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Encyclopedia > Cajun
Cajuns
Acadiana Flag
Total population

1990 US census: 597,729[1]
Image File history File links Flag_of_Acadiana. ...

Regions with significant populations
United States:[2]
Louisiana:
   432,549
Eastern Texas:
   56,000 (est.)
Other U.S. states:
   91,000 (est.)
Language(s)
Cajun French, Cajun English, American English, Standard French
Religion(s)
Predominantly Roman Catholic
Related ethnic groups
French, French-Canadian, Métis, Acadians

Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. Today, the Cajuns make up a significant portion of south Louisiana's population, and have exerted an enormous impact on the state's culture.[3] This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... Acadiana, the tradtitional Cajun homeland and the stronghold of both the Cajun French and English dialects. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français neutre or even le français international) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... “Canadiens” redirects here. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French: or ) are one of three recognized Canadian aboriginal groups whose homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ...

Contents

People

Etymology

The word "Cajun" is an aphetic variant of Acadian.[4] There is some dispute over the origin of the term Acadia; some suggest that it came from the name of the ancient Greek region of Arcadia; others suggest that it is a derivation of the Mikmaq Indian word cadique, meaning "a good place to set up camp." Aphesis, Apheresis, Aphaeresis (from Greek apo- away, and hairein to take) is the removal of an initial, usually unstressed vowel or a syllable of a word. ... Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ... The Mikmaq (also Míkmaq, Micmac; in Quebec, Migmaq) are a First Nations people indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Maritimes and the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ...


Ethnic group of national origin

The Cajuns retain a unique dialect of the French language and numerous other cultural traits that distinguish them as an ethnic group. Cajuns were officially recognized by the U.S. government as a national ethnic group in 1980 per a discrimination lawsuit filed in federal district court. Presided over by Judge Edwin Hunter, the case, known as Roach v. Dresser Industries Valve and Instrument Division (494 F.Supp. 215, D.C. La., 1980), hinged on the issue of the Cajuns' ethnicity. Significantly, Judge Hunter held in his ruling that:

"We conclude that plaintiff is protected by Title VII's ban on national origin discrimination. The Louisiana Acadian (Cajun) is alive and well. He is “up front” and “main stream.” He is not asking for any special treatment. By affording coverage under the “national origin” clause of Title VII he is afforded no special privilege. He is given only the same protection as those with English, Spanish, French, Iranian, Portuguese, Mexican, Italian, Irish, et al., ancestors."

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...

History of Acadian ancestors

The Acadians were evicted from their native land Acadia (which has since been resettled and consists of parts of what is now known as New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada) in the period 1755 - 1763; this has become known as the Great Upheaval or Le Grand Dérangement. At the time there was a war in what is now Canada between France and Great Britain over the colony of New France. This war is known in the United States as the French and Indian War, though it was only one theater of the Seven Years' War. This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Great Upheaval (le Grand Dérangement), also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation or the Acadian Expulsion, was the forced population transfer of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755 and 1763, ordered by British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and...


The migration from Canada was spurred by the Treaty of Paris (1763) which ended the war. The treaty terms provided 18 months for unrestrained emigration from Canada. Only after many of the Cajuns had moved to Louisiana did they discover France had secretly ceded Louisiana to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762). The formal announcement of the transfer was made in December 1764. The Cajuns took part in the Rebellion of 1768 in an attempt to prevent the transfer. The Spanish formally asserted control in 1769. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... The Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) was a secret agreement in which France ceded Louisiana (New France) to Spain. ... The Rebellion of 1768 was an attempt by Creole and German settlers around New Orleans, Louisiana to stop the handover of the New France Louisiana Territory to New Spain. ...


The Acadians were scattered throughout the eastern seaboard. Families were split and put on ships with different destinations. Many ended up in what was then French-colonized Louisiana, reaching as far north as Dakota territory. France had ceded the colony to Spain in 1762, prior to their defeat by Britain, and two years before the first Acadians began settling in Louisiana. The interim French officials provided land and supplies. The Spanish governor, Bernardo de Gálvez, later proved to be hospitable, permitting the Acadians to continue to speak their language, practice Roman Catholicism—which was also the official religion of Spain—and otherwise pursue their livelihoods with minimal interference. Some families and individuals did travel north through the Louisiana territory to set up homes as far north as Wisconsin. Cajuns fought in the American Revolution. Although they fought for Spanish General Galvez, their contribution to the winning of the war has been recognized.[5]
"Galvez leaves New Orleans with an army of Spanish regulars and the Louisiana militia made up of 600 Cajun volunteers and captures the British strongholds of Fort Bute at Bayou Manchac, across from the Acadian settlement at St. Gabriel. And on September 21, they attack and capture Baton Rouge"
A review of the list of members shows many common Cajun names among soldiers who participated in the Battle of Baton Rouge and the Battle for West Florida. The Galvez Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution was formed in memory of those soldiers.[1] Their fight against the British was partially in response to their treatment by the British in evicting them from Acadia. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Dakotas is a collective term used in the United States to refer to the states of North and South Dakota together. ... Bernardo de Gálvez Bernardo de Gálvez, conde de Galvez (23 July 1746 born in Macharaviaya, a mountain village in the province of Málaga, Spain – 1786) was Spanish governor of Louisiana from 1777 to 1785, and Viceroy of New Spain 1785-1786. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Cajuns who settled in northern Wisconsin originally did so in the area just west of what is now New Orleans, mainly along the Mississippi River. Later, they were moved by the Spanish colonial government to areas west and southwest of New Orleans, in a region later named Acadiana, where they shared the swamps and prairies with the Attakapa and Chitimacha Native American tribes.[citation needed] Map of Acadiana Region with the Cajun Heartland USA subregion highlighted in dark red. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


Mostly secluded until the early 1900s, Cajuns today are largely assimilated into the mainstream society and culture. Some Cajuns live in communities outside of Louisiana. Also, some people identify themselves as Cajun culturally despite lacking Acadian ancestry.

For more details on this topic, see History of the Acadians.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Ethnic mixing and alternate origins

Some believe Cajuns do not descend solely from Acadian exiles who settled in south Louisiana in the eighteenth century. They believe that Cajuns also descend from other ethnic groups with whom those exiles intermarried over many generations, including British, Spanish, German, Native American, Métis and French Creole settlers. Historian Carl A. Brasseaux has asserted that it was this process of intermarriage that created the Cajuns in the first place.[3] However, most Cajuns refuse to marry outside of the Cajun community, believing that any intermarriage would weaken that community. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Non-Acadian French Creoles in rural areas were absorbed into Cajun communities. Some Cajun parishes, such as Evangeline and Avoyelles, possess relatively few inhabitants of Acadian origin. Their populations descend in many cases from settlers who migrated to the region from Quebec, Mobile, or directly from France. Theirs is regarded as the purest dialect of French spoken within Acadiana. Regardless, it is generally acknowledged that Acadian influences have prevailed in most sections of south Louisiana. This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana, USA. For uses of the term Creole in other countries and cultures, see Creole (disambiguation). ... Evangeline Parish is a parish located in the state of Louisiana. ... Avoyelles Parish is a parish located in the state of Louisiana. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... It has been suggested that List of people from Mobile, Alabama be merged into this article or section. ...


Many Cajuns also have ancestors who were not French. Many of the original settlers in French Acadia were actually English, for example the Melansons (originally Mallinson). German colonists began to settle in Louisiana before the Louisiana Purchase, particularly on the German Coast along the Mississippi River north of New Orleans. People of Spanish or Hispanic origin, including many Canary Islanders and a number of early Filipino settlers (notably in Saint Malo) from the cross-Pacific Galleon Trade with Mexico, have settled along the Gulf Coast and in some cases intermarried into Cajun families. Anglo-American settlers in the region often were assimilated into Cajun communities, especially those who arrived before the English language became predominant in southern Louisiana. For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ... River Parishes Main building at Laura Creole planation, 2002 photograph The River Parishes are those parishes in Louisiana between New Orleans and Baton Rouge that span both banks of the Mississippi River, and are officially part of the Acadiana region. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Islenos (from the Spanish isleños, plural of islander) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi River Delta of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... Saint Malo was a small fishing village that existed in Louisiana from the mid 18th century to the early 19th century. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Look up anglo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


One obvious result of this cultural mixture is the variety of surnames that are common among the Cajun population. Surnames of the original Acadian settlers (which are documented) have been augmented by French and even non-French family names that have merged into Cajun populations. The spelling of many family names was changed for a variety of reasons (see, for example, Eaux). [citation needed] Eaux is a common ending for historically Cajun surnames like Breaux, Babineaux and Boudreaux. ...


Modern preservation and renewed connections

During the early part of the 20th century, attempts were made to suppress Cajun culture by measures such as forbidding the use of the Cajun French language in schools. After the Compulsory Education Act forced Cajun children to attend formal schools, American teachers threatened, punished, and often beat their Cajun students in an attempt to force them to use English (a language many of them had not been exposed to before). During World War II, Cajuns often served as French interpreters for American forces in France; this helped to overcome prejudice.[6] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1968 the organization of Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL) was founded to preserve the French language in Louisiana. However, to this day Cajun children are still punished for using Cajun French even in these French classes. Although the punishments are not as brutal as those of last century they serve to cement the idea that Cajun French is a "lesser" French than its Parisian cousin. The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ...


Besides advocating for their legal rights, Cajuns also recovered for themselves a sense of ethnic pride and appreciation for their ancestry. Since the mid-1950s, relations between the Cajuns of the U.S. Gulf Coast and Acadians in the Maritimes and New England have been renewed, forming an Acadian identity common to Louisiana, New England, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... This article is about the Canadian region. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


State Senator Dudley LeBlanc ("Coozan Dud", a Cajun slang nickname for "Cousin Dudley") took a group of Cajuns to Nova Scotia in 1955 for the commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the expulsion. The Congrès Mondial Acadien, a large gathering of Acadians and Cajuns held every five years since 1994, is another example of continued unity. The Acadian World Congress, or Le Congrès Mondial Acadien, is a festival of Acadian and Cajun culture and history, held every five years. ...


Sociologists Kyle Matyas and Eric D Kaegi III have maintained that the preservation of Cajun ethnic identity is a result of the social class of Cajuns. During the eighteenth and nineteenth century, "Cajuns" came to be identified as the French-speaking rural people of Southwestern Louisiana. Over the course of the twentieth century, the descendants of these rural people became the working class of their region. This change in the social and economic circumstances of families in Southwestern Louisiana created nostalgia for an idealized version of the past. Henry and Bankston point out that "Cajun," which was formerly considered an insulting term, became a term of pride among Lousianians by the beginning of the twenty-first century.[7]


Culture

The 22 parishes of Acadiana. The Cajun heartland of Louisiana is highlighted in darker red.
The 22 parishes of Acadiana. The Cajun heartland of Louisiana is highlighted in darker red.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Geography

Main article: Acadiana

Geography had a strong correlation to Cajun lifestyles. The Cajuns who settled along bayous and wetlands of the Atchafalaya Basin adapted a water-based lifestyle that included fishing, hunting, and trapping. The Cajuns who settled in the prairies of southwest Louisiana found the land more suited to raising cattle, farming rice and sugar cane, and other agricultural pursuits. Map of Acadiana Region with the Cajun Heartland USA subregion highlighted in dark red. ... The Atchafalaya River is a distributary of the Mississippi and Red rivers, approximately 170 mi (270 km) long, in south central Louisiana in the United States. ...


Most Cajuns originated in Acadiana, where their descendants are still predominant. Cajun populations today are found also in the area southwest of New Orleans and scattered in areas adjacent to the French Louisiana region, such as to the north in Alexandria, Louisiana and in southeastern Texas. Over the years, many Cajuns and Creoles also migrated to the Beaumont and Port Arthur area of Southeast Texas, in especially large numbers as they followed oil-related jobs in the 1970s and 1980s, when oil companies moved jobs from Louisiana to Texas. Map of Acadiana Region with the Cajun Heartland USA subregion highlighted in dark red. ... NOLA redirects here. ... Louisiana sold in 1803 by Napoléon to USA, which was a portion of the historical extent of French Louisiana Louisiana (French language: La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Alexandria is a city in Louisiana and the parish seat of Rapides Parish. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan area is defined by the United States Census Bureau as a three-county region in Southeast Texas, east of the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. ... Southeast Texas is a region in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Texas. ...


Music

Main article: Cajun music

Cajun music is evolved from its roots in the music of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada. In earlier years the fiddle was the predominant instrument, but gradually the accordion has come to share the limelight. Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada. ... // Jazz The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ...

For more details on this topic, see Music of Louisiana.

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Food

Main article: Cajun cuisine

According to an expression of the region, Cajuns live to eat, not eat to live. Outside Louisiana the distinctions between Cajun and Louisiana Creole cuisine have been blurred. However, Creole dishes tend to be more sophisticated continental cuisine using local produce. Cajun food is rural, more seasoned, sometimes spicy, and tends to be more hearty. Many well-known Cajun dishes were originally centered on wild game, rice and other local ingredients. Cajun cuisine originates from the French-speaking Acadian or Cajun immigrants deported by the English from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana, USA. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine — locally available ingredients predominate, and preparation is simple. ... Cajun cuisine originates from the French-speaking Acadian or Cajun immigrants deported by the English from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana, USA. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine — locally available ingredients predominate, and preparation is simple. ... Dishes typical of Creole food Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana (centered on the Greater New Orleans area) that blends French, Spanish, French Caribbean, African, and American influences. ...


Language

Main article: Cajun French

Cajun French is a variety or dialect of the French language spoken primarily in the Acadiana region of Louisiana. At one time there were as many as seven dialects spread across the Cajun Heartland. Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Map of Acadiana Region with the Cajun Heartland USA subregion highlighted in dark red. ...


Recent documentation has been made of Cajun English, a French-influenced dialect of English spoken by Cajuns, either as a second language, in the case of the older members of the community, or as a first language by younger Cajuns. Acadiana, the tradtitional Cajun homeland and the stronghold of both the Cajun French and English dialects. ...


Religious traditions

Cajuns are predominantly Roman Catholic. However, Protestant and Evangelical Christian denominations have made inroads among Cajuns, but not without great controversy — the title of Cajun Chef Marcelle Bienvenue's 1992 cookbook, Who's Your Mama, Are You Catholic and Can You Make a Roux is derived from long-standing beliefs that Cajun identity was rooted in community, cuisine and Catholicism. Traditional Catholic religious observances such as Mardi Gras, Lent, and Holy Week are integral to many Cajun communities. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ... Holy Week (Latin: ) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ...


Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras, or "Fat Tuesday" (also known as Shrove Tuesday), is the day before Ash Wednesday, which marks the beginning of Lent, a 40 day period of fasting and reflection in preparation for Easter Sunday. Mardi Gras was historically a time to use up the foods that were not to be used during Lent, including fat, eggs, and meat. For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ... Pancakes with strawberry syrup and black currants Shrove Tuesday is the term used in the United Kingdom,[1] Ireland,[2] and Australia[3] to refer to the day after Shrove Monday (or the more old fashioned Collop Monday) and before Ash Wednesday (the liturgical season of Lent begins on Ash... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two...


Mardi Gras celebrations in rural Acadiana are distinct from the more widely known celebrations in New Orleans and other metropolitan areas. One tradition is the wearing of a capuchon, which is a cone-shaped ceremonial hat. Another distinct feature of Cajun celebration centers on the courir (translated: to run). A group of people, usually on horseback, will approach a farmhouse and ask for something for the community gumbo pot. Often, the farmer or his wife will allow the riders to have a chicken, if they can catch it. The group then puts on a show, comically attempting to catch the chicken set out in a large open area. Songs are sung, jokes are told, and skits are acted out. When and if the chicken is caught, it is added to the pot at the end of the day. The "Courir de Mardi Gras" held in the small town of Mamou has become well known. This tradition has much in common with the observance of La Chandeleur, or Candlemas (February 2), by Acadians in Nova Scotia. For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Mardi Gras celebrants wearing capuchons A Capuchon is a ceremonial hat worn during the Mardi Gras celebration in the Cajun areas of Southwestern Louisiana. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ... Candlemas (Russian: Sretenie, Spanish: Candelaria) is a Christian feast commemorating the purification of the Virgin Mary and the presentation of the infant Jesus in the Temple. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Easter
On Pâques (French for Easter), a traditional Cajun game was played called pâquer, or pâque-pâque. Contestants selected hard-boiled eggs, paired off, and tapped the eggs together — the player whose egg did not crack was declared the winner. This game is not traditionally played in large cities. Today Easter is celebrated in the same fashion as Christians throughout the United States with candy-filled baskets, "Easter bunny" stories, dyed eggs, and egg hunts. This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article is about the holiday figure. ... For a hidden feature or message, see Easter egg (virtual). ...


Folk beliefs

One folk custom is belief in a traiteur, or Cajun healer, whose primary method of treatment involves the laying on of hands and of prayers. An important part of Cajun folk religion, the traiteur is a faith healer who combines Catholic prayer and medicinal remedies to treat a variety of ailments, including earaches, toothaches, warts, tumors, angina, and bleeding. Another is in the Rougarou, a version of a Loup Garou (French for werewolf), that will hunt down and kill Catholics that do not follow the rules of Lent. In some Cajun communities the Loup Garou of legend have taken on an almost protective role. Children are warned that Loup Garou can read souls, and that they only hunt and kill evil men, and well- behaved horses. A cajun healer whose primary method of treatment involves using bare hands. ... The Rougarou (alternately spelled as Roux-Ga-Roux, Rugaroo, or Rugaru), is a legendary creature in Laurentian French communities linked to European notions of the werewolf. ... ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ...


Celebrations and gatherings

Cajuns, along with other Cajun Country residents, have a reputation for a joie de vivre (French for "hearty enjoyment of life"), in which hard work is appreciated as much as "passing a good time." Cajun Country refers to a region, also known as Acadiana, in the U.S. state of Louisiana that has been heavily settled by French Acadians who had lived in the French-controlled province of Acadia in what is now eastern Canada. ...


Community gatherings
In the culture, a coup de main (French for "to give a hand") is an occasion when the community gathers in order to assist one of their members with time-consuming or arduous tasks. Examples might include a barn raising, harvests, or assistance for the elderly or sick. A community is a social group of organisms sharing an environment, normally with shared interests. ... Barn raising, DeKalb County, Indiana, USA, about 1900 A Barn raising is an event during which a community comes together to assemble a barn for one of its households, particularly in 18th- and 19th-century rural North America. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Old age consists of ages nearing the average lifespan of human beings, and thus the end of the human life cycle. ...


Festivals
Laisse le bon temps rouler is a cliché phrase of the local culture, which means "let the good times roll." Nearly every village, town and city of any size has a yearly festival, celebrating an important part of the local economy. The majority of Cajun festivals include a fais do-do ("go to sleep" in French) or street dance, usually to a live local band. Crowds at these festivals can range from a few hundred to more than 100,000.

For more details on this topic, see List of festivals in Louisiana.

Other festivals outside of Louisiana
. ...

  • In Texas, the Winnie Rice Festival and other celebrations often highlight the Cajun influence in Southeast Texas.
  • Major Cajun/Zydeco festivals are held annually in Rhode Island, which does not have a sizable Cajun population but is home to many Franco-Americans of Québecois and Acadian descent. It features Cajun culture and food, as well as authentic Louisiana musical acts both famous and unknown, drawing attendance not only from the strong Cajun/Zydeco music scene in Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York City, but from all over the world. In recent years the festival became so popular that there are now several such large summer festivals near the Connecticut-Rhode Island border: The Great Connecticut Cajun and Zydeco Music & Arts Festival, The Blast From The Bayou Cajun and Zydeco Festival, and the Rhythm & Roots Festival.

Southeast Texas is a region in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Texas. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Tributes

A statue of Évangéline — fictional heroine of the poem Evangeline by Longfellow — at St. Martinville, Louisiana. The statue was donated by actress Dolores Del Rio (who also posed for it), who portrayed Évangéline in a 1929 silent film by director Edwin Carewe.
A statue of Évangéline — fictional heroine of the poem Evangeline by Longfellow — at St. Martinville, Louisiana. The statue was donated by actress Dolores Del Rio (who also posed for it), who portrayed Évangéline in a 1929 silent film by director Edwin Carewe.

Documentary films Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (996x1096, 708 KB) Summary statue dEvangéline - héroïne de la déportation acadienne - à Saint Martinville en Louisiane self made PRA Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Acadian St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (996x1096, 708 KB) Summary statue dEvangéline - héroïne de la déportation acadienne - à Saint Martinville en Louisiane self made PRA Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Acadian St. ... Statue of Evangeline - heroine of the Acadian deportation - Saint Martinville, Louisiana Evangeline, A Tale of Acadie is a poem by the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. ... The city of St. ... Dolores Del Rio Dolores del Río (August 3, 1905 - April 11, 1983) was a Mexican film actress. ... Edwin Carewe Edwin Carewe (Jay Fox) (March 5, 1883 - January 22, 1940) was an American motion picture director, an actor, a Producer, and a Screenwriter. ...

  • Spend it All (1971, color) director: Les Blank with Skip Gerson
  • Hot Pepper (1973, color) director: Les Blank
  • J'ai Été Au Bal, by Les Blank, Chris Strachwitz & Maureen Gosling; narrated by Barry Jean Ancelet and Michael Doucet (Brazos Films). Louisiana French and Zydeco music documentary.

Film Les Blank (b. ... Barry Jean Ancelet is a Cajun folklorist and expert in Cajun music and Cajun French. ... Michael Doucet (b. ...

  • Belizaire the Cajun (1986, color) director: Glen Pitre, starring Armand Assante

Literature Armand Anthony Assante Jr. ...

  • Evangeline (1847), an epic poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow loosely based on the events surrounding the 1755 deportation. It became an American classic, and also contributed to a rebirth of Acadian identity in both Maritime Canada and in Louisiana.
  • Bayou Folk (1894) by Kate Chopin who wrote about the Creoles and Cajuns (Acadiens).
  • Children's book author Mary Alice Fontenot wrote several volumes on Cajun culture and history.

Songs Statue of Evangeline - heroine of the Acadian deportation - Saint Martinville, Louisiana Evangeline, A Tale of Acadie is a poem by the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. ... Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, A Psalm of Life, The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy and was one of the five members... Kate Chopin (born Katherine OFlaherty on February 8, 1850 – August 22, 1904) was an American author of short stories and novels, mostly of a Louisiana Creole background. ... Clovis Crawfish and Bertiles Bon Voyage by Mary Alice Fontenot, illustrated by Scott R. Blazek, Pelican Press, 1991 Mary Alice Fontenot (April 16, 1910 - May 12, 2003), born in Eunice, Louisiana, was a noted author of regional childrens books, best known for the Clovis Crawfish series published by...

  • Jambalaya (On the Bayou), (1952), a song credited to Hank Williams. Jambalaya is about life, parties and stereotypical food of Cajun cuisine.
  • Acadian Driftwood (1975), a popular song based on the Acadian Expulsion by Robbie Robertson that appeared on The Band's album, Northern Lights - Southern Cross.
  • Louisiana Man, an autobiographical song written and performed by Doug Kershaw. It became the first song broadcast back to Earth from the Moon by the astronauts of Apollo 12. The song not only sold millions of copies but over the years has become the symbol of Cajun music.
  • Jolie Blonde : lyrics & song history of the traditional Cajun waltz (aka Jolie Blon, Jole Blon or Joli Blon) often referred to as "the Cajun National Anthem".

Jambalaya (On the Bayou) is a song credited to Hank Williams, released in 1952, which reached great popularity in two genres: country and popular music. ... For other persons named Hank Williams, see Hank Williams (disambiguation). ... Robbie Robertson (born Jaime Robert Robertson, 5 July 1943, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a songwriter, guitarist and singer, best known for his membership in The Band. ... For other uses, see Band. ... Northern Lights - Southern Cross was the seventh album by Canadian-American rockers The Band, the first album to be recorded at their new California studio, Shangri-La, and the first album of all-new material since 1971s Cahoots. ... Doug Kershaw, born January 24, 1936, is an American fiddle player from Louisiana known as The Ragin Cajun1 Born Douglas James Kershaw in Tiel Ridge, Cameron Parish in an area known as the Cajun country, his ancestors are Acadians who were part of the Great Expulsion by the British... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ...

In pop culture

Louisiana Story is a 1948 78-minute black-and-white American film. ... Robert Joseph Flaherty (February 16, 1884, Iron Mountain, Michigan, United States - July 23, 1951, Dummerston, Vermont) was a filmmaker who directed and produced the first feature length documentary (Nanook of the North) in 1922. ... Gambit (Remy LeBeau) is a fictional character, a Marvel Comics superhero who is a member of the X-Men. ... The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... Southern Comfort is a film from 1981 that was directed by Walter Hill, working from a script by Hill, longtime collaborator David Giler, and Michael Kane. ... Walter Hill (born California 1942) is a prominent American film director. ... For other uses, see Universal Soldier. ... Van Damme redirects here. ... , Meraux is a census-designated place (CDP) in St. ... Lackadaisy (also known as Lackadaisy Cats) is a webcomic created by artist Tracy J. Butler, set in a Prohibition-era 1927 St. ...

See also

This is a list of notable Cajuns, often from the Acadiana or Greater New Orleans regions of French Louisiana, though not limited in geographic origin. ... . ... Louisiana sold in 1803 by Napoléon to USA, which was a portion of the historical extent of French Louisiana Louisiana (French language: La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... These data are taken from the 2000 Census of the United States, and relate to the language spoken at home by inhabitants of Louisiana five years of age or more. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... The Acadian Village is a private cultural park located in Lafayette, Louisiana. ... The Cajun French Music Association is an association dedicated to the promotion and preservation of Cajun music and culture. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ 1990 US census
  2. ^ AP story using data from 1990 US census
  3. ^ a b Carl A. Brasseaux, Acadian to Cajun: Transformation of a People. Jackson, Miss.: University Press of Mississippi, 1992.
  4. ^ Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd edition
  5. ^ Acadians who fought in the American Revolution
  6. ^ Tidwell, Michael. Bayou Farewell:The Rich Life and Tragic Death of Louisana's Cajun Coast. Vintage Departures: New York, 2004.
  7. ^ Blue Collar Bayou

External links

  • Cajun and Louisiana Website Directory - Comprehensive directory of websites with a Louisiana or Cajun theme. Also includes message boards, recipes and more.
  • Acadian Cultural Center, National Park Service, Lafayette, Louisiana.
  • Acadian Memorial, St. Martinville, Louisiana.
  • Acadian Museum, Erath, Louisiana.
  • CajunCulture.com: "The Encyclopedia of Cajun Culture"
  • Lafayette Convention and Visitors Commission
  • Vermilionville, living history museum, Lafayette, Louisiana.
  • Endogamy among Louisiana Cajuns
  • The Silence of the Gators: Cajun Ethnicity and Intergenerational Transmission of Louisiana French
  • Summary of Blue Collar Bayou: Louisiana Cajuns and the New Economy of Ethnicity by Jacques Henry and Carl Bankston
  • Acadian Ancestral Home - A Repository for Acadian and Cajun History and Genealogy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cajun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3099 words)
State Senator Dudley LeBlanc ("Coozan Dud", a Cajun slang nickname for "Cousin Dudley") took a group of Cajuns to Nova Scotia in 1955 for the commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the expulsion.
Cajun populations today are found also in the area south of New Orleans and scattered in areas adjacent to the French Louisiana region, such as to the north in Alexandria, Louisiana and in Southeastern Texas.
Cajun French is a variety or dialect of the French language spoken primarily in the Acadiana region of Louisiana.
Cajun cuisine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1992 words)
An authentic Cajun meal is usually a three-pot affair, with one pot dedicated to the main dish, one dedicated to steamed rice, skillet cornbread, or some other grain dish, and the third containing whatever vegetable is plentiful or available.
Cajun dishes prepared outside of Louisiana, are often hotter than their Louisiana counterparts, and lack the flavor of the original dishes.
Cajun cuisine is sometimes confused with Creole cuisine, and many outside of Louisiana don't make the distinction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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