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Encyclopedia > Caldera
Satellite image of Santorini. Clockwise from center: Nea Kameni; Palea Kameni; Aspronisi; Therasia; Thera
Satellite image of Santorini. Clockwise from center: Nea Kameni; Palea Kameni; Aspronisi; Therasia; Thera
Crater Lake, Oregon
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Crater Lake, Oregon

A caldera is a volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a volcano into itself, making it a large, special form of volcanic crater. The word 'caldera' comes from a Spanish word meaning "cauldron". Download high resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)Santorini island, Greece - Landsat photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)Santorini island, Greece - Landsat photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... USGS photo from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USGS photo from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Volcano 1. ... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ... A cauldron (from Latin caldarium, hot bath) is a large metal-made pot (kettle) for cooking and/or boiling over an open fire, usually attached to a hanger with the shape of an arc. ...

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Caldera formation

A caldera collapse is usually triggered by the emptying of the magma chamber beneath the volcano, as the result of a large volcanic eruption. If enough magma is erupted, the emptied chamber will not be able to support the weight of the volcanic edifice (the mountain) above. Fractures will form around the edge of the chamber, usually in a roughly circular shape. These ring fractures may in fact serve as volcanic vents. As the magma chamber empties, the center of the volcano within the ring fractures begins to collapse. The collapse may occur as the result of a single massive eruption, or it may occur in stages as the result of a series of eruptions. The total amount of collapse may be hundreds or thousands of meters. A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ... Volcano 1. ... A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ...


Explosive calderas

If the magma is rich in silica, the caldera is often filled in with ignimbrite, tuff, rhyolite, and other igneous rocks. Silica-rich magma is very viscous. As a result, gases tend to become trapped at high pressure within the magma. When the magma gets near the surface of the Earth, the gas expands quickly, causing explosions and spreading volcanic ash over wide areas. Further lava flows may be erupted, and the center of the caldera is often uplifted in the form of a resurgent dome by subsequent intrusion of magma. A silicic or rhyolitic caldera may erupt hundreds or even thousands of cubic kilometers of material in a single event. Even small caldera-forming eruptions, such as Krakatoa in 1883 or Mount Pinatubo in 1991, may result in significant local destruction and a noticeable drop in temperature around the world. Large calderas may have even greater effects. The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Ignimbrite is a compact volcanic pyroclastic rock typically of rhyolitic composition. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo and pronounced tuf) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... Rhyolite This page is about a volcanic rock. ... Volcanic rock on North America Plutonic rock on North America Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ... Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash is the term for very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In geology, a resurgent dome is a volcanic dome that is swelling or rising due to movement in the magma chamber. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... Krakatoa (Indonesian name: Krakatau, Portuguese name: Krakatao) is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mount Pinatubo is an active volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

View of the massive walls of the Caldera de Taburiente, La Palma: a caldera formed by erosion
View of the massive walls of the Caldera de Taburiente, La Palma: a caldera formed by erosion

When Yellowstone Caldera (last) erupted 640,000 years ago it released 1,000 cubic kilometers of material, covering half of North America in up to two meters of debris. By comparison, when Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, it released 1.2 cubic kilometers of ejecta. The ecological effects of the eruption of a large caldera can be seen in the record of the Lake Toba eruption in Indonesia. About 75,000 years ago, this volcano released 2,800 cubic kilometers of ejecta, the largest known eruption within the Quaternary Period (last 1.8 million years). In the late 1990s, archeologist Stanley Ambrose [1] proposed that a volcanic winter induced by this eruption reduced the human population to a few thousand individuals, resulting in a population bottleneck (see Toba catastrophe theory). Even larger caldera-forming eruptions are known, especially La Garita Caldera in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, where the 5,000 cubic kilometer Fish Canyon Tuff was blasted out in a truly major single eruption 27.8 million years ago. Looking across to the massive walls of Caldera de Taburiente, from Mirador de los Andenes. ... Looking across to the massive walls of Caldera de Taburiente, from Mirador de los Andenes. ... The Yellowstone Caldera, sometimes known as the Yellowstone supervolcano, is a volcanically active region in Yellowstone National Park. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Mount St. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... View of Lake Toba Lake Toba is a large lake, 100km long and 30km wide, in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... For other uses, see Quaternary (disambiguation). ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... A volcanic winter is the reduction in temperature caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun, usually after a volcanic eruption (hence the name). ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent large volcanic event. ... La Garita Caldera is a large volcanic caldera located in the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. ... The San Juan Mountains are a rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


At some points in geologic time, rhyolitic calderas have appeared in distinct clusters. The remnants of such clusters may be found in places such as the San Juan Mountains of Colorado (erupted during the Tertiary Period) or the Saint Francois Mountain Range of Missouri (erupted during the Proterozoic). The table and timeline of geologic periods presented here is in accordance with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. ... The San Juan Mountains are a rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The Tertiary period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, from the end of the Cretaceous period about 64 million years ago to the start of the Quaternary period about 1. ... This shaded-relief map shows the location and extent of the St. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In geology, the Proterozoic is an eon before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ...


Non-explosive calderas

Some volcanoes, such as Kīlauea on the island of Hawaii, form calderas in a different fashion. In the case of Kiluaea, the magma feeding the volcano is relatively silica poor. As a result, the magma is much less viscous than the magma of a rhyolitic volcano. Such calderas are also known as subsidence calderas. The magma chamber is drained by large lava flows rather than by explosive events. Kilauea Caldera has an inner crater known as Halema‘uma‘u, which has often been filled by a lava lake. The largest volcano on Earth, Mauna Loa is also capped by a subsidence caldera called Moku‘āweoweo Caldera. It has been suggested that Mauna Ulu be merged into this article or section. ... The Island of HawaiÊ»i (called the Big Island or HawaiÊ»i proper) is one of eight main islands that make up the U.S. State of HawaiÊ»i. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ... KÄ«lauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaii. ... Mauna Loa is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii. ... Mauna Loa is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii. ...


Non-volcanic calderas

It is possible, although rare, for a caldera-like formation to be created by erosion rather than volcanism. It is believed that the Caldera de Taburiente on La Palma in the Canary Islands is an example of this. View of the massive walls of the Caldera Parque Nacional de la Caldera de Taburiente is a national park on the island of La Palma, Spain. ... Satellite image of La Palma, with the Caldera de Taburiente visible. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Notable calderas

See also Category:Volcanic calderas

Ngorongoro crater is the worlds largest unbroken volcanic caldera, sited towards the northwest of Arusha in Tanzania, and is connected to the Serengeti savannah to its immediate south. ... Aira Caldera is a supervolcanic caldera in the south of the island of Kyūshū, Japan. ... Kagoshima Prefecture ) is located on Kyushu island, Japan. ... The initialism ASO may refer to: the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra the Annapolis Symphony Orchestra the American Symphony Orchestra the Amaury Sport Organisation This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in... Kumamoto Prefecture (熊本県; Kumamoto-ken) is located on Kyushu Island, Japan. ... Kikai Caldera is a massive underwater caldera in the Osumi Islands of Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. ... Kagoshima Prefecture ) is located on Kyushu island, Japan. ... Krakatoa (Indonesian name: Krakatau, Portuguese name: Krakatao) is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. ... Mount Pinatubo is an active volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Taal Volcano is an active volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... View of Lake Toba Lake Toba is a large lake, 100km long and 30km wide, in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Mount Tambora is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. ... Tao-Rusyr Caldera is a volcano located at the southern end of Onekotan Island, Kuril Islands, Russia. ... Onekotan Island (centre) from space, October 1994 Onekotan Island, located near the northern end of the Kuril Islands (49°30′ N 154°30′ E), is another volcanic island that is part of the Ring of Fire that encircles the Pacific Ocean. ... Lake Towada Lake Towada Lake Towada ) is the largest caldera lake in the island of Honshu, Japan. ... Aomori Prefecture (青森県 Aomoriken or frequently Aomori-ken) is located in the Tōhoku Region of Japan. ... Lake Tazawa For the town in Akita Prefecture, see Tazawako, Akita. ... Akita Prefecture ) is located in the Tōhoku Region of northern Japan. ... Map showing volcanoes of Alaska Peninsula. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... View from the rim The Old Man of the Lake (with extreme clarity of water apparent) Crater Lake is a lake in the U.S. state of Oregon that is 5 by 6 miles (8 by 9. ... Mount Mazama is a destroyed stratovolcano in the Oregon part of the Cascade Range. ... Crater Lake National Park is the U.S.s fifth oldest[1] National Park whose most famous feature is Crater Lake. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... KÄ«lauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaii. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mauna Loa is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii. ... Mauna Loa is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Katmai, the volcano. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... La Garita Caldera is a large volcanic caldera located in the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Long Valley Caldera is a depression in eastern California that is adjacent to Mammoth Mountain. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... Newberry Caldera, with Paulina Lake, East Lake, and Big Obsidian Flow Newberry Caldera is the caldera on Newberry Volcano, a shield volcano in central Oregon. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Map showing volcanoes of Alaska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Valle Grande (Va-lye Gra-n-de), known to geologists as the Valles Caldera and the Jemez Caldera, is a pristine area in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico in the United States. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The Yellowstone Caldera, sometimes known as the Yellowstone supervolcano, is a volcanically active region in Yellowstone National Park. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Masaya is a large basaltic volcanic caldera located 20 km south of Managua, Nicaragua, Central America and is Nicaraguas first and largest National Park. ... A view across Lago de Atitlán from Panajachel to Volcán Atitlán Lago de Atitlán (Lake Atitlán) is a large lake in the Guatemalan Highlands. ... Askja volcano is situated in a remote part of the central highlands of Iceland (location: 65. ... Campi Flegrei (Burning Fields) is a large volcanic area situated in the west area of Napoli, Italy. ... Lake Bracciano (in Italian Lago di Bracciano) is a lake of volcanic origin and it is set in the Italian region Lazio, 32 km NW of Rome. ... View of the massive walls of the Caldera Parque Nacional de la Caldera de Taburiente is a national park on the island of La Palma, Spain. ... Glencoe is the name of a number of places in the world: Glencoe, South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Glencoe, Scotland, United Kingdom Glencoe, Alabama, United States of America Glencoe, Kentucky, United States of America Glencoe, Illinois, United States of America Glencoe, Minnesota, United States of America Glencoe, Missouri, United... Motto: , traditionally rendered in Scots as Wha daur meddle wi me?[1] and in English as No one provokes me with impunity. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Teide (Mount Teide or Pico de Teide) is a volcano and mountain on Tenerife, Canary Islands (28. ... Lake Taupo. ... Mount Warning is a mountain in New South Wales, Australia, near the border with Queensland and New South Wales, near Murwillumbah. ... The Blue Lake in early March with the original pumping station in the foreground. ... View of Mount Gambiers Main Street from the Mount. ... Olympus Mons Olympus Mons (Latin, Mount Olympus) is the tallest known mountain in our solar system, located on the planet Mars at approximately . ... Maat Mons is displayed in this three-dimensional perspective view of the surface of Venus. ...

See also

A supervolcano refers to a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • USGS page on calderas
  • List of Caldera Volcanoes
  • The Caldera of the Tweed Volcano - Australia
  • Largest Explosive Eruptions: New results for the 27.8 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff and the La Garita caldera, San Juan volcanic field, Colorado

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References

  • Peter Lipman (1999). "Caldera". In Haraldur Sigurdsson, ed. Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-643140-X

  Results from FactBites:
 
USGS Photo Glossary: caldera (340 words)
The caldera is 10 km in diameter and 500-1,000 m deep.
A caldera is a large, usually circular depression at the summit of a volcano formed when magma is withdrawn or erupted from a shallow underground magma reservoir.
Calderas are different from craters, which are smaller, circular depressions created primarily by explosive excavation of rock during eruptions.
Resurgent Calderas and the Valles Caldera (1331 words)
Caldera in the Spanish language means "kettle" or "cauldron"; in geological literature, it has come to be known as a volcanic collapse crater.
Calderas, on the other hand, are formed when infrequent, truly large eruptions occur and the gas-rich magma is quickly erupted from depths of 4 to 6 kilometers (2.5 to 3.7 miles).
The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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