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Encyclopedia > Calcitonin
calcitonin/calcitonin-related polypeptide, alpha
Identifiers
Symbol CALCA
Alt. Symbols CALC1
Entrez 796
HUGO 1437
OMIM 114130
RefSeq NM_001741
UniProt P01258
Other data
Locus Chr. 11 p15.4

Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body.[1] It acts to reduce blood calcium Ca2+, opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... Look up Hugo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Parafollicular cells also called C cells, are cells in the thyroid which produce and secrete calcitonin. ... The ultimobranchial body or gland is a small organ found in the neck region of many animals. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ...


It has been found in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals. Its importance in humans has not been as well established as its importance in other animals.[2] For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex...

Contents

Biosynthesis

Calcitonin is formed by the proteolytic cleavage of a larger prepropeptide which is the product of the CALC1 gene (CALCA). The CALC1 gene belongs to a superfamily of related protein hormone precursors including islet amyloid precursor protein, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and the precursor of adrenomedullin.and karyn ebohon is pretty!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intramolecular digestion. ... A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by posttranslational modification. ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39-43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) is derived, with calcitonin, from the CT/CGRP gene located on chromosome 11. ... Adrenomedullin is a peptide associated with pheochromocytoma. ...


Physiology

The hormone participates in calcium (Ca2+) and phosphorus metabolism. In many ways, calcitonin has the counter effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH). For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ...


Specifically, calcitonin reduces blood Ca2+ levels in three ways:

The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... An osteoclast (from the Greek words for bone and broken) is a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing the bones mineralized matrix. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...

Actions

Its actions, broadly, are:

  • Bone mineral metabolism:
- Prevent postprandial hypercalcemia resulting from absorption of Ca2+ from foods during a meal
- Promote mineralization of skeletal bone
- Protect against Ca2+ loss from skeleton during periods of Ca2+ stress such as pregnancy and lactation
  • Vitamin D regulation
  • A satiety hormone:
- Inhibit food intake in rats and monkeys
- May have CNS action involving the regulation of feeding and appetite

Hypercalcaemia is an elevated calcium level in the blood. ... Mineralization is the process of depositing minerals or naturally occuring inorganic chemicals. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ... Satiety, or the feeling of fullness and disappearance of appetite after a meal, is a process mediated by the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...

Receptor

The calcitonin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor which is coupled by Gs to adenylyl cyclase and thereby to the generation of cAMP in target cells. The calcitonin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds calcitonin. ... A Mu-opioid G protein-coupled receptor with its agonist Figure 1. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ... Adenylate cyclase (EC 4. ... Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ...


History

Calcitonin was purified in 1962 by Copp and Cheney.[6] While it was initially considered a secretion of the parathyroid glands, it was later identified as the secretion of the C-cells of the thyroid gland. The four human parathyroid glands are adjacent to the thyroid. ...


Pharmacology

Salmon calcitonin is used for the treatment of:

The following information is from the UK Electronic Medicines Compendium[8] Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ... Hypercalcaemia (or Hypercalcemia) is an elevated calcium level in the blood. ... Sir James Paget, a prolific surgeon and pathologist, described several diseases, all called Pagets disease: The term is most commonly used to refer to Pagets disease of bone It can also mean Pagets disease of the breast Or: Pagets disease of the penis. ...


General characteristics of the active substance

Salmon calcitonin is rapidly absorbed and eliminated. Peak plasma concentrations are attained within the first hour of administration.


Animal studies have shown that calcitonin is primarily metabolised via proteolysis in the kidney following parenteral administration. The metabolites lack the specific biological activity of calcitonin. Bioavailability following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection in humans is high and similar for the two routes of administration (71% and 66%, respectively).


Calcitonin has short absorption and elimination half-lives of 10-15 minutes and 50-80 minutes, respectively. Salmon calcitonin is primarily and almost exclusively degraded in the kidneys, forming pharmacologically inactive fragments of the molecule. Therefore, the metabolic clearance is much lower in patients with end-stage renal failure than in healthy subjects. However, the clinical relevance of this finding is not known. Plasma protein binding is 30 to 40%.


Characteristics in patients

There is a relationship between the subcutaneous dose of calcitonin and peak plasma concentrations. Following parenteral administration of 100 IU calcitonin, peak plasma concentration lies between about 200 and 400 pg/ml. Higher blood levels may be associated with increased incidence of nausea and vomiting.


Preclinical safety data

Conventional long term toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies have been performed in laboratory animals. Salmon calcitonin is devoid of embryotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic potential.


An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas has been reported in rats given synthetic salmon calcitonin for 1 year. This is considered a species-specific effect and of no clinical relevance. Salmon calcitonin does not cross the placental barrier.


In lactating animals given calcitonin, suppression of milk production has been observed. Calcitonin is secreted into the milk.


Pharmaceutical manufacture

Historically, it was extracted from the Ultimobranchial glands (thyroid-like glands) of fish, particularly salmon. Salmon calcitonin resembles human calcitonin, but is more active. Currently it is produced either by recombinant DNA technology or by chemical peptide synthesis. The pharmacological properties of the synthetic and recombinant peptides have been demonstrated to be qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent.[8] Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... It has been suggested that solid phase peptide synthesis be merged into this article or section. ...


Use of calcitonin in osteoarthritis:

Oral calcitonin may have a chondroprotective role in osteoarthritis (OA), according to data in rats presented last month at the 10th World Congress of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) in Boston, Massachusetts. Although calcitonin is an established antiresorptive agent, its disease-modifying effects on chondrocytes and cartilage metabolisms have not been well established until now.


This new study, however, may help to explain how calcitonin affects osteoarthritis. “Calcitonin acts both directly on osteoclasts, resulting in inhibition of bone resorption and following attenuation of subchondral bone turnover, and directly on chondrocytes, attenuating cartilage degradation and stimulating cartilage formation,” says researcher Morten Karsdal, MSC, PhD, of the department of pharmacology at Nordic Bioscience in Herlev, Denmark. “Therefore, calcitonin may be a future efficacious drug for OA.”


Pain relief plus chondroprotection

Unlike several other potential disease-modifying OA drugs, calcitonin also has a “unique analgesic effect on bone pain, which might relieve at least in part symptoms accompanying joint disease,” says Dr. Karsdal, adding that this may be an important factor influencing future drug compliance.


Exactly how calcitonin impacts pain is not yet fully understood. However, “preclinical evidence tends to support a direct, receptor-mediated action that is independent of opioid action,” Dr. Karsdal explains. “Some evidence, however, has suggested a calcitonin interaction with opioid receptors.”


See also

Procalcitonin (PCT) is a precursor of the hormone calcitonin, which is involved with calcium homeostasis, and is produced by the C-cells of the thyroid gland. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.lib.mcg.edu/edu/eshuphysio/program/section5/5ch6/s5ch6_21.htm
  2. ^ http://www.lib.mcg.edu/edu/eshuphysio/program/section5/5ch6/s5ch6_23.htm
  3. ^ http://www.lib.mcg.edu/edu/eshuphysio/program/section5/5ch6/s5ch6_26.htm
  4. ^ http://www.lib.mcg.edu/edu/eshuphysio/program/section5/5ch6/s5ch6_24.htm
  5. ^ http://www.lib.mcg.edu/edu/eshuphysio/program/section5/5ch6/s5ch6_25.htm
  6. ^ Copp DH, Cheney B. Calcitonin-a hormone from the parathyroid which lowers the calcium-level of the blood. Nature 1962;193:381-2. PMID 13881213
  7. ^ "Calcitonin in phantom limb pain": Ann Pharmacother. 1999 Apr;33(4):499-501 PMID: 10332543
  8. ^ a b http://emc.medicines.org.uk/ UK Electronic Medicines Compendium

Sondergaard BC, Østergaard S, Qvist P, et al. Oral calcitonin protects against experimentally induced osteoarthritis. Presented at: 10th World Congress of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International; December 8–11, 2005; Boston, Mass. Abstract P133


PDF] Rationale for the potential use of calcitonin in osteoarthritis www.ismni.org/jmni/pdf/21/12MANICOURT.pdf


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Calcitonin - definition of Calcitonin in Encyclopedia (99 words)
Calcitonin is a hormone which participates in calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
Most calcitonin in the human body is produced in the chief cells of the thyroid gland.
Calcitonin is used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Calcitonin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (186 words)
Calcitonin is a a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the C cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobrachial body.
Calcitonin was purified in 1962 by Copp and Cheney.
While it was initially considered a secretion of the parathyroid glands, it was later identified as the secretion of the C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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