics, located in Claremont, California. ... Pomona College is a private residential liberal arts college located 33 miles (53 km) east of downtown Los Angeles in Claremont, California. ...

Sports

Previously the California Angels, the Los Angeles Angels play in Anaheim.

California hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics at Squaw Valley Ski Resort, the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, as well as the 1994 FIFA World Cup. For the Pacific Coast League franchise see: Los Angeles Angels (PCL). ... The term Los Angeles Angels refers to two professional baseball teams: 1. ... For a list of professional sports teams in California, see List of professional sports teams in California. ... See also Sports in California. ... Sign outside Olympic Village at Squaw Valley The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, United States (located in the Lake Tahoe basin). ... Lake Tahoe from Squaw Valley. ... The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, were held in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. ...  Music sample: Olympic Fanfare and Theme composed by John Williams for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, were celebrated in 1984 in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The 1994 Football World Cup held in the USA was won by Brazil who beat Italy 3-2 on penalty kicks after the game and extra time ended 0-0. ...


California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has seven major league teams spread in three cities, San Francisco, Oakland and San Jose. While the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises, it is also the largest metropolitan area not to have a team from the National Football League. San Diego has two major league teams, and Sacramento also has two. The term major professional sports league is used to describe the most important and well regarded leagues in the biggest professional sports in a country or region. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Oakland is the name of several places in the United States of America: Oakland, Alabama Oakland, California (The best-known city with this name) Oakland, Florida Oakland, Maine Oakland, Maryland Oakland, Michigan Oakland, Missouri Oakland, Nebraska Oakland, New Jersey Oakland, Oklahoma Oakland, Oregon Oakland, Pennsylvania Oakland, Rhode Island Oakland, Tennessee... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... Walt Disney Concert Hall, Frank Gehry, architect The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and Orange Counties) is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the county of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... NFL redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... Sacramento is a Spanish- and Portuguese-language word meaning sacrament; it is a common toponym in parts of the world where those tongues were or are spoken. ...


Home to some of the most prominent universities in the United States, California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others. The Rose Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Years Day) at the stadium of the same name in Pasadena, California. ...


Below is a list of major sports teams in California:

Club Sport League
Oakland Raiders American football National Football League
San Diego Chargers American football National Football League
San Francisco 49ers American football National Football League
Los Angeles Dodgers Baseball Major League Baseball
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim Baseball Major League Baseball
Oakland Athletics Baseball Major League Baseball
San Diego Padres Baseball Major League Baseball
San Francisco Giants Baseball Major League Baseball
Golden State Warriors Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Clippers Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Lakers Basketball National Basketball Association
Sacramento Kings Basketball National Basketball Association
Anaheim Ducks Ice hockey National Hockey League
Los Angeles Kings Ice hockey National Hockey League
San Jose Sharks Ice hockey National Hockey League
Chivas USA Soccer Major League Soccer
Los Angeles Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer
San Jose Earthquakes Soccer Major League Soccer
Los Angeles Sparks Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
Stockton Cougars Soccer Professional Arena Soccer League

Landmarks

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Florida, Dry Tortugas, Cape Canaveral, and Appalachian appeared earlier,....From Spanish historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas's accounts, published in 1601.[11][verification needed]
  2. ^ The coordinates of the center of population are at 35°27′31″N 119°21′19″W / 35.458606°N 119.355165°W / 35.458606; -119.355165.[24]
  3. ^ Minnesota also has a moratorium on construction of nuclear power plants, which has been in place since 1994.[65]

References

  1. ^ a b "Government Code Section 420-429.8". State of California Legislative Council. http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=gov&group=00001-01000&file=420-429.8. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 22, 2009. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  4. ^ "Extreme and Mean Elevations by State and Other Areas" (PDF). United States Census. 2004. http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/04statab/geo.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  5. ^ a b "E-4 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State, 2001–2009, with 2000 Benchmark.". Sacramento, California: State of California, Department of Finance. May 2009. http://www.dof.ca.gov/research/demographic/reports/estimates/e-4/2001-09/. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  6. ^ Laaksonen-Craig, Susanna; Goldman, George; McKillop, William (2003) (PDF). Forestry, Forest Products, and Forest Products Consumption in California. Davis, California: University of California – Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-60107-248-1. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8070.pdf. 
  7. ^ a b Gudde, Erwin G. and William Bright. 2004. California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. P.59-60
  8. ^ Lavender, David (1987). California: Land of New Beginnings. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 27. ISBN 0803279248. OCLC 15315566. 
  9. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=california&searchmode=none
  10. ^ Person-Lynn, 2004.
  11. ^ Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. pp. 11–17. 
  12. ^ "2000 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). US Census Bureau. April 2004. p. 29. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/phc3-us-pt1.pdf. Retrieved December 25, 2009. 
  13. ^ Alice Friedemann. "Lessons for California and the U.S. from movie "How Cuba survived Peak Oil"". Culture Change. http://www.culturechange.org/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=56&Itemid=32. Retrieved June 30, 2007. 
  14. ^ David Elstein (May 2004). "Restoring California's Native Grasses". Agricultural Research magazine 52 (5): 17. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may04/grass0504.htm. Retrieved December 25, 2009. 
  15. ^ "William B. Ide Adobe SHP". California State Parks. http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=458. Retrieved December 25, 2009. 
  16. ^ Gilliam, Albert (1846). Travels Over the Table Lands and Cordilleras of Mexico: During the Years. Philadelphia: John Moore. 
  17. ^ Wilson, Dotson; Ebbert, Brian S. (2006) (PDF). California's Legislature (2006 ed.). Sacramento: California State Assembly. OCLC 70700867. http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pdf/caleg11.pdf. 
  18. ^ a b "Table 4. Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Resident Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). US Census Bureau. December 22, 2009. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-04.csv. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  19. ^ "The world's largest cities". www.citymayors.com. http://www.citymayors.com/features/largest_cities1.html. Retrieved July 10, 2008. 
  20. ^ "International Database – County Rankings". US Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/idb/ranks.html. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Table A.1. Total Population by Sex in 2009 and Sex Ratio by Country in 2009" (PDF). World Population Prospects: The 2008 Edition, Highlights. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2009. pp. 31–35. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/pdf/WPP2008_Highlights.pdf. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  22. ^ "About Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services". Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services. December 2005. https://dpss.lacounty.gov/dpss/about_dpss/dpss_overview.cfm. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  23. ^ Barrett, Beth (September 19, 2003). "Baby Slump In L.A. County". Los Angeles Daily News (Los Angeles Newspaper Group): pp. N4. http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/7215/baby_slump_in_la_county/index.html. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000" (TXT). United States Census 2000. US Census Bureau Geography Division. May 20, 2002. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  25. ^ a b c "California QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau:". US Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06000.html. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  26. ^ a b "California – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006–2008". American Fact Finder. US Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US06&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-_sse=on. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Whites Now A Minority In California". CBC News. March 30, 2001.
  28. ^ "United States – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006–2008". American Fact Finder. US Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  29. ^ a b "California – Armed forces". city-data.com. Advameg, Inc.. http://www.city-data.com/states/California-Armed-forces.html. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Most spoken languages in California in 2005". Modern Language Association. http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=6&county_id=&mode=state_tops&zip=&place_id=&cty_id=&ll=&a=&ea=&order=r. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Table 5. Detailed List of Languages Spoken at Home for the Population 5 Years and Over by State: 2000" (PDF). Census 2000. US Census Bureau. February 27, 2003. http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/phc-t20/tab05.pdf. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  32. ^ Coyote Press. Native Tribes, Groups, Language Families and Dialects of California in 1770 [map], 1966 edition. Retrieved on December 27, 2009.
  33. ^ California State Parks. California Indians Root Languages and Tribal Groups [map], 1994 edition. Retrieved on December 27, 2009.
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Further reading

External links

Find more about California on Wikipedia's sister projects: League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–1969) Western Division (1960–1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970–present) AFC West (1970–present) Current uniform Team colors Silver and Black Personnel Owner Al Davis General Manager Al Davis Head Coach Lane Kiffin Team history Oakland Raiders (1960... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... NFL redirects here. ... Chargers redirects here. ... City San Francisco, California Other nicknames Niners, The Red And Gold, Bay Bombers Team colors Cardinal red, metallic gold and black Head Coach Mike Nolan Owner Denise DeBartolo York and John York General manager Lal Heneghan Mascot Sourdough Sam League/Conference affiliations All-America Football Conference (1946-1949) Western Division... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 2, 4, 19, 20, 24, 32, 39, 42, 53 Name Los Angeles Dodgers (1958–present) Brooklyn Dodgers (1932-1957) Brooklyn Robins (1914-1931) Brooklyn Dodgers (1913) Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers (1911-1912) Brooklyn Superbas (1899... This article is about the sport. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Major league affiliations American League (1961–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 11, 26, 29, 30, 42, 50 Name Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim (2005–present) Anaheim Angels (1997-2004) California Angels (1965-1996) Los Angeles Angels (1961-1965) Other nicknames The Halos, The Wings, The Seraphs... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 9, 27, 34, 42, 43, (As) Name Oakland Athletics (1968–present) Kansas City Athletics (1955-1967) Philadelphia Athletics (1901-1954) (Referred to as As) Other nicknames The As, The White Elephants, The... Major league affiliations National League (1969–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 6, 19, 31, 35, 42 Name San Diego Padres (1969–present) Other nicknames The Pads, The Friars, The Fathers, The Dads Ballpark PETCO Park (2004–present) Qualcomm Stadium (1969-2003) a. ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers NY, NY, 3, 4, 11, 24, 27, 30, 36, 42, 44 Name San Francisco Giants (1958–present) New York Giants (1885–1957) New York Gothams (1883–85) Other nicknames The Jints, The Gigantes, The G... The Golden State Warriors are a professional basketball team based in Oakland, California. ... This article is about the sport. ... NBA redirects here. ... Clippers redirects here. ... The Los Angeles Lakers are a National Basketball Association (NBA) team based in Los Angeles, California. ... The Sacramento Kings are a professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California. ... The Anaheim Ducks are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Anaheim, California, USA. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... NHL redirects here. ... The Los Angeles Kings are a professional ice hockey team based in Los Angeles, California. ... The San Jose Sharks are a professional ice hockey team based in San Jose, California, United States. ... Club Deportivo Chivas USA (short form: CD Chivas USA or Chivas USA) is a professional soccer club based in Carson, California, United States and participates in Major League Soccer. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Major League Soccer (MLS) is a North America professional soccer league. ... Year founded 1995 League Major League Soccer Full name Los Angeles Galaxy Nickname LA Galaxy Stadium The Home Depot Center (HDC) Carson, CA Coach Ruud Gullit Owner Philip Anschutz (AEG) First Game Los Angeles Galaxy 2–1 MetroStars (Rose Bowl; April 13, 1996) Largest Win Dallas Burn 1–8 Los... This article is about the MLS franchise. ... The Los Angeles Sparks are a Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) team based in Los Angeles, California. ... The Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) is an organization governing a professional basketball league for women in the United States. ... Angora Lakes is a collection of small freshwater lakes in the Sierra Nevada, located approximately 1,200 feet in elevation above Fallen Leaf Lake and Lake Tahoe where the borders of the U.S. states of California and Nevada bend, near Carson City. ... A formation in Black Chasm Cavern Black Chasm Cave is a cave near Volcano, California and is a National Natural Landmark. ... Bubblegum Alley Bubblegum Alley is a local tourist landmark in downtown San Luis Obispo, California, known for its accumulation of used bubble gum on the walls of an alley. ... Cannery Row is the waterfront street in the New Monterey section of Monterey, California (36. ... The Carson Mansion is a large Victorian house located in Old Town, Eureka, California. ... Castle Dome, a popular trail destination at Castle Crags (left foreground). ... Chutes Park in Los Angeles, California began as a trolley park in 1887. ... , Cold Spring Tavern is a tavern about 20 minutes north of Santa Barbara, California, in a canyon about a mile off Highway 154, near San Marcos pass. ... Coleman National Fish Hatchery (foreground), Mount Lassen (background). ... Disneyland redirects here. ... Fort Independence, originally Camp Independence, was established on Oak Creek, 3 miles (4. ... Fort Tejon was established by the United States Army in 1854 and was active for ten years. ... A Harris Ranch sign in Coalinga, California, displaying the Harris Ranch logo similar to all Harris Ranch packaging Harris Ranch Restaurant Harris Ranch or the Harris Cattle Ranch feedlot is located alongside Interstate Highway 5 near Coalinga, Central California, USA, in the San Joaquin Valley. ... Heavenly Mountain Resort is a ski resort located on the California-Nevada border in South Lake Tahoe. ... The Hollywood Sign is a famous landmark in the Hollywood Hills area of Los Angeles, California, spelling out the name of the area in 50 feet (15 m)[1] high white letters. ... Idora Park was a victorian era trolley park in North Oakland, California from the 1890s until the late 1920s. ... Knotts Berry Farm is a brand name of two separate entities: a theme park in Buena Park, California, and a manufacturer of food specialty products (primarily jams and preserves) based in Placentia, California. ... Santa Barbaras Lobero Theatre, from Canon Perdido Street The Lobero Theatre, founded by José Lobero, is among the most historic buildings in Santa Barbara, California. ... Six Flags Magic Mountain is an amusement park located just west of the Valencia neighborhood of Santa Clarita, north of Los Angeles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Six Flags Discovery Kingdom#History. ... The Mission Inn is a whimsical, mysterious and slightly bizarre historic landmark hotel in downtown Riverside, California. ... Mitchell Caverns are a trio of limestone caves, located at an elevation of 4300 ft. ... The Mojave phone booth was a lone telephone booth placed circa 1960 in the Mojave National Preserve which attracted an online following in 1997 due to its unusual location. ... The Neptune Pool can be found in the Hearst Castle. ... Pacific Biological Laboratories (PBL) was a biological supply house that sold preserved animals and prepared slides to schools and research institutions. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... Parker Dam is a concrete gravity-arch dam which spans the Colorado river, at a point 155 miles downstream of Hoover Dam. ... Randys Donuts is a landmark building in Inglewood, California near Los Angeles International Airport that dates back to a period during the mid-20th Century that saw a proliferation of kitschy buildings throughout Southern California that were made in the shape of the products they sold. ... In the foothills of Glendora, California stands the last intact citrus packing house from the early 20th century…and a castle. ... The San Francisco Zoo, (previously Fleishhacker Zoo) is a zoo in San Francisco, California housing more than 250 different animal species. ... The Santa Anita track is set against the dramatic backdrop of the San Gabriel Mountains. ... This article is about the lake in California/Nevada. ... Dedication of the USS Bennington Monument, San Diego, California, 1908. ... Painting of Wawona Tree from 1887. ... The worlds tallest thermometer The worlds tallest thermometer is a landmark located in Baker, California, US. It is technically an electric sign rather than a tall thermometer, however it exists as a tribute to the record 134 degrees Fahrenheit (57 degrees Celsius) recorded in nearby Death Valley in... The location of the State of California Main article: California See also: Outline of California Articles about the U.S. State of California include: An enlargeable map of the State of California .ca. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Dry Tortugas overview map The Dry Tortugas are a small group of islands, located at the end of the Florida Keys, USA, about west of Key West, and west of the Marquesas Keys, at , the closest islands. ... This article is about the area of Florida. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Frontispiece of the princeps edition of Herreras Historia General. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The California Department of Finance is located in Sacramento, California. ... ISBN redirects here. ... University of Nebraska Press at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska, is a major publisher of original and reprint editions of significant works about the West. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Founded in 1967, OCLC Online Computer Library Center is a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. ... George R. Stewarts books about U.S. highways were based on his cross-country drives in 1924, 1949 and 1950. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Founded in 1967, OCLC Online Computer Library Center is a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... -1... ISBN redirects here. ... Founded in 1967, OCLC Online Computer Library Center is a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Founded in 1967, OCLC Online Computer Library Center is a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. ... The Los Angeles Times (also L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... The Tribune Company (NYSE: TRB) is a large American multimedia corporation based in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides a comprehensive statistical picture of the economy of the United States. ... The California State Library, under the direction of the California State Librarian, an appointee of the Governor, collects, preserves, generates and disseminates a wide array of information. ... The Stanford University Press is a publishing house, a division of Stanford University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Founded in 1967, OCLC Online Computer Library Center is a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Founded in 1967, OCLC Online Computer Library Center is a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. ... Academic Press (London, New York and San Diego) was an academic book publisher that is now part of Elsevier. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Founded in 1967, OCLC Online Computer Library Center is a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. ...

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Preceded by
Wisconsin
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on September 9, 1850 (31st)
Succeeded by
Minnesota

Coordinates: 37°N 120°W / 37°N 120°W / 37; -120 Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... -1... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... For the board game, see Puerto Rico (board game). ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands Map showing the location of the islands in the Pacific Ocean (highlighted with red boxes) The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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University of California Systemwide Home (220 words)
In our classrooms, the finest scholars educate the leaders of tomorrow; In our laboratories, innovative research dramatically improves lives and drives the economy; and we are constantly in search of ways to expand and enhance educational opportunities for all Californians.
UC is the heart and soul of California, and its future.
Private support is essential to the University of California's ability to maintain the high level of excellence and growth it is now experiencing...
California - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6838 words)
California was poorly settled until modern public health eliminated the endemic outbreaks of yellow fever, malaria and plague, caused from the area’s lack of frosts, which kills mosquitoes and fleas.
California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of freeways, expressways, and highways, all maintained by Caltrans and patrolled by the California Highway Patrol, except for the numbered expressways in Santa Clara County which were built and maintained by the county itself.
California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government: the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts.
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