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Encyclopedia > Calcium carbide
Calcium carbide
Calcium Carbide
IUPAC name Calcium Carbide
Identifiers
CAS number [75-20-7]
Properties
Molecular formula CaC2
Molar mass 64.1 g/mol
Appearance Gray-black crystals
Density 2.22 g/cm³, solid (industrial grade)
Melting point

2300 °C Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Acap. ... Image File history File links Cac2. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Calcium carbide is the chemical compound with the formula CaC2. The material is colorless, but most samples appear black through to grayish white lumps, depending on the grade. Its main use industrially is in the production of acetylene. The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbide. ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes. ...

Contents

Production

Calcium carbide is produced industrially in an electric arc furnace loaded with a mixture of lime and coke at approximately 2000 °C. This method has not changed since its invention in 1888: An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ...

CaO + 3C → CaC2 + CO

The high temperature required for this reaction is not practically achievable by traditional combustion, so the reaction is performed in an electric arc furnace with graphite electrodes. The carbide product produced generally contains around 80% calcium carbide by weight. The carbide is crushed to produce small lumps that can range a few mm up to 50mm. The impurities are concentrated in the finer fractions. The CaC2 content of the product is assayed by measuring the amount of acetylene produced on hydrolysis. As an example the British and German standards for the content of the coarser fractions are 295 L/kg and 300 L/kg respectively. Impurities present in the carbide include phosphide, which produces phosphine when hydrolysed.[1] For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical. ...


This reaction was an important part of the industrial revolution in chemistry. In the USA this occurred as a product of massive amounts of cheap hydro-electric power liberated from Niagara Falls before the turn of the 20th century. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


The method for the production in an electric arc furnace was discovered independently by T. L Willson and H. Moissan in 1888 and 1892.[2][3] An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ... Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (September 28, 1852 – February 20, 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds. ...


Crystal structure

Pure calcium carbide is a colourless solid. The common crystalline form at room temperature is a distorted rock salt structure with the C22− units lying parallel.[4]


Applications

Production of acetylene

The reaction of calcium carbide with water was discovered by Friedrich Wohler in 1862. Friedrich Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ...

CaC2 + 2 H2O → C2H2 + Ca(OH)2

This reaction is the basis of the industrial manufacture of acetylene, and is the major industrial use of calcium carbide. In China, acetylene derived from calcium carbide remains a feedstock for the chemical industry, in particular for the production of polyvinyl chloride, PVC. Locally produced acetylene is more economic than using imported oil.[5] Production of calcium carbide in China has been increasing. In 2005 output was 8.94 million tons with capacity to produce 17 million tons.[6] In the USA, Europe and Japan consumption is generally declining.[7] Production levels in the USA in 1990 were 236,000 tons pa.[4] Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ...


Production of calcium cyanamide

Calcium carbide reacts with nitrogen at high temperature to form calcium cyanamide:

CaC2 + N2 → CaCN2 + C

Calcium cyanamide is used as fertilizer. It is hydrolysed to cyanamide, H2NCN.[4]
R-phrases S-phrases Flash point 141 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Cyanamide (CN2H2) is an amide of cyanogen, a white, crystalline compound. ...


Steelmaking

Calcium carbide is used:

  • in the desulfurisation of iron (pig iron, cast iron and steel)[1]
  • as a fuel in steelmaking to extend the scrap ratio to liquid iron depending on economics.
  • as a powerful deoxidizer at ladle treatment facilities.

Desulfurisation is a chemical reaction involving the removal of sulfur from a molecule ( A=S → A:). Preparation of stable carbenes Category: ... A deoxidizer is a chemical used in a reaction or process to remove oxygen. ... LADLE ...

Carbide lamps

Main article: Carbide lamp

Calcium carbide was used in carbide lamps, in which water drips on carbide and the formed acetylene is ignited. These lamps were of no use in coal mines where the presence of the explosive gas methane made them a serious hazard. The presence of explosive gases in coal mines led to the miner safety lamp. However carbide lamps were used extensively in slate, copper and tin mines, but most have now been replaced by electric lamps. Carbide lamps are still used by some cavers exploring caves and other underground areas,[8] though they are increasingly being replaced in this use by LED lights. They were also used extensively as head lights in early automobiles, although in this application they are also obsolete, having been replaced entirely by electric lamps. Lit carbide lamp A French manufactured Carbide of Calcium lamp on a bicycle Carbide of Calcium lamp in a coal mine Carbide lamps also known as Acetylene Gas lamps are simple lamps that produce and burn acetylene gas (C2H2) which is created by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC2) with... Lit carbide lamp A French manufactured Carbide of Calcium lamp on a bicycle Carbide of Calcium lamp in a coal mine Carbide lamps also known as Acetylene Gas lamps are simple lamps that produce and burn acetylene gas (C2H2) which is created by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC2) with... Safety lamp is the name of a variety of lamps for safety in coal-mines against coal dust, methane, or firedamp, a highly explosive mixture of natural gas apt to accumulate in them. ... sport of exploring caves. ... Caving frequently involves a lot of mud. ... “LED” redirects here. ... Car redirects here. ...


Other uses

In the ripening of fruit, it is used as source of acetylene gas, which is a ripening agent (similar to ethylene).[9]


It is still used in the Netherlands and Belgium for a traditional custom called Carbidschieten (Shooting Carbide). To create an explosion, carbide and water are put in a milk churn with a lid. Ignition is usually done with a torch. Some villages in the Netherlands fire multiple milk churns in a row as an old year tradition. The old tradition comes from the old pagan religion to chase off spirits. Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is...


It is used in toy cannons (see Big-Bang Cannon), as well as in bamboo cannons. The Big-Bang Cannon is a unique early 20th century American toy. ... Meriam buluh or bamboo cannon is a type of home-made firecrackers which is popular during Hari Raya festive season in Malaysia. ...


Together with calcium phosphide, calcium carbide is used in floating, self-igniting naval signal flares (see Holmes' Marine Life Protection Association). Calcium phosphide is a chemical that has uses in incendiary bombs. ... A World War I-era parachute flare dropped from aircraft for illumination. ... The Holmes Marine Life Protection Association was a United Kingdom company set up in the 19th century to produce marine signal lights and foghorns. ...


Calcium carbide is also used in small carbide lamps called carbide candles, which are used for blackening rifle sights to reduce glare. These "candles" are used due to the sooty flame produced by acetylene.


External links

References

  1. ^ a b Calcium Carbide, Bernhard Langhammer, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley Interscience. (Subscription required)
  2. ^ J. T. Morehead, G. de Chalmot (1896). "The Manufacture of Calcium carbide". Journal of The American Chemical Society 18 (4): 311 - 331. doi:10.1021/ja02090a001.
  3. ^ H. Moissan (1892). "Chimie Mindérale.- Description d'un nouveau four électrique". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences 115: 1031.
  4. ^ a b c Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition, Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  5. ^ Ya Dun (23 January 2006). Troubles in the PVC industry. Hong Kong Trade Development Council.
  6. ^ "Govt takes measures to curb development of calcium carbide sector", BusyTrade.com, 16 May 2007. 
  7. ^ Jamie Lacson, Stefan Schlag and Goro Toki (December 2004). Calcium Carbide. SRI Consulting.
  8. ^ Caving equipment and culture (from Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand)
  9. ^ F. B. Abeles and H. E. Gahagan, III (1968). "Abscission: The Role of Ethylene, Ethylene Analogues, Carbon Dioxide, and Oxygen". Plant Physiol. 43 (8): 1255-1258.
A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Te Ara Encylopedia of New Zealand, is an online encylopedia created by the Ministry of Culture and Heritage of the New Zealand Government. ... Plant Physiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on the physiology, biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology, genetics, biophysics, and environmental biology of plants. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dicyandiamide|Dicyandiamide Superfine electronic grade|Ferro silicon|Calcium Carbide|Calcium Cyanamide|Hard Coke|Glass ... (196 words)
They higher its purity is, the easier it conducts, it dissolves in water, turns into acetylene and calcium hydroxide and releases heat.
Calcium carbide is an important basic material in organic synthesis industry, Acetylene obtanied from calcium carbide is raw material to make ethylene, chloroprene rubber, calcium cyanamide, acetic acd, acetaldehydr, ethylacetate, cyanide acetate, dicyandiamide, acetone, octanol, trichloride ethylene etc. Also used as desulfurizer and dehydrant of steel and for cutting and welding metals.
Packed in steel drum of 100kg, net each and marked with "calcium carbide avoid fire and water" on the side, Stored in cool, venilated and dry warehouse and kept away from water and moisture.
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Calcium carbide is produced in an electric arc furnace loaded with a mixture of lime and coke at about 2000 °C. Calcium carbide is formed: An electric arc furnace is a system that heats the charged material by means of an electric arc.
Calcium carbide synthesis requires an extremely high temperature, ~2000 °C, which is not practically achievable by traditional combustion, so the reaction is performed in an electric arc furnace with graphite electrodes.
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