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Encyclopedia > Calabria
Calabria
Geography
Status Region
Capital Catanzaro
President Agazio Loiero
(PDM-Union)
Provinces Catanzaro
Cosenza
Crotone
Reggio Calabria
Vibo Valentia
Area 15,081 km²
 - Ranked 10th (5.0 %)
Population (2006 est.)
 - Total 2,004,415
 - Ranked 10th (3.4 %)
 - Density 133/km²
Cliffside dwellings in Tropea.
Cliffside dwellings in Tropea.
View of Cosenza.
View of Cosenza.
La Sila National Park.
La Sila National Park.

Calabria (Latin: Brutium), is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of the Italian peninsula. It is bounded to the north by the region of Basilicata, to the south-west by the region of Sicily, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and to the east by the Ionian Sea. The region covers 15,080 km² and has a population of 2 million. The regional capital is the city of Catanzaro. The other main metropolitan areas are those of Reggio Calabria, Crotone, Vibo Valentia and Cosenza. The demonym of Calabria is Calabrian (Italian: calabrese). Calabria is a region located in Italy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Cathedral. ... The Southern Democratic Party (Partito Democratico Meridionale, PDM) is a christian-democratic and centrist Italian political party based in Calabria. ... The Union (Italian: LUnione) is an Italian centre-left political party coalition. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Catanzaro (It. ... Cosenza (It. ... Crotone (It. ... Reggio Calabria (It. ... Vibo Valentia (It. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. ... These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 741 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cliff at Tropea, Italy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 741 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cliff at Tropea, Italy. ... Tropea is also a village in the prefecture of Arcadia in Greece, see by the alternative name of Tropaia Church on an Island in Tropea Tropea is a municipality located within the province of Vibo Valentia, in Calabria (southern Italy). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cosenza is a city in southern Italy, located at the confluence of the rivers Busento and Crathis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Castle of Scilla Scilla is a town in Calabria, Italy, administratively part of the Province of Reggio Calabria. ... Image File history File links Corigliano_Calabro-Vista. ... Image File history File links Corigliano_Calabro-Vista. ... Corigliano Calabro is a comune and town located in the province of Cosenza, in Calabria, southern Italy. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Basilicata is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Puglia (Apulia) to the east, Calabria to the south, it has one short coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea and another of the Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea to the south-east. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Cathedral. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vibo Valentia is a town and comune (municipality) in the Calabria region of southern Italy, near the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Cosenza is a city in southern Italy, located at the confluence of the rivers Busento and Crathis. ...

Contents

Geography

Calabria is a narrow peninsula extending into the Mediterranean for three hundred kilometres. It is located at the toe of the "boot" between the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west and the Ionian Sea and Gulf of Taranto to the east. It is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in Sicily and Punta Pezzo in Calabria is only 3.2 km. Although the sea seems ever present in Calabria, it is mainly a mountainous region. Three mountain ranges are present: Pollino, the Sila, and Aspromonte. All three mountain ranges are unique with their own flora and fauna. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ... The Gulf of Taranto (Italian: Golfo di Taranto, Latin: Sinus Tarentinus) is a gulf of the Ionian sea, in southern Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina with names. ...


The Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are heavily wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept plateaus with little vegetation. These mountains are home to a rare Bosnian Pine variety, and are included in the Pollino National Park. The Pollino (Italian: Massiccio del Pollino) is a massif in the southern Apennines, on the border between Calabria and Basilicata, southern Italy. ... Binomial name Pinus heldreichii H. Christ The Bosnian Pine (Pinus heldreichii, synonym ; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine that occurs in the mountains of southeastern Europe, in southwestern Bulgaria, Bosnia, Albania, Macedonia, Greece (south to Italy, growing at 900-2,500 m altitude. ... A view of the park. ...


La Sila is a vast mountainous plateau, about 1,200 metres above sea level, which stretches for nearly 2,000 square kilometres along the central part of Calabria. The highest point is Botte Donato, which reaches 1,928 metres. The area boasts numerous lakes and dense coniferous forests.


The peninsula narrows at the Savuto river valley, which starts in the Sila and extends to the Gulf of Sant'Eufemia.


The Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto Uffugo, at 1,995 metres, and is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea. Aspromonte is a mountain close by Reggio, overlooking the Strait of Messina, near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862 in the Battle of Aspromonte. ... Location of Cosenza province in Italy Montalto Uffugo is town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. ...


In general, most of the lower terrain in Calabria has been agricultural for centuries, and exhibits indigenous scrubland as well as introduced plants such as the prickly pear cactus (it: Fico d'India). The lowest slopes are rich in vineyards and citrus fruit orchards. Moving upwards, olives and chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are often dense forests of oak, pine, beech and fir trees. Species Many, see text Opuntia is a genus in the cactus family Cactaceae. ...


Calabria is a land of contrasts, in many respects, with below zero temperatures in the mountains in winter and temperatures sometimes over 40°C in the summer along low valley areas. The climate is typically Mediterranean (Köppen climate classification CSa), except at the highest elevations (DSa, DSb) and the more arid eastern stretches along the Ionian Sea.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ...


Calabria is divided into five provinces:


Provinces of Calabria. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1056x816, 25 KB) Map of the provinces of the Calabria region of Italy. ...

Catanzaro (It. ... Cosenza (It. ... Crotone (It. ... Reggio Calabria (It. ... Vibo Valentia (It. ...

History

Calabria was first settled by Italic Oscan-speaking tribes. Two of these tribes included the Oenotri (roughly translated into the "vine-cultivators") and the Itali. Greek contact with the latter resulted in the entire peninsula (modern Italy) taking the name of the tribe. Denarius of Marsican Confederation with Oscan legend. ... Ancient Italic people settled in a territory of remarkably big dimensions including todays southern Italian region of Basilicata and the northern part of Calabria. ...


Greeks settled heavily along the coast at an early date and several of their settlements, including the first Italian city called Rhegion (Reggio Calabria), and the next ones Sybaris, Kroton (Crotone), and Locri, were numbered among the leading cities of Magna Graecia during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, the region never regained its former prosperity. This article or section should be merged with Hellenes Greeks in Ancient History In Latin literature, Græci (or Greeks, in English) is the name by which Hellenes are known. ... Reggio Calabria (officially Reggio di Calabria, Rìggiu in Calabrian dialect, Righi in Greek-Calabrian), is the largest and the oldest city in Calabria, Italy, dating back to the 8th century BC (see history below). ... Coin from Sybaris, c. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... Locri Epizephyri (epi-Zephyros, under the West wind; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was founded about 680 BC on the Italian shores of the Ionian Sea, near modern Capo Zefirio, by the Locrians, apparently by Opuntii (East Locrians) from the city of Opus, but including Ozolae (West... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


The Greeks were conquered by the 3rd century BC by roving Oscan tribes from the north, including a branch of the Samnites called the Lucanians and an offshoot of the Lucanians called the Bruttii. The Bruttii established the main cities of Calabria, including the modern capital, Cosenza (then called Consentia). Samnite warriors Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south... The Lucani (Lucanians) were an ancient people of Italy who spoke an Oscan language, a member of the Italic languages. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Bruttii The Bruttii were an ancient people of southern Italy, occupying the interior of Bruttium (modern Calabria). ... Cosenza is a city in southern Italy, located at the confluence of the rivers Busento and Crathis. ...


After the fall of the Roman Empire the inhabitants were in large part driven inland by the spread of Malaria and, from the early Middle Ages until the XVII century, by pirate raids. Calabria was devastated during the Gothic War before it came under the rule of a local dux for the Byzantine Empire. In the 9th and 10th centuries, Calabria, which had been the rich breadbasket of Rome before Egypt was conquered, was the borderland between Byzantine rule and the Arab emirs in Sicily, subject to raids and skirmishes, depopulated and demoralized, with vibrant Greek monasteries providing fortresses of culture. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Justinus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila The Gothic War, was a war fought in Italy in 535-552. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


In the 1060s the Normans, under the leadership of Robert Guiscard's brother Roger, established a presence in this borderland, and organized a government along Byzantine lines that was run by the local Greek magnates of Calabria. In 1098, Pope Urban II named Roger the equivalence of an apostolic legate later formed what became the Kingdom of Sicily. The administrative divisions created in the late medieval times were maintained right through to unification: Calabria Citeriore (or Latin Calabria) in the northern half and Calabria Ulteriore (or Greek Calabria) in the southern half. Norman conquests in red. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to a border region, e. ... Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 - July 29, 1099), pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099, was born into nobility in France at Lagery (near Châtillon-sur-Marne) and was church educated. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ...


Begining with the subsequent Angevin rule, which ruled Calabria as part of the Kingdom of Naples, Calabria was ruled from Naples right up until unification with Italy. The kingdom came under many rulers: the Habsburg dynasties of both Spain and Austria; the Franco-Spanish Bourbon dynasty which created the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte, and then French Marshal Joachim Murat, who was executed in the small town of Pizzo. Calabria experienced a series of peasant revolts as part of the European Revolutions of 1848. This set the stage for the eventual unification with the rest of Italy in 1861, when the Kingdom of Naples was brought into the union by Giuseppe Garibaldi. The Aspromonte was the scene of a famous battle of the unification of Italy, in which Garibaldi was wounded. Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Pizzo is a seaport and commune in the province of Vibo Valentia (Calabria, Italy), situated on a steep cliff overlooking the Gulf of Santa Eufemia. ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and General of the Risorgimento. ... Aspromonte is a mountain close by Reggio, overlooking the Strait of Messina, near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862 in the Battle of Aspromonte. ...


The 'Ndrangheta organized crime families of Calabria began to appear in 1860; they now rival in power the better known Cosa Nostra of nearby Sicily, though they operate completely independently from the Sicilians and are especially active in the cocaine trade. Calabria in Italy Map of Calabria The Calabrian Ndrangheta (from the Greek word andragathía for heroism and virtue — The Honoured Society), IPA: , is one of the most powerful and ruthless organized crime organizations in Italy. ... Charles Lucky Luciano, one of the most famous American bosses (La) Cosa Nostra (our thing or this thing of ours in Italian) is a worldwide alliance of criminals, linked through both familial and conspiratorial ties, that is dedicated to pursuing crime and protecting its members. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ...


Until the mid 20th C., Southern Italy was among the poorest regions of Europe and impoverished Calabria was a main source for the Italian diaspora of the early 1900s. Many Calabrians moved to the industrial centres of northern Italy, the rest of Europe, Australia and the Americas (especially Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and the United States). Since the 1970s there has been an increased affluence and a much improved economy based on modern agriculture, tourism, and a growing commercial base. Even though the per capita income is still well below that of northern and central Italy, it has improved to the point where it is approaching the European Union median.[1] Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of World War I in 1914. ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... Central Italy, encompasses six of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Abruzzo Lazio Marche Molise Toscana Umbria Although the regions of Abruzzo and Molise are geographically located in Central Italy, the European office for statistics (Eurostat) lists these two regions within Southern Italy. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Calabria

Demographics

Seaport of Gioia Tauro.
Seaport of Gioia Tauro.

Towns of Calabria with a population of 50,000 or more:

City Population
Reggio Calabria 184,504
Catanzaro 95,099
Cosenza 70,680
Lamezia Terme 70,366
Crotone 60,517

The following table indicates the population by province: Reggio Calabria (officially Reggio di Calabria, Rìggiu in Calabrian dialect, Righi in Greek-Calabrian), is the largest and the oldest city in Calabria, Italy, dating back to the 8th century BC (see history below). ... Cathedral. ... Cosenza is a city in southern Italy, located at the confluence of the rivers Busento and Crathis. ... The quarter of St. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ...

Province Population
Province of Cosenza 732,615
Province of Reggio Calabria 565,866
Province of Catanzaro 368,923
Province of Crotone 172,970
Province of Vibo Valentia 168,894

Resident population as of 1 January 2005, source Istat Cosenza (It. ... Reggio Calabria (It. ... Catanzaro (It. ... Crotone (It. ... Vibo Valentia (It. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Culture

The Riace Warriors at the National Museum of Magna Grecia.
The Riace Warriors at the National Museum of Magna Grecia.
The coast at Capo Vaticano.
The coast at Capo Vaticano.
Byzantine church in Stilo.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixel Image in higher resolution (1724 × 1157 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixel Image in higher resolution (1724 × 1157 pixel, file size: 1. ... The two Bronzi di Riace (Riace bronzes) are full-size Greek bronzes of young nude bearded warriors, cast about 460 BCE - 430 BCE and found in August 1972, perhaps at the site of a shipwreck, off the coast of Riace, near Reggio Calabria, Italy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cape Vatican Capo Vaticano is a wide bathing place of the Municipality of Ricadi in Calabria, Italy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 394 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (841 × 1280 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 394 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (841 × 1280 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Cattolica of Stilo, a Byzantine-style church from the 11th century. ...

Main sights

Tourism in Calabria has increased over the years. The main tourist draws in Calabria are the coastline and the mountains. The coastline alternates between rugged cliffs and sandy beaches, and is sparsely interrupted by development when compared to other European seaside destinations. The sea around Calabria is clear, and there is a good level of tourist accommodation. The poet Gabriele D'Annunzio called the coast facing Sicily near Reggio Calabria "...the most beautiful kilometer in Italy" (il più bel chilometro d'Italia). The primary mountain tourist draws are Aspromonte and La Sila, with its national park and lakes. Some other prominent destinations include: Gabriele dAnnunzio (12 March 1863, Pescara – 1 March 1938, Gardone Riviera, province of Brescia) was an Italian poet, writer, novelist, dramatist and daredevil, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... Aspromonte is a mountain close by Reggio, overlooking the Strait of Messina, near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862 in the Battle of Aspromonte. ...

  • Catanzaro, is also called "the city between the two seas" because it is located at the centre of the narrowest point of Italy, from where the Ionian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea are both visible. Of note area the cathedral, the castle, the promenade on the Ionian sea, the park of biodiversity and the archaeological park scolacium.
  • Reggio Calabria, on the strait between the mainland and Sicily, the largest and oldest city in Calabria, renowned for its fabulous panoramic seaside with botanical gardens between the art nouveau buildings and the beautiful beaches, and its 3,000 years of history with the old Aragonian Castle and the great National Museum of Magna Grecia where the famous Riace Warriors (Bronzi di Riace) are located.
  • Cosenza, seat of the Cosentian Academy, is renowned for its cultural institutions, the old quarter, a Romanesque Cathedral and a Swabian Castle.
  • Sybaris, on the Ionian sea, is a village situated near the excavation of ancient Sybaris, a Greek colony of the VII century B.C.
  • Scilla, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, "pearl" of the "Violet Coast", has delightful panorama, important religious traditions, and is the site of some of Homer's tales.
  • Tropea, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, is a beautiful town, with a drammatic seaside beach, and the Santa Maria dell'Isola sanctuary. It is also renowned for its sweet red onions (mainly produced in Ricadi).
  • Capo Vaticano on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a very famous wide bathing place near Tropea.
  • Siderno on the Ionian Sea coast.
  • Gerace, near Locri, is a beautiful medieval city with a Norman castle and an ancient cathedral.
  • Squillace, a seaside resort and important archeological site
  • Stilo, the home of Tommaso Campanella, with its Norman castle and beautiful Byzantine church, the Cattolica.
  • Pizzo, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, known for its ice cream called "Tartufo". Interesting places in Pizzo are Piazza Repubblica and the Aragonian castle where Murat was murdered.
  • Soverato on the Ionian Sea, Also known as the "Pearl" of the Ionian Sea. Especially renown for its beaches, boardwalk and nightlife.
  • Nicotera on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a beautiful little medieval Town with an ancient Ruffo's castle.

Cathedral. ... Reggio Calabria (officially Reggio di Calabria, Rìggiu in Calabrian dialect, Righi in Greek-Calabrian), is the largest and the oldest city in Calabria, Italy, dating back to the 8th century BC (see history below). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Magna Graecia (Latin for Greater Greece, Megalê Hellas/Μεγάλη Ελλάς in Greek) is the name of an area in ancient southern Italy and Sicily that was colonised by ancient Greek settlers in the 8th century BCE. Originally, Magna Graecia was the name used by the Romans to describe the greater... The two Bronzi di Riace (Riace bronzes) are full-size Greek bronzes of young nude bearded warriors, cast about 460 BCE - 430 BCE and found in August 1972, perhaps at the site of a shipwreck, off the coast of Riace, near Reggio Calabria, Italy. ... Cosenza is a city in southern Italy, located at the confluence of the rivers Busento and Crathis. ... The Cosentian Academy (Accademia Cosentina) was founded in Cosenza, Italy, by Aulo Giano Parassio, in 1511. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... A Swabian is a native of Swabia, a place that is located in the south-west region of Germany. ... Coin from Sybaris, c. ... The Castle of Scilla Scilla is a town in Calabria, Italy, administratively part of the Province of Reggio Calabria. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... Tropea is also a village in the prefecture of Arcadia in Greece, see by the alternative name of Tropaia Church on an Island in Tropea Tropea is a municipality located within the province of Vibo Valentia, in Calabria (southern Italy). ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For the parody newspaper, see The Onion. ... Ricadi is a small rural town, as well as a municipality, located along the Tyrrhennian coast, within the Vibo Valentia district (license plate is VV, in Calabria. ... Cape Vatican Capo Vaticano is a wide bathing place of the Municipality of Ricadi in Calabria, Italy. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Siderno is a town located in Calabria, Italy. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Gerace is a town in the province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, Italy. ... Locri Epizephyri (epi-Zephyros, under the West wind; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was founded about 680 BC on the Italian shores of the Ionian Sea, near modern Capo Zefirio, by the Locrians, apparently by Opuntii (East Locrians) from the city of Opus, but including Ozolae (West... Coat of arms of Comune di Squillace Squillace (Latin: Scyllaceum or Scalacium) is an ancient seaside town in the southern Italian region of Calabria facing the Golfo di Squillace. ... The Cattolica of Stilo, a Byzantine-style church from the 11th century. ... Tommaso Campanella (September 5, 1568–May 21, 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was an Italian philosopher, theologian and poet. ... The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily. ... Pizzo is a seaport and commune in the province of Vibo Valentia (Calabria, Italy), situated on a steep cliff overlooking the Gulf of Santa Eufemia. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Soverato is a comune and town in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Italy. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Nicotera is a comune (municipality) in the province of Vibo Valentia, Calabria, Italy. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ...

Language

Main article: Calabrian languages

Although the official national language of Calabria has been Standard Italian since unification (1861), as a consequence of its deep and colourful history, Calabrian dialects have developed that have been spoken in the region for centuries. The various dialects are divided into two different language groups. In the northern one-third of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered a dialect of the Neapolitan language called Northern Calabrian'. In the southern two-thirds of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered part of the Sicilian language and are grouped as Southern Calabro. Calabrian language is the name given to a number of Dialects spoken in parts of the Calabria region in Italy. ... Because of the extreme variations between the dialects of Calabria, in southern Italy, they are subdivided into two different Romance language groups. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ...


Other historical languages have left an imprint on the region. In isolated pockets, as well as some quarters of Reggio Calabria (historical stronghold of the Greek language in Italy), a hybrid language that dates back to the 9th century, called Griko, is spoken. A variety of Occitan can also be found in certain communities and French has had an influence on many Calabrian words and phrases. In several villages, the Arbëresh dialect of the Albanian language has been spoken since a wave of refugees settled there in the 15th century. In addition, since Calabria (as well as other parts of southern Italy and Sicily) were once ruled by the Spanish, some Calabrian dialects clearly exhibit Spanish influences. Location map of the Griko-speaking areas in Salento and Calabria Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a language combining ancient Greek, Byzantine Greek and Italian elements. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Arbëresh (or Arbërishte or Arbërisht) is the dialect of the Albanian language spoken by the Arbëreshë and Arvanites the Albanian-speaking minorities in Italy and Greece. ... Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 8 million people, primarily in Albania and Serbia (province of Kosovo-Metohija), but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


It is important to highlight the presence of Calabrians in Humanism and in the Renaissance. Indeed the Hellenistics in this period frequently came from Calabria maybe because of the Greek influence. The rediscovery of Ancient Greek was very difficult because this language had been almost forgotten. In this period the presence of Calabrian humanists or refugees from Constantinople was fundamental. The study of Ancient Greek, in this period, was mainly a work of two monks of the monastery of Seminara: Barlaam, bishop of Gerace, and his disciple, Leonzio Pilato. Leonzio Pilato, in particular, was probably a Greek Calabrian born near Reggio Calabria. He was an important teacher of Ancient Greek and translator, and he helped Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of Homer's works. For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Seminara is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 90 km southwest of Catanzaro and about 30 km northeast of Reggio Calabria. ... Barlaam of Calabria (ca. ... Leozio Pilatus, or Leontius [Leonzio Pilato] (d. ... Leozio Pilatus, or Leontius [Leonzio Pilato] (d. ... Reggio Calabria (officially Reggio di Calabria, Rìggiu in Calabrian dialect, Righi in Greek-Calabrian), is the largest and the oldest city in Calabria, Italy, dating back to the 8th century BC (see history below). ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ...


Cuisine

See also: Calabrian wine

Essentially a typical southern Italian, Mediterranean cuisine with a balance between meat-based dishes (pork, lamb, goat), vegetables (especially eggplant), and fish. Pasta (like in most parts if Italy) is also very important in Calabria. In contrast to most other Italian regions, Calabrians have traditionally placed an emphasis on the preservation of their food, in part because of the climate and potential crop failures. As a result, there is a tradition of packing vegetables and meats in olive oil, making sausages and cold cuts (Sopressata, 'Nduja), and, along the coast, curing fish- especially swordfish, sardines (sardelle rosamarina) and cod (Baccalà). Local desserts are typically fried, honey-sweetened pastries (Cudduraci, scalille or scalidde) or baked biscotti-type treats (such as 'nzudda). External links Mediterranean cuisine guide and recipes Categories: Stub | Mediterranean cuisine ... Aubergine redirects here. ... For the Popeye cartoon character, see Olive Oyl. ... Supermarket Sopressata salami. ... Nduja is a creamy, and extremely spicy sausage mainly produced in Calabria. ... This article is about a type of fish. ... Baccalà is Italian for dried, salted cod. ... A plate of biscotti Biscotti (plural of Italian biscotto, roughly meaning twice baked) are crisp Italian cookies often containing nuts or flavored with anise. ...


Some local specialties include Caciocavallo Cheese, Cipolla rossa di Tropea (red onion), Frìttuli or Curcùci (fried pork), Liquorice (liquirizia), Lagane e Cicciari (ceci) (a pasta dish with chickpeas), Pecorino Crotonese (Cheese of Sheep), and Pignolata. Caciocavallo (Albanian: Kaçkavall; Bulgarian: Кашкавал (Kashkaval); Romanian: Caşcaval; Serbian: Kačkavalj; Sicilian: Cascavaddu; Turkish: Kaşar) is a type of cottage cheese made out of sheeps or cows milk, originally produced in Sicily, Italy, but now spread all across the Balkans, especially in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Turkey, Greece, Slovenia... Binomial name L.[1] Synonyms Glycyrrhiza glandulifera Waldst. ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. The chickpea, garbanzo bean or bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) is an edible pulse of the Leguminosae or Fabaceae family, subfamily India. ... Pecorino Romano cheese Pecorino is the name of a family of hard Italian cheeses made from sheeps milk. ... Pignolata is a Sicilian pastry. ...


Although Calabrian wines are not well known outside Italy, in ancient times Calabria was referred to as Enotria (from Ancient Greek Οἰνωτρία - Oenotria, "land of wine"). According to ancient Greek tradition, Οἴνωτρος (Oenotrus), the youngest of the sons of Lycaon, was the eponymous of Oenotria[2]. Some vineyards have origins dating back to the ancient Greek colonists. The best known DOC wines are Cirò (Province of Crotone) and Donnici (Province of Cosenza). Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... The Oenotrians (the tribe of Oenotrus) were an ancient Italic people who settled a territory of remarkably large dimensions, including the region of Basilicata and the northern part of the region of Calabria in southern Italy. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... In Greek mythology, Oenotrus was the son of Lycaon. ... Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ... Look up doc in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Crotone (It. ... Donnici is a town and comune in the Province of Cosenza, region of Calabria, Italy. ... Cosenza (It. ...


Noted Calabrians

Barlaam of Seminara (ca. ... Cassiodorus at his Vivarium library ( in Codex Amiatinus, 8th century). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Albert Anastasia (born Umberto Anastasio) (September 26, 1902 – October 25, 1957), aka the Mad Hatter and Lord High Executioner, was a New York City Cosa Nostra boss remembered for his brutality and his role in running the contract killing gang known as Murder, Inc. ... Anaxilas was tyrant of Rhegium, in the southwestern tip of Italy, from 474 BC - 476 BC. He seized Zancle after Hippocrates death and renamed it to Messana. ... Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (Museum of Modern Art, New York) Umberto Boccioni (October 19, 1882–August 16, 1916) was an Italian painter and sculptor and a member of the Futurist movement. ... Tommaso Campanella (September 5, 1568–May 21, 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was an Italian philosopher, theologian and poet. ... Francesco Cilea, (Palmi, near Reggio Calabria, July 26, 1866 - Varazze, near Savona, November 20, 1950) was an Italian opera composer, whose early success was not sustained, as taste in music changed. ... Alessandro Longo (December 31, 1864, Amantea (Cosenza) – November 3, 1945, Naples) was an Italian composer and musicologist. ... Francesco Cozza (1605-1682) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period. ... Renato Dulbecco (born February 22, 1914) is an Italian-born virologist. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Joachim of Flora, in a 15th century woodcut Joachim of Fiore, also known as Joachim of Flora and in Italian Gioacchino da Fiore (c. ... Joachim of Fiore, also known as Joachim of Flora and in Italian Gioacchino da Fiore (1135 - 1201), was the founder of monastic order of San Giovanni in Fiore. ... Pasquale Galluppi Pasquale Galluppi (2 April 1770, Tropea, Calabria-13 December 1846 Naples) was an Italian philosopher, from 1831 he was a professor at the University of Naples. ... John VII, pope from 705 to 707, successor of John VI, was also of Greek nationality. ... Pope Saint Zachary (Greek Zacharias), pope (741-752). ... John XVI (originally John Piligato or Philagathus) (9XX - 1013?) was an Italian antipope between 997 and 998. ... Ibycus (), of Rhegium in Italy, Greek lyric poet, contemporary of Anacreon, flourished in the 6th century BC. He was included in the canonical list of nine lyric poets by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria. ... Aloysius Lilius (Luigi Lilio, 1510 – 1576) was a physician from Calabria in Italy (at that time part of the kingdom of Naples). ... Milo or Milon of Croton (late 6th century BC) was the most famous of Greek athletes in Antiquity. ... Giuseppe Musolino, better known as the Brigante Musolino or the King of Aspromonte, was an Italian outlaw and folk hero. ... Nossis was an ancient Greek epigrammist, c. ... Guglielmo Pepe (1783-1855), Neapolitan general, was born at Squillace in Calabria. ... Leozio Pilatus, or Leontius [Leonzio Pilato] (d. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; born between 580 and 572 BC, died between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian Greek mathematician[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Mattia Preti (1613-1699) was a Italian Baroque artist who worked in Italy and Malta. ... Nilus the Younger or San Nilo di Rossano (910 - December 27[1], 1005) was an Italian saint. ... Saint Francis of Paola Saint Francis of Paola (or: Francescus de Paula, 1416 – April 2, 1507) was an Italian mendicant friar and the founder of the Order of the Minims. ... Antonio Serra was a late 16th century Italian writer in the Mercantilist tradition. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Mimmo Rotella (1918-2006) was an Italian artist and poet best known for his works of décollage, made from torn advertising posters. ... Bernardino Telesio (1509 - 1588) was an Italian philosopher and natural scientist. ... Salvatore Antonio Rino Gaetano(Crotone, 29 October 1950 - Rome, 2 June 1981), was an italian singer-songwriter very popular during 1970s. ... Loredana Bertè (born September 20, 1950) is a popular Italian singer. ... Mia Martini (September 20, 1947 - May 12, 1995), pseudonym of Domenica Bertè, was a popular and critically acclaimed Italian singer. ... Raffaele Vallone, known as Raf, (17 February 1916-31 October 2002), was an Italian actor and an international film star. ... Gennaro Ivan Rino Gattuso, Cavaliere Ufficiale OMRI,[2][3] (born January 9, 1978 in Corigliano Calabro) is an Italian World Cup-winning footballer. ... Nicola Calipari Nicola Calipari (June 23, 1953, Reggio Calabria - March 4, 2005, Iraq) was an Italian SISMI military intelligence officer with the rank of Major General. ... Gianni Versace (December 2, 1946 – July 15, 1997) was an Italian designer of both clothing and theater costumes. ... Donatella Versace (born May 2, 1955) is an affluent Italian fashion designer, like her famous brother, Gianni Versace, the founder of the Versace clothing empire. ... Vincenzo Iaquinta, Cavaliere Ufficiale OMRI[1][2], (born November 21, 1979 in Cutro, Crotone) is an Italian World Cup-winning footballer. ... Simone Perrotta, Cavaliere OMRI[1] (born September 17, 1977 in Ashton-under-Lyne, Greater Manchester, England) is an Italian football midfielder who currently plays for A.S. Roma in Serie A. He was member of the Italian national football team that won the 2006 FIFA World Cup. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Giuseppe Pancaro (born 26 August 1971 Cosenza, Italy) is an Italian football defender, currently plays for ACF Fiorentina. ... Alessandro Rosina (born January 31, 1984 in Belvedere Marittimo, Cosenza) is an Italian footballer, currently playing for Torino F.C. of Serie A. Categories: | | | | | | | ... Mark Iuliano (born 12 August 1973 Cosenza) is an italian football defender, currently plays for U.C. Sampdoria. ... Raoul Bova (born 14 August 1971 Rome, Italy) is an Italian actor. ... Nicolas Cage (born January 7, 1964) is an American actor. ... For other persons named Tony Bennett, see Tony Bennett (disambiguation). ...

Twin cities

References

  1. ^ Eurostat 2006
  2. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, Arcadia, 8.3.5, at Theoi Project
  3. ^ List of twin towns and sister cities of Buenos Aires

External links

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Calabria.

Coordinates: 39°00′N, 16°30′E Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... This is a list of twin towns and sister cities (see town twinning) in Argentina arranged by location. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... “Abruzzi” redirects here. ... The Aosta Valley (Italian: Valle dAosta, French: Vallée dAoste, Arpitan: Val dOuta) is a mountainous Region in north-western Italy. ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... Basilicata is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Puglia (Apulia) to the east, Calabria to the south, it has one short coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea and another of the Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea to the south-east. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... // The Marche (plural, originally le marche de Ancona = the Marches of Ancona) are a region of Central Italy, bordering Emilia-Romagna north, Tuscany to the north-west, Umbria to west, Abruzzo and Latium to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... Molise is a region of Southern Italy, the second smallest of the regions. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol[1] (Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut, also Trentin-Sudtirol [2][3]) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Veneto is my fatherland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Homes Calabria | Calabria | Southern Italy (541 words)
Calabria is a largely undiscovered region of Italy, where there are properties in towns and villages in locations that 'take your breath away' with wonderful sea and mountain views close to the Tyrrehenian coastline.
Calabria gives you the feeling of times gone by, a truly beautiful part of Italy, that still retains all of it's charm and is one of the warmest regions in the Meditteranean with many unsploit areas and a wealth of history and culture.
The Calabria region has been known for it's agricultural for centuries, vineyards and citrus fruit orchards in the lower regions, with chestnut and olives trees in the higher regions there are forests of oak, beech and pine trees, including a rare bosnian pine.
Calabria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (956 words)
Calabria, formerly Brutium, is a region in southern Italy which occupies the "toe" of the Italian peninsula south of Naples.
The switchover to Catanzaro as capital of Calabria was the cause of riots in 1970.
The Aspromonte, a mountainous region of southern Calabria, was the scene of a famous battle of the Risorgimento (unification of Italy), in which Garibaldi was wounded.
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