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Encyclopedia > Calais
Commune of Calais
Location
Coordinates 50°57′10″N, 01°51′32″E
Administration
Country France
Region Nord-Pas de Calais
Department Pas-de-Calais
(sous-préfecture)
Arrondissement Calais
Canton Chief town of 4 cantons
Intercommunality Communauté
d'agglomération
du Calaisis
Mayor Jacky Hénin
(2001-2008)
Statistics
Land area¹ 33.50 km²
Population²
(1999)
77,333
 - Density (1999) 2,308/km²
Miscellaneous
INSEE/Postal code 62193/ 62100
¹ French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
² Population sans doubles comptes: single count of residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel).
France


Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57'N 1°52'E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. Download high resolution version (1804x1689, 163 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Calais Categories: GFDL images ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This is an alphabetical list of countries of the world, including independent states (both those that are internationally recognised and generally unrecognised), inhabited dependent territories and areas of special sovereignty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Capital Lille Area 12,414 km² Regional President Daniel Percheron (PS) (since 2001) Population   - 2004 estimate   - 1999 census   - Density (Ranked 4th) 4,026,000 3,996,588 324/km² (2004) Arrondissements 13 Cantons 156 Communes 1,546 Départements Nord Pas-de-Calais Nord-Pas de Calais is one of... Departments (French: départements) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Pas-de-Calais is a département in northern France named after the strait which it borders. ... Subprefecture is an administrative level that is below prefecture or province. ... The 100 French départements are divided into 342 arrondissements. ... The arrondissement of Calais is an arrondissement of France, located in the Pas-de-Calais département, of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais région. ... The cantons of France are administrative divisions subdividing arrondissements and départements. ... The commune is an administrative division of France. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Rio de la Plata estuary Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Estuaries An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea[1]. Estuaries are often associated with high rates of... This page lists English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations, such as and . ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... {{Otheruses4|north the direction}} [[Image:CompassRose16_N.png|thumb|250px|right|[[Compass rose]] with north highlighted and at top]] {{wiktionary}} <nowiki>North is o<nowiki>ne of the [[4 (numbe</nowiki> Block quote r)|four]] cardinal directions, specifically the direction that, in Western culture, is treated as the primary direction: north... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Pas-de-Calais is a département in northern France named after the strait which it borders. ... Subprefecture is an administrative level that is below prefecture or province. ...


The population of the city (commune) at the 1999 census was 77,333 inhabitants (74,800 as of February 2004 estimates). The population of the whole metropolitan area (aire urbaine) at the 1999 census was 125,584. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, which is only 34 km (21 miles) wide here, and is the closest French town to England. The white cliffs of Dover can easily be seen on a clear day. Satellite image of the Strait of Dover The Strait of Dover (French: Pas de Calais, i. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: (IPA: ), the sleeve; Dutch: Het Kanaal) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The location and extent of the white cliffs of Dover. ...


The old part of the town, Calais proper (or Calais-Nord), is situated on an artificial island surrounded by canals and harbours. The modern part of the town, St-Pierre, lies to the south and southeast. Before Mexico City, Tenochtitlan was an artificial island of 250,000 (Dr Atl) Dejima, not allowed direct contact with nearby Nagasaki Formoza (Gdynia) The World in Dubai An artificial island is an island that has been formed by human, rather than natural means. ...

Contents

History

The origins of Calais are obscure though its site might be expected to be inhabited. It stands on the foreshore of the last piece of solid geology on the south and east coast of the North Sea between France and Norway. It is also at the western edge of the early medieval estuary of the River Aa. As the pebble and sand ridge extended eastwards from Calais, the haven behind it developed into fen so that the estuary progressively filled with silt and peat. Subsequently, canals were cut between Saint-Omer, the trading centre formerly at the head of the estuary and three places respectively to the west, centre and east on the newly formed coast. These are Calais, Gravelines and Dunkirk. (The pre-siltation counterpart of Dunkirk was Bergues.) In this way, what will at some time prior to the 10th century, have been a fishing village on a sandy beach backed by pebbles and a creek,[1] has developed into a moderately significant port. In 997, it was improved by the Count of Flanders and fortified by the Count of Boulogne in 1224. The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Aa is an 80 km long river in northern France. ... A fen is a sere, a phase in the natural ecological succession from the open water of a lake to (for example) woodland. ... Saint-Omer, a town and commune of Artois in northern France, sous-préfecture of the Pas-de-Calais département, 42 miles west-north-west of Lille on the railway to Calais. ... Canal of Gravelines, Georges Seurat, 1890. ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... Location of Bergues in the arrondissement of Dunkirk Bergues is a commune of the Nord département, in France. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer became the centre of the County of Boulogne in the 9th century. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ...


Its speciality in the ferry trade with Dover gave it a strategic position which made it of key interest for the growing power of the kingdom of England and the town was besieged and captured by King Edward III of England in 1347, after a siege of eleven months following the Battle of Crécy. Following the death of his uncle, Charles IV of France in 1328, Edward saw himself as the Capetian heir to the kingdom of France but the French chose to follow an all male line of descent from his great grandfather. This introduced the House of Valois to the French throne. Since England was Edward's power base, the English and Welsh were involved in his military sweep through northern France. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... This article is about the King of England. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Combatants Kingdom of England, Allied knights from Germany and Denmark France, Genoese Mercenaries, the Kingdoms of Navarre, Bohemia and the Balearic Islands Commanders Edward III of England Edward, the Black Prince Philip VI of France Strength about 12,000 30,000 to 40,000 Casualties 150-1,000 killed and... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ...


The angry king demanded reprisals against the town's citizens for holding out for so long and ordered that the town's population be killed en masse. He agreed to spare them on the condition that six of the principal citizens would come to him, bareheaded and barefooted and with ropes around their necks, and give themselves up to die. When they came, he ordered that they should be executed, but he pardoned them when his queen, Philippa of Hainault, begged him to spare their lives. He drove out most of the French, however, and settled the town with people from England, so that it might serve as a gateway to France. The municipal charter of Calais, previously granted by the Countess of Artois, was reconfirmed that year by Edward. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ... The County of Artois (French: Comté dArtois) was a Carolingian comitatus (county), established by the counts Odalric and Ecfrid of Artois, then integrated into the County of Flanders, first by Baldwin II of Flanders around 898, then by Arnulf I of Flanders. ...


In 1360 the Treaty of Brétigny assigned Guînes, Marck and Calais – collectively the "Pale of Calais" – to English rule in perpetuity, but this assignment was informally and only partially implemented. Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty signed on May 8, 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II (the Good) of France. ... Guînes (Gizerne in Dutch)is the chief town of the canton of the north of France in the Pas-de-Calais (62) department of Calais. ... Marck may refer to: Erard de la Marck, prince-bishop of Liège John T. Marck, Beatles biographer who suggested that Real Love may have its origins in The Ballad of John and Yoko Robert Fleuranges III de la Marck, marshal of France and historian William II de la Marck... The Pale or the English Pale comprised a region in a radius of 20 miles around Dublin which the English in Ireland gradually fortified against incursion from Gaels. ...


In 1363 the town was made a staple port. It had become a parliamentary borough sending burgesses to the House of Commons of the Parliament of England by 1372. However it remained part of the diocese of Thérouanne. Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 - 1363 - 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 See also: 1363 state leaders Events Magnus II, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg. ... The staple was a system of trade and taxation used during the medieval period in England. ... Calais was a former constituency of the Parliament of England. ... Burgess was originally a freeman of a borough. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... English parliament in front of the king c. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ...


The town came to be called the "brightest jewel in the English crown" owing to its great importance as the gateway for the tin, lead, cloth and wool trades (or "staples"). Its customs revenues amounted at times to a third of the English government's revenue, with wool being the most important element by far. Of its population of about 12,000 people, as many as 5,400 were recorded as having been connected with the wool trade. The governorship or Captaincy of Calais was a lucrative and highly prized public office; the famous Dick Whittington was simultaneously Lord Mayor of London and Mayor of the Staple in 1407. General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats, alpacas, llamas and rabbits may also... Sir Richard Whittington and his Cat Richard Whittington (c1350 — 1423), medieval merchant and politician, was the real-life inspiration for the pantomime character, Dick Whittington. ... Current Lord Mayor of London John Stuttard during the parade on November 11th, 2006 Michael Berry Savory, Previous Lord Mayor (2004–2005) The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the Mayor of the City of London and head of the Corporation of London. ... Events November 20 - A solemn truce between John, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry. ...

The Burghers of Calais, by Rodin, with the Hotel de Ville behind
The Burghers of Calais, by Rodin, with the Hotel de Ville behind

Calais was regarded for many years as being an integral part of Kingdom of England, with its representatives sitting in the English Parliament. Over one of its gates carried the inscription: The Burghers of Calais, by Rodin, at Calais Hotel de Ville By ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Burghers of Calais, by Rodin, at Calais Hotel de Ville By ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rodins The Burghers of Calais in Calais, France The Burghers of Calais (Les Bourgeois de Calais) is one of the most famous sculptures by Auguste Rodin, completed in 1888. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... English parliament in front of the king c. ...

When shall the Frenchmen Calais win
When iron and lead like cork shall swim

This was, however, at odds with reality. The continued English hold on Calais depended on expensively-maintained fortifications, as the town lacked any natural defences.


Maintaining Calais was a costly business that was frequently tested by the forces of France and the Duchy of Burgundy, with the Franco-Burgundian border running nearby. The duration of the English hold over Calais was to a large extent the result of the feud between Burgundy and France, under which both sides coveted the town but preferred to see it in the hands of the English rather than their domestic rivals. The stalemate was broken by the victory of the French crown over Burgundy, and the incorporation of the duchy into France. région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ...


The end of English rule over Calais came on January 7, 1558 when the French, under Francis, Duke of Guise, took advantage of a weakened garrison and decayed fortifications to retake it. The loss was regarded by Queen Mary I of England as a dreadful misfortune. When she heard the news, she reportedly said, "When I am dead and opened, you shall find 'Philip (her husband)' and 'Calais' lying in my heart"[2] The region around Calais, then-known as the Calaisis, was renamed the Pays Reconquis ("Reconquered Country") in commemoration of its recovery by the French. January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Francis, Duke of Guise Francis II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale (February 17, 1519 – February 24, 1563), called Balafré (the scarred), was a French soldier and politician. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King of England (as King-consort of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, King...

Flag of Calais
Flag of Calais

The town was captured by the Spanish in 1596 in an invasion mounted from the nearby Spanish Netherlands but it was returned to France under the Treaty of Vervins in 1598. Image File history File links Flag_of_Calais. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Calais. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2, 1598. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...


Calais was also on the front lines of France's conflict with the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1805, it hosted Napoleon's army and invasion fleet for his aborted invasion of Britain. Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Kingdom of Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Kingdom of Bavaria[6] Kingdom of Saxony[7... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

J.M.W. Turner: Calais Pier
J.M.W. Turner: Calais Pier

The British returned to Calais again during World War I, due to its proximity to the front lines in Flanders. It was a key port for the supply of arms and reinforcements to the Western Front. The town was virtually razed to the ground during World War II. In May 1940, it was a key objective of the invading German forces and became the scene of a last-ditch defence that allowed the defeated British forces to be evacuated from nearby Dunkirk in the Battle of Dunkirk. 3,000 British and 800 French troops, assisted by Royal Navy warships, held out from 22 May to 27 May 1940 against two German panzer divisions. The town was flattened by round-the-clock bombing and only 30 of the 3,800-strong defending force were evacuated before the town fell. Download high resolution version (3200x2250, 432 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3200x2250, 432 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 27 is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Panzer IV Ausf. ...


During the ensuing German occupation, it became the command post for German forces in the Pas-de-Calais/Flanders region and was very heavily fortified, as it was generally believed by the Germans that the Allies would invade at that point. It was also used as a launch site for V1 flying bombs and for much of the war, the Germans used the region as the site for railway guns used to bombard the south-eastern corner of England. Despite heavy preparations for defence against an amphibious assault, the Allied invasion took place well to the west in Normandy on D-Day. Calais was very heavily bombed and shelled in a successful effort to disrupt German communications and persuade them that the Allies would target the Pas-de-Calais for invasion (rather than Normandy). The town, now largely in ruins, was liberated by Canadian forces in October 1944. The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... French 320 mm railway gun Krupp K5 railway gun A railway gun, also called railroad gun or railgun is a large artillery piece, designed to be placed on rail tracks. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Today the French still refer to Calais as "the most English town in France".[3]



A short note on eleven-month siege of Calais by the English (1346-1347)


At the beginning 1346, the town of Calais, protected by its location in the middle of marshy land flooded by the sea at each tide, was defended by a garrison under the command of a knight from Burgundy, Jean de Vienne (or de Via(e)ne) and seconded by a certain number of knights from Artois (Pas-de-Calais) named by Froissart as Ernoulz d’Audrehem, Jehan de Surie (or de Sury), Baudouin de Belleborne (or de Bellebrune), Joffroy de le Motte, Pépin de Were (or de Wiere, or de Werie), to wich the Normandy Chronicle adds lords de Beaulo and de Grigny. Seeing that the English army was prepared for a siege to the “bitter end”, the captain of Calais, fearing with reason that he would be obliged to surrender through famine, resolved to get rid of all unprofitable mouths and expelled from the town (between 500 and 1700 persons according to the chroniclers) all those who had neither goods nor provisions. There was little in the way of battle in the country around Calais but at sea, the English king had placed 25 ships outside Calais. Genoese boats, in the service of France, did however manage to run the blockade as well as boats from Normandy and sailors from Abbeville (Somme) who resupplied Calais resolved and its besieged inhabitants. King Edward III of England (of the House of Anjou-Plantagenets) resolved to block the entrance to the channel with all kinds of obstacles and from June 1347 it was impossible for the French to provide supplies for Calais.(*1) NOTE: After having carried off the victory at Crécy-en-Ponthieu in 1346, King Edward III of England hurried on to continue the siege of Calais: he was looking for a harbour town which would be the key for landing his troops in France. He began investing the area on the 4th September 1346. By June 1347, in desperation, Jehan de Vienne, captain of the besieged Calais, wrote a letter to the King of France, Philippe VI de Valois, asking for him to come to his aid: “..the garrison has no other alternative but to attempt a desperate sortie: we would rather die honourably in the field than to eat each other !..” This letter, sent via the intermediary of a Genoese ship was intercepted by the English navy and therefore never reached Philippe VI. However, on the 27th June 1347, the French army arrived as far as Sangatte. The Flemish and the Germans went over to the English side, the people of Hainaut to the French. Two papal legates were dispatched to Calais and a three-day truce was concluded. All the routes leading to Calais were obstructed by ditches and guarded by the English and the King of France could not intervene. It was at this point that Jehan de Vienne, pressured by the besieged population of Calais, asked to parley with the English king about the surrender of Calais on condition that the population and the garrison were spared. Hearing this, Edward III required that six burghers were to come dressed only in their shirts, barefooted and with a rope around their necks and to be left at his disposal: they were; Eustache de Saint Pierre, Jehan d’Aire, Jacques de Wissant and his brother Pierre, Jean de Fiennes and Andrieux d’Andres. Arriving before Edward III, the six burghers of Calais were spared by grace of an intervention by Countess Philippa de Hainaut, wife of the English King. The town was occupied by the English at the end of August 1347 and the king took ship for England (leaving troops to guard Calais under the command of Jean de Montgomery who was in the service of the English king) with the French knights as his prisoners (amongst whom were the abovementionned Jehan de Vienne and Jehan de Sury): these noble prisoners remained six months in England and were afterwards offered for ransom (in 1348). Philippe VI of France ransomed them. The siege of Calais lasted eleven months. For three years, from 1347, truces were concluded between France and England (Edward III being satisfied with holding Calais). The town did not become French again until 1558. (*2) G.S. B. (*1) Source : Georges Daumet, archivist at the Archives Nationales, “Calais sous la domination anglaise », p. 4, after the Froissart Chronicles, published by Repressé-Crépel and Sons, Arras (France), 1902. (*2) Source : The Froissart Chronicles, published by Baron Kervyn de Lettenhove, Brussels (Belgium), 1868-1876. –Translation from French, Gr. Henderson.''


Economy

Pier and lighthouse on the Calais seafront

The city's proximity to England has made it a major port for centuries. It is the principal ferry crossing point between England and France, with the vast majority of cross-Channel being made between Dover and Calais. The French end of the Channel Tunnel is also situated in the vicinity of Calais, in Coquelles some 4 miles (6 km) to the west of the town. Pier and lighthouse on the seafront of Calais, France Image from German Wikipedia - http://de. ... Pier and lighthouse on the seafront of Calais, France Image from German Wikipedia - http://de. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, ca. ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ... Map of the Channel Tunnel. ... Coquelles is a village near Calais, it is known as la ville de la tunnel sous la manche (the town of the channel tunnel) and basically comprises of a shopping centre (Cité Europe), a centre hotellier with an Ibis, an Etap and a Suitehotel, a farm in veille Coquelles (old...


The mainstay of the town's economy is, naturally, its port, but it also has a number of indigenous industries. The principal ones are lace making, chemicals, and paper manufacture. It possesses direct rail links to Paris (148 miles / 238 km to the south). City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Due to the large difference in taxation between Britain and France on such items as alcoholic beverages and tobacco, massive shopping complexes targeted at British day-trippers have sprung up on and around Calais to take advantage of the border trade. Such day trippers are colloquially known as "booze cruisers" and were the target of considerable attention from the UK Customs and Excise authorities. However, given that both the UK and France are members of the EU customs zone, there is no restriction on the movement of purchases between the two countries as long as the goods are for personal use. [2] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the product manufactured from Tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp. ... Border trade, in general, refers to the flow of goods and services across the international land borders between countries. ... Booze cruise is an English colloquial term for a brief trip from Britain to France or Belgium with the intent of buying personal supplies of alcohol or tobacco in bulk quantities. ... Her Majestys Customs and Excise (HMCE) was, until April 2005, a department of the British Government in the UK. It was responsible for the collection of Value added tax (VAT), Customs Duties, Excise Duties, and other indirect taxes such as Air Passenger Duty, Climate Change Levy, Insurance Premium Tax... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories // Two parts of the Treaty of Rome deal with special relationships: Article 299 which sets out the territories to which the treaty applies, supplemented by the accession treaties; and Articles 182-188 and Annex II...


Transport

As well as the large port, the town is served by two railway stations: Gare de Calais-Fréthun and Gare de Calais-Ville, the former being the first stop on mainland Europe of the Eurostar line. Calais-Fréthun is a mainline and international station in the suburbs of Calais, France, one of two railway stations serving the town (the other being Calais-Ville). ... Gare de Calais-Ville is a mainline railway station serving the town of Calais in northern France. ... A Eurostar on the CTRL going through the Medway Towns Eurostar is a train service with Paris (Gare du Nord), Lille and Brussels (Brussel Zuid station). ...


Sights

Calais Hotel de Ville (townhall) at night
Calais Hotel de Ville (townhall) at night

Virtually the entire town was flattened in the Second World War, so there is little in Calais that pre-dates the war. For most visitors, the town is simply a place to pass through en route to other destinations. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1298, 709 KB) Hotel de Ville (townhall) at Night, Calais, France Photographed by Bala Amavasai File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1298, 709 KB) Hotel de Ville (townhall) at Night, Calais, France Photographed by Bala Amavasai File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


The town centre is dominated by its distinctive hotel de ville (town hall), built in the Flemish Renaissance style (and visible well out to sea). Directly in front of the town hall is a cast of the statue The Burghers of Calais (French Les Bourgeois de Calais), by Auguste Rodin. Rodins The Burghers of Calais in Calais, France The Burghers of Calais (Les Bourgeois de Calais) is one of the most famous sculptures by Auguste Rodin, completed in 1888. ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The German wartime military headquarters, situated near the train station in a small park, is today open to the public as a war museum.


Immediately to the west is the Côte d'Opale, an extremely scenic cliff-lined section of coast that parallels the White Cliffs on the English coast and is part of the same geological formation. Cape Blanc Nez seen from the beach Sunset at Cape Gris Nez Satellite photo of strait of dover. ...


On clear days, the buildings of Calais can quite readily be seen with the naked eye from the English shore, 21 miles (33 km) away.


References

  1. ^ Delatre, C. et al. Guides Géologiques Régionaux: Région du Nord Masson & Cie (1973) Fig.18.
  2. ^ Holinshed's Chronicles, IV (1808).
  3. ^ "Inside Nord-Pas-de-Calais: Culture", TripAdvisor.com (2007 TripAdvisor LLC).[1]

External links

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Calais (France)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Calais

  Results from FactBites:
 
Calais (714 words)
Calais Town Hall with its spectacular belfry, and the famous statue of the Six Burghers by Rodin.
The dramatic circumstances are commemorated by Auguste Rodin's famous bronze statue of the "Six Burghers of Calais" outside the Town Hall.
The English army drove out all the inhabitants, and during the occupation Calais was populated by English settlers - merchants, sailors and the defending army.
Calais - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1569 words)
The governorship or Captaincy of Calais was a lucrative and highly prized public office; the famous Dick Whittington was simultaneously Lord Mayor of London and Mayor of the Staple in 1407.
Calais was regarded for many years as being an integral part of Kingdom of England, with its representatives sitting in the English Parliament.
Calais was on the front lines of the conflict with the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.
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