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Encyclopedia > Calendar date

A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated. For example, "19 June 2008" is ten days after "9 June 2008" in the Gregorian calendar. The date of a particular event depends on the time zone in which it occurs. For example the attack on Pearl Harbor took place on December 7, 1941, in Hawaii, but on December 8 in Japan. Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A particular day may be represented by a different date in another calendar as in the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar, which have been used simultaneously in different places. In most calendar systems, the date consists of three parts: the day of month, month, and the year. There may also be additional parts, such as the day of week. Years are usually counted from a particular starting point, usually called the epoch, with era referring to the particular period of time (Note the different use of the terms in geology). The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The most widely used epoch is a conventional birthdate of Jesus (which was established by Dionysius Exiguus in the sixth century). A date without the year part may also be referred to as a date or calendar date (such as "20 June" rather than "20 June 2008"). As such, it defines the day of an annual event, such as a birthday or Christmas on 25 December. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Date format

Related to the classification of a day as a specific calendar date is the format used to express that date. The differing formats of dates are an example of endianness. Even for a specific calendar system, different formats are used. For example, the following formats all express the same date in the Gregorian calendar. In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ...


Little endian forms, starting with the day

This sequence is common to the vast majority of the world's countries (see below for breakdown of countries by format). This date format originates from the custom of writing the date as ' the 16th day of November in the year of our Lord 2003' in religious and legal documents which at one time were the majority of documents created. The format has shortened as more and more people learned to read and write but the order of the elements has remained constant.

  • 16/11/2003, 16.11.2003 (using dot as separator with this sequence has been defined by DIN 5008), 16-11-2003 or 16-11-03
  • 16th [of] November 2003 (The 'of' is included in speech, however it is considered bad practice to include it when written.)
  • 16th November 2003
  • 16 November 2003
  • 16 Nov 2003

Big endian forms, starting with the year

This form is consistent with the big endianness of the western decimal numbering system, progressing from the highest to the lowest order magnitude. This is a standard format in Asian countries where the most significant data item is written first followed by lesser data items. An example of this is the custom of writing the family name before the personal name of an individual.

  • 2003 November 16
  • 2003-11-16: the ISO 8601 international standard orders the components of a date like this, and additionally uses leading zeros, e.g. 0813-03-01, to be easily read and sorted by computers. It is used with UTC in the Internet date/time format (see the external link below). This format is also favoured in certain Asian countries, mainly East Asian countries, as well as in some Middle and East European countries like Hungary. The big endian convention is also frequently used in Canada, but all three conventions are used there.[1]

ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

Middle endian forms, starting with the month

This sequence is used exclusively only in the United States and two other small pacific countries that have been heavily influenced by the US.

  • November 16, 2003
  • Nov. 16, 2003
  • 11/16/2003, 11-16-2003, 11.16.2003 or 11.16.03

Usage issues

The many numerical forms can create confusion when used in international correspondence, particularly when abbreviating the year to its final two digits.


For example, '9/11' can refer to both 'The fall of the Berlin Wall' on 9 November 1989 and to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in the USA. In the United States, dates are rarely written in purely numerical forms in formal writing. In the United Kingdom, while it is regarded as acceptable, but rare, to write monthname day, year (as well as day monthname year), this order is never used when written numerically, although the American shorthand "9/11" is widely understood as referring to the 11 September terrorist attacks.[2] View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


When numbers are used to represent months, a significant amount of confusion can arise from the ambiguity of a date order; especially when the numbers representing the day, month or year are low, it can be impossible to tell which order is being used. This can be clarified by using four digits to represent years, and naming the month; for example, "Feb" instead of "02". In some countries Roman numerals are used to denote the month, e.g. 11.IX.2001.[citation needed] Many Internet sites use year-month-day, and those using other conventions often write out the month (9-MAY-2001, MAY 09 2001, etc.) so there is no ambiguity. The ISO 8601 date order, with four-digit years, is specifically chosen to be unambiguous. The ISO 8601 standard also has the advantage of being language independent and is therefore useful when there may be no language context and a universal application is desired (expiration dating on export products, for example).


In addition, the ISO considers its ISO 8601 standard to make sense from a logical perspective.[3] Mixed units, for example feet and inches, or pounds and ounces, are normally written with the largest unit first, in decreasing order. Numbers are also written in that order, so the digits of 2006 indicate, in order, the millennium, the century within the millennium, the decade within the century, and the year within the decade. The only date order that is consistent with these well-established conventions is year-month-day. A plain text list of dates with this format can be easily sorted by word processors, spreadsheets and other software tools with built-in sorting functions. “ISO” redirects here. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... A spreadsheet is a computer application that simulates a paper worksheet. ...


An early U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard recommended 2-digit years. This is now widely recognized as a bad idea, because of the year 2000 problem. Some U.S. government agencies now use ISO 8601 with 4 digit year.[4][5] Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government for use by all (non-military) government agencies and by government contractors. ... This article is about the millennial computer glitch. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


When transitioning from one date notation to another, people often write both Old Style and New Style dates. Old Style redirects here. ...

     dd/mm/yyyy      dd/mm/yyyy and yyyy/mm/dd      yyyy/mm/dd      mm/dd/yyyy      mm/dd/yyyy and dd/mm/yyyy      mm/dd/yyyy,dd/mm/yyyy,yyyy/mm/dd
     dd/mm/yyyy      dd/mm/yyyy and yyyy/mm/dd      yyyy/mm/dd      mm/dd/yyyy      mm/dd/yyyy and dd/mm/yyyy      mm/dd/yyyy,dd/mm/yyyy,yyyy/mm/dd

dd/mm/yyyy or dd.mm.yyyy (day, month, year)

Using the dd/mm/yyyy format, the 30th December 2006 would be written as 30/12/2006. The dd/mm/yyyy format is used in:

In linguistics, ordinal numbers are the words representing the rank of a number with respect to some order, in particular chronological order or position: first, second, third, etc. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... BCE redirects here. ...

mm/dd/yy or mm/dd/yyyy (month, day, year)

Using the mm/dd/yy format, December 30, 2006 would be written as 12/30/06.


The mm/dd/yy format is used in:

yyyy-mm-dd (year, month, day)

Using the yyyy-mm-dd format, the 30th of December 2006 would be written as 2006-12-30.

  • Used internationally in some contexts as the ISO 8601 standard
  • Canada (yyyy-mm-dd) (All 3 main types are used in Canada- in French and in English)
  • China (yyyy-mm-dd or yyyy年m月d日)
  • Denmark (The format dd-mm-yy(yy) is the traditional Danish date format. The international format yyyy-mm-dd or yyyymmdd is also accepted. There are no preferences, although the traditional format is the most widely used. The formats dd.'monthname' yyyy and in handwriting d/m/yy are also acceptable. [6])
  • Europe[7]
  • Hong Kong (same as China)
  • Hungary (yyyy.mm.dd – traditionally the number of the month is most often written in Roman numerals)
  • Japan, often in the form yyyy年m月d日; sometimes Japanese era year is used, e.g. 平成18年12月30日.
  • Korea (yyyy년 mm월 dd일)
  • Latvia (But often dd.mm.yyyy. is used)
  • Lithuania (yyyy-mm-dd)
  • Macau (same as China)
  • Middle East
  • Mongolia (yyyy-mm-dd)
  • Nepal
  • South Africa ("d/m/yy" is a common alternative)
  • Sweden
  • Taiwan; same as China except year might be represented using ROC era system: 民國95年12月30日.

ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the Japanese era name , lit. ... Heisei (Japanese: 平成) is the current era name in Japan. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ...

Advantages for Ordering in Sequence

One of the advantages of using the ISO 8601 standard date format is that when dates in this format are ordered sequentially by the leading number, this also orders them in date order, e.g.: ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... “Standard” redirects here. ...

 1998-02-28 (28 February 1998) 1999-03-01 (01 March 1999) 2000-01-30 (30 January 2000) 

Using the MM-DD-YYYY format, sequential ordering by the leading number would put a list out of date order (as it would be the months being ordered regardless of year):

 01-30-2000 (30 January 2000) 02-28-1998 (28 February 1998) 03-01-1999 (01 March 1999) 

Using the DD-MM-YYYY format, sequential ordering by the leading number would also put a list out of date order (as it would be the day being ordered regardless of year or month):

 01-03-1999 (01 March 1999) 28-02-1998 (28 February 1998) 30-01-2000 (30 January 2000) 

The Sequence Ordering is often used in scientific, technical or international communication.


Day and year only

See also: calendar, time, date-time group, Japanese calendar, and Wikibooks:English:Time

The U.S. military sometimes uses a system, which they call "Julian date format"[8] that indicates the year and the actual day out of the 365 days of the year (and thus a designation of the month would not be needed). For example, "10 December 1999" can be written in some contexts as "1999345" or "99345", for the 345th day of 1999.[9] This system is most often used in US military logistics, since it makes the process of calculating estimated shipping and arrival dates easier. For example: say a tank engine takes an estimated 35 days to ship by sea from the US to Korea. If the engine is sent on 99104, it should arrive on 99139. Note that outside of the US military, this format is usually referred to as "ordinal date", rather than "Julian date." For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... Date-time group (DTG): In a message, a set of characters, usually in a prescribed format, used to express the year, the month, the day of the month, the hour of the day, the minute of the hour and the time zone (if different from Zero zone or UTC+0). ... Koinobori, flags decorated like koi, are popular decorations around Childrens Day This mural on the wall of a Tokyo subway station celebrates Hazuki, the eighth month. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The ordinal date within a year together with the year form the full ISO 8601 ordinal date. ...


Such ordinal date formats are also used by many computer programs (especially those for mainframe systems). Using a three-digit Julian day number saves one byte of computer storage over a two-digit month plus two-digit day, e.g. "January 17" is 017 in Julian versus 0117 in month-day format. The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the number of days that have elapsed since 12 noon Greenwich Mean Time (UT or TT) on Monday, January 1, 4713 BC (in the proleptic Julian calendar; or November 24, 4714 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar). ...


Another "ordinal" date system ("ordinal" in the sense of advancing in value by one as the date advances by one day) is in common use in astronomical calculations and referencing and uses the same name as this "logistics" system. The continuity of representation of period regardless of the time of year being considered is obviously highly useful to both groups of specialists. The astronomers describe their system too as being a "Julian date", and it is described in more detail in the article Julian date. Unlike the system described above, the astronomical system does not consider years, it only counts days. Thus it is unperturbed by complications such as leap years. The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the number of days that have elapsed since 12 noon Greenwich Mean Time (UT or TT) on Monday, January 1, 4713 BC (in the proleptic Julian calendar; or November 24, 4714 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar). ...


Week number used

Companies in Europe often use year, week number and day for planning purposes. So, for example, an event in a project can happen on w43 (week 43) or w43-1 (Monday, week 43) or, if the year needs to be indicated, on w0543 or w543 (year 2005 week 43).


The ISO does present a standard for identifying weeks, but as it does not match up with Gregorian calendar (the beginning and ending days of a given year do not match up), this standard is somewhat more problematic than the other standards for dates. The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ...


Expressing dates in spoken English

In British English, full dates are usually written and spoken as 7th December 2007 (or 7 December 2007) and pronounced "the seventh of December", with the occasional usage of December 7, 2007 ("December the seventh, 2007"). In common with continental European usage, however, numerical dates are invariably ordered dd/mm/yyyy. British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...


In the United States, the usual written form is December 7, pronounced "December (the) seventh" or colloquially "December seven".


See also

// Different style conventions and habits exist around the world for dates and times in writing and speaking. ...

References

  1. ^ Canadian Payments Association - Specifications for Imageable Cheques and Other Payment Items
  2. ^ BBC News - America's Day of Terror" (Example of British website using "9/11" shorthand)
  3. ^ Numeric representation of Dates and Time. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  4. ^ http://www.nyecounty.net/iso8601.html
  5. ^ International Standard Date and Time Notation
  6. ^ a b The Danish language advisory committee
  7. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biosafety/salmonella/data_dictionary_pigs_en.pdf
  8. ^ Hynes, John, A summary of time formats and standards. Accessed 2007-Mar 16.
  9. ^ Kuhn, Markus, A summary of the international standard date and time notation, University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, last modified 2004-December 19. Accessed 2006-August 1.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in Leap years). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • IETF: RFC 3339
  • W3C Date and Time Formats Internet date/time format
  • Date and Time Around the World - Get current time in cities and villages around the globe
  • Date calculator, add or subtract days to or from a given date
  • Date and time formats by territory code
  • English Dates - explanations, exercises and date generator (written and spoken dates)
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Calendar date - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1552 words)
A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day by means of a calendar system.
A date without the year part may also be referred to as a date or calendar date (such as "9 February" rather than "9 February 2003").
Related to the classification of a day as a specific calendar date is the format used to express that date.
Calendar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2019 words)
A lunisolar calendar is synchronized both to the motion of the Moon and to the apparent motion of the Sun; an example is the Jewish calendar.
Calendars in widespread use today include the Gregorian calendar, which is the de facto international standard, and is used almost everywhere in the world for civil purposes, including in China and India (along with the Indian national calendar).
The Ethiopian calendar or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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