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Encyclopedia > Cairo
Cairo
القـــاهــرة
Also known as: ,
The City that never sleeps
Flag of Cairo
Flag
Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center)
Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center)
Coordinates: 30°03′N 31°22′E / 30.05, 31.367
Government
 - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir
Area
 - Metro 5,360 km² (2,069.5 sq mi)
Population (2006[1][2])
 - City 6,758,581
 - Metro 17,856,000
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website: www.cairo.gov.eg

Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة transliteration: Al-Qāhirah), which means "The Vanquisher" or "The Triumphant", is the capital and largest city of Egypt. It is the Arab World and Africa's most populous city.[3] While Al-Qahirah is the official name of the city, in Egyptian Arabic it commonly shares the dialect's name for the country, transliteration: Masr. Inhabitants of Cairo are called Masraweya rather than Masri within Egypt. Cairo is the capital city of Egypt. ... Image File history File links Cairo_By_Night. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image:Eg-map. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... The current capital of Egypt is Cairo. ... Arab States redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ...


Cairo was founded by the Fatimid caliphs as a royal enclosure, and replaced Fustat as the seat of the government. It later came under the Mamluks, ruled by the Ottomans 1517 to 1798, briefly occupied by Napoleon. Muhammad Ali of Egypt made Cairo the capital of his independent empire from 1805 to 1882, after which the British took control of it until Egypt attained independence in 1922. The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... A drawing of Fustat, from Rappoports History of Egypt Fustat (Arabic: ‎), also spelled Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Arab rule. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


Cairo has a population of about 6.8 million people according to the 2006 population census.[1] (about 10% are christians) The number of inhabitants was about a million higher at the time of the census, but this was adjusted downwards on the 17th of April 2008 when the new governorate of Helwan was created from parts of a.o. Cairo governorate. Cairo's metropolitan area has a population of about 17.285 million people.[4] Cairo is the sixteenth most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is also the most populous metropolitan area in Africa.[5] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 27 metropolitan areas of at least 10 million people. ... This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas in Africa. ...


Today, Greater Cairo encompasses various historic towns and modern districts into one of the most populous cities in the world. A journey through Cairo is a virtual time travel: from the Pyramids, Saladin's Citadel, the Virgin Mary's Tree, the Sphinx, and Heliopolis, to Al-Azhar, the Mosque of Amr ibn al-A'as, Saqqara, the Hanging Church, and the Cairo Tower. It is the Capital of Egypt, and indeed its history is intertwined with that of the country. Today, Cairo's official name is Al-Qahira (Cairo), although the name informally used by most Egyptians is "Masr" (Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt), from the original name of Egypt's first Arab capital Fustat, Misr al-Fustat, "City of the Tents." This is a list of the most populous cities of the world defined according to the concept of city proper. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (Arabic: قلعة صلاح الدين) is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Cairo. ... The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza is a large half-human Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo (). It is one of the largest single-stone statues on Earth, and is commonly... Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ... Entrance to the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... The Hanging Church is Cairos most famous Coptic church first built in the AD 3rd or 4th century Saint Virgin Marys Coptic Orthodox Church also known as the Hanging Church (El Muallaqa) is one of the oldest churches in Egypt and the history of a church on this... Cairo Tower The Cairo Tower (Arabic: برج المصر) is free-standing concrete TV tower in Cairo, Egypt. ... The current capital of Egypt is Cairo. ... Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... A drawing of Fustat, from Rappoports History of Egypt Fustat (Arabic: ‎), also spelled Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Arab rule. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Al-Qahirah has been said to mean "the Subduer", and it's often translated as "the Victorious". In German, the victor is called the sieger, which is relate to the English word siege, which means "throne", "seat", and also "to besiege", "assail", or "beset".


The origin of Al-Qahirah is said to come from the appearance of the planet Mars during the foundation of the City of Cairo. The planet Mars, which in Greek was called Ares, was associated with ruin or destruction and was called Al Najm Al Qahir in Arabic. Al Najm Al Qahir is transliterated as "the destroyer star [planet]". The legacy of the name evolved into “Qahirat Al Adaa” meaning “subduer of the enemies”. This title was given to the city as many armies were destroyed in attempts to invade Cairo or defeated elsewhere by troops sent from the settlement. The Arabic word "qa'id" means commander of the castle or fortress. "Alqaida" means base or camp. The root of these words is seen in the Romanized Arabic word "qa'ad", which means to live, dwell, or sit, which in Swahili is "kaa". The prefix of Qahirah is related to the English words chair [throne] and couch. "Qa" corresponds to the Latin word "cola" meaning seat [tail] and cultivated land. "Colline" means a hill. The prefix of Cairo may also mean the landing or the quay, the small hill by the river, that serves as a wharf. Arabic "kharab" is transliterate as the "settlement ruins". From "kharab" come the English words harbinger and harbor. In Swahili, "harabu" means to ruin or destroy, and the Persian word "karo" means army or the camp of an army. Cairo then means the "camp wars", the "colony harries", which comes from Mars, or Aries--the Camp of the God of War, the Camp of the Harrier. German "heer" means army. This article is about the planet. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


History

Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite

The city was founded in 969 AD as the royal enclosure for the Fatimid caliphs, while the actual economic and administrative capital was in nearby Fustat. After Fustat was destroyed in 1168/1169 to prevent its capture by the Crusaders, the administrative capital of Egypt moved to Cairo, where it has remained ever since. It took four years for the General Jawhar Al Sikilli (the Sicilian) to build Cairo and for the Fatimid Calif Al Muizz to leave his old Mahdia in Tunisia and settle in the new Capital of Fatimids in Egypt. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... A drawing of Fustat, from Rappoports History of Egypt Fustat (Arabic: ‎), also spelled Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Arab rule. ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ...


After Memphis, Heliopolis, Giza and the Byzantine fortress of Babylon-in-Egypt, Fustat was itself a new city built as a military garrison for Arab troops and was the closest central location to Arabia that was accessible to the Nile. Fustat became a regional center of Islam during the Umayyad period and was where the Umayyad ruler, Marwan II, made his last stand against the Abbasids. Later, during the Fatimid era, Al-Qahira (Cairo) was officially founded in 969 as an imperial capital just to the north of Fustat. Over the centuries, Cairo grew to absorb other local cities such as Fustat, but the year 969 is considered the "founding year" of the modern city.[6] Memphis was the wife of Epaphus, the founder of Memphis, Egypt in Greek mythology. ... Heliopolis (Greek Ἡλίου πόλις) was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... Gizeh is also a popular brand in Germany of cigarette rolling papers; see Mascotte (rolling papers). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Babylon Fortress .Babylon (Greek: , Strabo xvii. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Flag Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent Capital Damascus Capital-in-exile Córdoba Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - Established 660  - Disestablished 750 Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first... The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


In 1250, the slave soldiers or Mamluks seized Egypt and ruled from their capital at Cairo until 1517, when they were defeated by the Ottomans. Napoleon's French army briefly occupied Egypt from 1798 to 1801, after which an Ottoman officer named Muhammad Ali made Cairo the capital of an independent empire that lasted from 1805 to 1882. The city then came under British control until Egypt attained independence in 1922. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ...


Geography

View towards the Northeast of Cairo
View towards the Northeast of Cairo

Cairo is located on the banks and islands of the Nile River in the north of Egypt, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and breaks into two branches into the low-lying Nile Delta region. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Referring to Cairo sometimes means Greater Cairo which is composed of Cairo governrate, part of Giza and Qaluobyia governerates. Since May 2008 Greater Cairo has been divided into 4 new governerates Cairo, Helwan, Giza and 6th of October governerates. It is to be mentioned that Cairo University is actualy in Giza governerate While Cairo governerate has the Ain Shams University. Cairo University, the biggest in Africa Cairo University (formerly Fouad the First University) is an institute of higher education located in Giza, Egypt. ... Ain Shams University (Arabic: جامعة عين شمس) is a renowned institute of higher education located in Cairo, Egypt. ...


The oldest part of the city is east of the river. There, the city gradually spreads west, engulfing the agricultural lands next to the Nile. These western areas, built on the model of Paris by Khedive Ismail in the mid-19th century, are marked by wide boulevards, public gardens, and open spaces. The older eastern section of the city is very different: having grown up haphazardly over the centuries it is filled with small lanes and crowded tenements. While western Cairo is dominated by the government buildings and modern architecture, the eastern half is filled with hundreds of ancient mosques that act as landmarks. This article is about the capital of France. ... Ismail Pasha Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) (Arabic: إسماعيل باشا), was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


Extensive water systems have also allowed the city to expand east into the desert. Bridges link the Nile islands of Gezira and Roda, where many government buildings are located and government officials live. Bridges also cross the Nile attaching the city to the suburbs of Giza and Imbabah (part of the Cairo conurbation). Gizeh is also a popular brand in Germany of cigarette rolling papers; see Mascotte (rolling papers). ... Imbaba is a city in northern Egypt, it is the part of Cairo conurbation. ...


West of Giza, in the desert, is part of the ancient necropolis of Memphis on the Giza plateau, with its three large pyramids, including the Great Pyramid of Giza. Approximately 11 miles (18 km) to the south of modern Cairo is the site of the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis and adjoining necropolis of Saqqara. These cities were Cairo's ancient predecessors, when Cairo was still in this approximate geographical location. For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ...


In Cairo, and along the Nile River Valley, the climate is hot desert (BWh) according to the Köppen climate classification system, but often with high humidity due to the river valley's latent effects. Wind storms can be frequent, bringing Saharan dust into the city, during the months of March and April. High temperatures in winter range from the 15°C to the low 20s, while nighttime lows drop to below 10°C, often to 5°C. In Summer, the highs often surpass 40°C, and lows drop to about 20°C. Rainfall is sparse, but sudden showers do cause flooding. Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ...

Weather averages for Cairo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 18 (64) 21 (70) 24 (75) 28 (82) 33 (91) 35 (95) 36 (97) 35 (95) 32 (90) 30 (86) 26 (79) 20 (68) 28 (82)
Average low °C (°F) 8 (46) 9 (48) 11 (52) 14 (57) 17 (63) 20 (68) 21 (70) 22 (72) 20 (68) 18 (64) 14 (57) 10 (50) 15 (59)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 20 (0.8)
Source: Weatherbase[7] 2008-04-14

Infrastructure

Health

See also: List of hospitals in Egypt

Cairo, as well as neighbouring Giza, has been established as Egypt's main center for medical treatment, and despite some exceptions, has the most advanced level of medical care in the country. Cairo's hospitals include As-Salam International Hospital- Corniche El Nile; Maadi (Egypt's largest private hospital with 350 beds), Ain Shams University Hospital, Dar El Fouad Hospital, as well as Qasr El Ainy General Hospital. This is a list of hospitals in Egypt: // Alexandria Psychiatric centre Agooza Ain Shams Specialized Hospital Al Salam Al Salam International Amoun Hospital Anglo-American Arab Contractors Medical Center Asyout University Hospital Badran Cairo Institute of Radiology Cairo Kindey Center Cairo Medical Center Cleopatra Coptic Dar Al Fouad Hospital Dar... Ain Shams University (Arabic: جامعة عين شمس) is a renowned institute of higher education located in Cairo, Egypt. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Education

Cairo has long been the hub of education and educational services not only for Egypt but also for the whole Arab world. Today, Cairo is the center for many government offices governing the Egyptian educational system, has the largest number of educational schools, and higher learning institutes among other cities and governorates of Egypt. The Egyptian educational system is highly centralized, and is divided into three stages: Basic Education - (Arabic:Marhalet Al-Taaleem Al-Asassi) Primary Stage Preparatory Stage Secondary Education (Marhalet ElTaaleem Al-Thanawi) Post-Secondary education Since the extension of the free compulsory education law in 1981 to include the preparatory phase... Universities in Egypt are generally either state-funded or privately funded. ...


Some of the International Schools found in Cairo include:

Universities in Cairo: El Alsson National and British International School is a private school located in Giza, Egypt. ... American International School (AIS) may refer to: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The British International School in Cairo (BISC) is a private British school in Egypt. ... Choueifat Abu Dhabi Logo The International School of Choueifat (Arabic: ‎) is a collection of international schools run by the SABIS school system in various countries of the Middle East. ... // The Collège de la Sainte Famille (English: School of the Holy Family), often referred to as the Jésuites, is a private Jesuit school in the Faggalah and Heliopolis districts of Cairo, Egypt. ... Cairo American College (CAC) is an international, independent, co-educational day school, located in the Cairene suburb of Maadi in Cairo, Egypt. ... The Modern Education School is a multilingual school located in a location away from any source of pollution in Katameya, Cairo, Egypt. ...

Cairo University

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 583 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,104 × 804 pixels, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 583 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,104 × 804 pixels, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is an Egyptian institution of higher learning. ... Ain Shams University (Arabic: جامعة عين شمس) is a renowned institute of higher education located in Cairo, Egypt. ... The American University in Cairo (AUC) in Cairo, Egypt, was founded in 1919 by American Methodist Episcopal Missionaries, but quickly moved away from missionary endeavors in favor of being a more secular educational institution. ... Campus The Arab Academy for Science & Technology and Maritime Transport is a maritime academy that has its main campus located in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... Map of medieval European universities This is a list of the oldest extant universities in the world. ... Since 1998, an important ambition set by the British and the Egyptian Governments was the formation of a British University in Egypt. ... Cairo University, the biggest in Africa Cairo University (formerly Fouad the First University) is an institute of higher education located in Giza, Egypt. ... Please notice that the following article was written by the GUC team and is not written fro a neutral point of view. ... Helwan University (established in July 26, 1975) is a public university based in Helwan suburb, Cairo, Egypt. ... // Faculty of Alsun Faculty of Business Admistration Faculty of Computer Science Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Engineering - Electronics & Communication Department Faculty of Engineering - Architecture Department Faculty of Mass Communication Faculty of pharmacy MIU main Building As part of its continuous endeavor to add an international dimension to its academic excellency... Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences Faculty of Biotechnology Faculty of Business and Economics Faculty of Dental Surgery Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Foreign Languages and Translation Faculty of Information Technology Faculty of Mass Media and Communication Technology Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Physical Therapy Categories: | | Hidden category... Nile University (NU) is a not-for-profit university established in Egypt in July 2006. ... Sekem University is a university in Cairo, Egypt. ... Modern Sciences and Arts University (MSA) is a privately owned University in Egypt that opened in 1996. ... // The Modern Academy In Maadi (MAM), Egypt, was founded in 1993 by a group of professional educationalists, Initially, The Modern Academy is located in Maadi, a southern suburb of Cairo known by its greenery and quietness. ...

Transport

Main article: Transportation in Cairo
Ramses Street, one of the main arteries of Cairo
Ramses Street, one of the main arteries of Cairo

Transportation in Cairo comprises an extensive road network, rail system, subway system and maritime services. Cairo is the centre of almost the entire Egyptian transportation network. Transportation in Cairo comprises of an extensive road network, rail system, subway system and maritime services for the more than 15. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The subway system, called 'The Metro' locally, is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. It can get very crowded during rush hour. Two train cars (the fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only.


An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages. There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach to almost every Cairo district. There are flyovers, and bridges such as the Sixth of October bridge that allows straight, fast and efficient means of transportation from one side of the city to the other.


Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded.[8] Traffic moves at a relatively fluid pace. Drivers tend to be aggressive, but are more courteous at intersections, taking turns going, with police aiding in traffic control of some congested areas.

Cairo Metro.
Cairo Metro.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cairo International Airport (IATA: CAI, ICAO: HECA) (Arabic: مطار القاهرة الدولي) is the major civilian airport in Cairo, Egypt. ... A station in Cairo named after Ramses. ... Map of the Cairo Metro The Cairo Metro in Egypt is Africas only full-fledged metro system. ... Transportation in Cairo comprises of an extensive road network, rail system, subway system and maritime services for the more than 15. ... CTA may refer to: Cyprus Turkish Airlines Columbus Torah Academy Chicago Transit Authority Chicago (band), originally known as Chicago Transit Authority before a lawsuit threat Central de los Trabajadores Argentinos California Teachers Association Call to Action Charge transfer amplifier Cellulose triacetate Common Travel Area Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology...

Sports

Football is the most popular sport in Egypt, and Cairo has a number of sporting teams that compete in national and regional leagues. The best known teams are Al Zamalek and Al Ahly, whose annual football tournament is perhaps the most watched sports event in Egypt as well as the African and Arabian World. Both teams are known as the "rivals" of Egyptian football, and are the first and the second champions in the African continent and the Arab World. Both teams play their home games at Cairo International Stadium or Naser Stadium , which is Cairo's, Egypt's, Africa's and Middle East's largest stadium and one of the largest in the world. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 324 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 324 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Cairo International Stadium (Arabic: ستاد القاهرة الدولي) or Stad El-Qahira El-Dawly, is an Olympic-standard, multi-use stadium with an all-seated capacity of 74,100. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Al-Ahly (Arabic: النادى الاهلى للرياضة البدنية ) is an Egyptian football club founded in April, 1907 in Cairo, Egypt. ... Cairo International Stadium (Arabic: ستاد القاهرة الدولي) or Stad El-Qahira El-Dawly, is an Olympic-standard, multi-use stadium with an all-seated capacity of 74,100. ...


The Cairo International Stadium was built in 1960 and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global games, including the African Games, U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums scheduled that hosted the 2006 African Nations Cup which was played on January, 2006, which Egypt won its title for the record number of five times in African Continental Competition's history. Cairo International Stadium (Arabic: ستاد القاهرة الدولي) or Stad El-Qahira El-Dawly, is an Olympic-standard, multi-use stadium with an all-seated capacity of 74,100. ... The 2006 African Nations Cup is the 25th edition of the African Nations Cup, the soccer championship of Africa (CAF). ...


Cairo failed at the applicant stage when bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, which will be hosted in Beijing China. However, Cairo will host the Pan-Arab Games this year and next year. The Pan Arab Games are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world. ...


There are several other sports teams in the city that participate in several sports including el Gezira Sporting Club, el Shams Club, el Seid Club, Heliopolis Club and several smaller clubs, but the biggest clubs in Egypt (not in area but in sports) are Al Zamalek & Al Ahly. They have the two biggest football teams in Egypt. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Al-Ahly (Arabic: النادى الاهلى للرياضة البدنية ) is an Egyptian football club founded in April, 1907 in Cairo, Egypt. ...


Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in the city suburbs, including the Egyptian Football Association. The headquarters of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) was previously located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters in 6 October City, a small city away from Cairo's crowded districts. The Egyptian Football Association (Arabic: اتحاد الكرة المصرية) is the governing body of football (soccer) in Egypt. ... The 53 member CAF (Confederation of African Football) , (French : Confédération Africaine de Football) , (Arabic : الإتحاد الأفريقى لكرة القدم) represents international football in Africa, and organises the African Cup of Nations, CAF Confederation Cup and the African Champions League. ...


Culture

Old Cairo Opera House
Old Cairo Opera House

Over the ages, and as far back as seven thousand years, Egypt stood as the land where civilizations have always met. The Pharaohs together with the Greeks and the Romans have left their imprints here. Muslims from the Arab Peninsula, led by Amr ibn al-A'as, introduced Islam into Egypt. Khedive Mohammad Ali, with his Albanian family roots, put Egypt on the road to modernity. If anything, the cultural mix in this country is natural, given its heritage. Egypt can be likened to an open museum with monuments of the different historical periods on display everywhere. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... ˤAmr ibn al-ˤĀs (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (born c. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For the HMS Khedive, see USS Cordova. ...


Cairo Opera House

Main article: Cairo Opera House

President Mubarak inaugurated the new Cairo Opera House of the Egyptian National Cultural Center on October 10, 1988, seventeen years after the Royal Opera House had been destroyed by fire. The National Cultural Center was built with the help of JICA, the Japan International Co-operation Agency and stands as a prominent feature for the Japanese-Egyptian co-operation and the deep-rooted friendship between these two nations. Cairo Opera House one of six in Africa (three in Egypt and three in South Africa). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Thus, the joint efforts of Japanese and Egyptians has given rise to a unique landmark which celebrates the rich and diverse cultural life not only of Egypt but of neighboring nations in Africa and the Middle East as well.


Egypt is proud to be the only state in the region which built two opera houses within a bit more than a century.


Khedivial Opera House

Main article: Khedivial Opera House
El-Gezeira park
El-Gezeira park

The Khedivial Opera House or Royal Opera House was the original opera house in Cairo, Egypt. It was dedicated on November 1, 1869 and burned down on October 28, 1971. After the original opera house was destroyed, Cairo was without an opera house for nearly two decades until the opening of the new Cairo Opera House in 1988. The Khedivial Opera House or Royal Opera House was the original opera house in Cairo, Egypt. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,648 × 2,736 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,648 × 2,736 pixels, file size: 2. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ...


Cairo International Film Festival

Egypt's love of the arts in general can be traced back to the rich heritage bequeathed by the Pharaohs. In modern times, Egypt has enjoyed a strong cinematic tradition since the art of filmmaking was first developed, early in the 20th century. A natural progression from the active theatre scene of the time, cinema rapidly evolved into a vast motion picture industry. This together with the much older music tradition, raised Egypt to become the cultural capital of the Arab world.


For more than 500 years of recorded history, Egypt has fascinated the West and inspired its creative talents from play writer William Shakespeare, poet and dramatist John Dryden, and novelist and poet Lawrence Durrell to film producer Cecil B. de Mille. Since the silent movies Hollywood has been capitalising on the box-office returns that come from combining Egyptian stories with visual effects. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Lawrence George Durrell (February 27, 1912 – November 7, 1990) was an expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer, though he resisted affiliation with Britain and preferred to be considered cosmopolitan. ... Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 - January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ...


Egypt has also been a fount of Arabic literature, producing some of the 20th century's greatest Arab writers such as Taha Hussein and Tawfiq al-Hakim to Nobel Laureate, novelist Naguib Mahfouz. Each of them has written for the cinema. Taha Hussein (November 14, 1889—October 28, 1973) (Arabic: ) (nicknamed the dean of Arabic literature)[2]was one of the most influential Egyptian writers and intellectuals. ... Tawfiq al-Hakim (1898-1987) was an Egyptian thinker, author, novelist and dramatist who played a pivotal role in the creation of modern Arabic literature from the 1930s onwards. ... This article is about the Egyptian novelist. ...


With these credentials, it was clear that Cairo should aim to hold an international film festival. This dream came true on Monday August 16, 1976, when the first Cairo International Film Festival was launched by the Egyptian Association of Film Writers and Critics, headed by Kamal El-Mallakh. The Association ran the festival for seven years until 1983. is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cairo International Film Festival is an annual film festival held in Cairo, Egypt. ...


This achievement lead to the President of the Festival again contacting the FIAPF with the request that a competition should be included at the 1991 Festival. The request was granted. The FIAPF (Fedération International des Associations de Producteurs de Films; English: International Federation of Film Producers Associations), created in 1977, is an organization composed with 31 member associations from 25 of the leading audiovisual production countries. ...


In 1998, the Festival took place under the presidency of one of Egypt's leading actors, Hussein Fahmy, who was appointed by the Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosni, after the death of Saad El-Din Wahba. Hussein Fahmy, (Arabic: حسين فهمى ) born in 1940 in Cairo, Egypt. ...


Four years later, the journalist and writer Cherif El-Shoubashy became president.


For 29 years, the home of the Pyramids and Nile has hosted international superstars like Nicolas Cage , John Malkovich, Morgan Freeman, Bud Spencer, Gina Lollobrigida, Ornella Mutti, Sophia Loren, Claudia Cardinale, Victoria Abril, Elizabeth Taylor, Shashi Kapoor, Alain Delon, Greta Scacchi, Catherine Deneuve, Peter O'toole, Christopher Lee, Irene Pappas, Marcello Mastroianni and Omar Sharif, as well as great directors like Robert Wise, Elia Kazan, Vanessa Redgrave, Oliver Stone, Roland Joffe, Carlos Saura, Ismail Merchant and Michel Angelo Antonioni, in an annual celebration and examination of the state of cinema in the world today. Nicolas Cage (born January 7, 1964) is an Academy Award-winning American actor and an exemplar of method acting. ... John Gavin Malkovich (born December 9, 1953) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor, producer and director. ... For the Dawsons Creek director, see Morgan J. Freeman. ... Bud Spencer (born October 31, 1929), born as Carlo Pedersoli, is a famous Italian actor, known for his height 6 4 (1. ... Gina Lollobrigida (born July 4, 1927 in Subiaco, Italy), is a Golden Globe Award-winning Italian actress and photojournalist. ... Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is an Academy Award winning Italian film actress. ... Claudia Cardinale (born April 15, 1938) is an Italian actress born in Tunis, Tunisia to Sicilian parents. ... Victoria Abril (born Victoria Merida Rojas, July 4, 1959) is a highly respected Spanish film actress. ... For other persons named Elizabeth Taylor, see Elizabeth Taylor (disambiguation). ... Shashi Kapoor (Hindi: शशि कपूर, Urdu: ششِ کپُور), born Balbir Raj Kapoor on March 18, 1938 in Calcutta, is an Indian film actor and producer and a member of the famous Kapoor family, an influential film dynasty in Indias Bollywood cinema. ... Alain Delon (b. ... Greta Scacchi (born February 18, 1960 in Milan, Italy) is an Emmy Award-winning film actress. ... Catherine Deneuve (French IPA: , born October 22, 1943) is a César Award-winning and Academy Award-nominated French actress, who made her reputation playing a series of beautiful ice maidens for various directors, including Luis Buñuel and Roman Polanski. ... For other persons named Christopher Lee, see Christopher Lee (disambiguation). ... Marcello Mastroianni in 1958 Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni (September 28, 1924 – December 19, 1996) was an Italian film actor. ... Not to be confused with Umer Sharif. ... Robert Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was a sound effects editor, film editor, and Academy Award-winning American film producer and director. ... Elia Kazan, (Greek: Ηλίας Καζάν, IPA: ), (September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was a Greek-American film and theatre director, film and theatrical producer, screenwriter, novelist and cofounder of the influential Actors Studio in New York in 1947. ... Vanessa Redgrave, CBE (born 30 January 1937) is an Academy Award winning English actress and member of the Redgrave family, one of the enduring theatrical dynasties. ... William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award winning film director and screenwriter. ... Roland Joffé (born November 17, 1945) is a British film director who started out directing television. ... Carlos Saura (born 4 January 1932, Atarés, Huesca) is a Spanish film director. ... Ismail Merchant (December 25, 1936 – May 25, 2005) was an Indian-born film producer, best known for the results of his famously long collaboration with Merchant Ivory Productions which included director James Ivory and screenwriter Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. ...


Cairo Geniza

Main article: Cairo Geniza

The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of almost 200,000 Jewish manuscripts that were found in the genizah of the Ben Ezra synagogue (built 882) of Fostat, Egypt (now Old Cairo), the Basatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were bought in Cairo in the later 19th century. These documents were written from about 870 to as late as 1880 AD and have now been archived in various American and European libraries. The Taylor-Schechter collection in the University of Cambridge runs to 140,000 manuscripts; there are a further 40,000 manuscripts at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of Jewish manuscripts written from about 870 to as late as 1880 CE, that were found in the geniza of the synagogue of Fustat (Old Cairo), Egypt (built 882), the Busatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were...


Al-Azhar Park

Main article: Al-Azhar Park

Inaugurated in May 2005, Al-Azhar Park is located adjacent to Cairo's Darb al-Ahmar district. The Park was created by the Historic Cities Support Programme (HCSP) of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC), an entity of the Aga Khan Development Network, and was a gift to Cairo from His Highness the Aga Khan. It is interesting to note that the city of Cairo was founded in the year 969 by the Fatimid Imam-Caliphs who were ancestors of the Aga Khan.[9] Al-Azhar Park is a major park in Cairos Darb al-Ahmar neighborhood in Egypt. ... Al-Azhar Park is a major park in Cairos Darb al-Ahmar neighborhood in Egypt. ... // The Historic Cities Support Programme (HCSP) of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) promotes the conservation and re-use of buildings and public spaces in historic cities of the Muslim World. ... The Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC), an agency of the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN), focuses on the physical, social, cultural and economic revitalisation of communities in the Muslim world. ... Founded and guided by Aga Khan, the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) focuses on health, education, culture, rural development, institution-building and the promotion of economic development. ... Karīm al-Hussaynī, Āgā Khān IV KBE CC GCC (Arabic: سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان الرابع) (born December 13, 1936) is the current (49th) Imām of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


During the development of the park, a part of the 12th century Ayyubid wall was discovered and subsequently restored. The wall had originally been built by Salah al-Din al-Ayubbi as a defense against the crusaders. The discovery prompted additional research into the nearby historic neighborhood of Darb al-Ahmar, and eventually led to a major project encompassing the restoration of several mosques, palaces and historic houses. The HCSP also established social and economic programs to provide a wide range of assistance for local residents.[10] The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (Arabic: ‎), known in English as Saladin, was a 12th-century Kurd who became Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and a major Muslim political and military leader. ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ...


Media

Egyptian Media Production City in Cairo

The 6th of October city-based Media Production city ( MPC) is the biggest ever built information and media complex, which, together with the Egyptian media satellites "Nilesat 101", "Nilesat 102", will allow Egypt to step into the new world of the 21st century. Thereby, Cairo will be well-qualified and well-equipped to maintain its pioneering role in the field of satellite television and to provide television and film production facilities that can support the information breakthrough. The 6th of October city-based Media Production city ( MPC) is the biggest ever built information and media complex, which, together with the Egyptian media satellites Nilesat 101, Nilesat 102, will allow Egypt to step into the new world of the 21st century. ...


Cairo is the Middle East's media production powerhouse, with its huge new 3.5 million square meter Media Production City.


Economy

Old buildings in Downtown Cairo. In the center is the statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy
Old buildings in Downtown Cairo. In the center is the statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy

Cairo is also in every respect the center of Egypt, as it has been almost since its founding in 969 AD. 20% of all Egyptians live there. The majority of the nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the city. The great majority of publishing houses and media outlets and nearly all film studios are there, as are half of the nation's hospital beds and universities. This has fueled rapid construction in the city—one building in five is less than 15 years old. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Talaat Pasha Harb is one of the leading characters in Egypts modern history. ...


This astonishing growth until recently surged well ahead of city services. Homes, roads, electricity, telephone and sewer services were all suddenly in short supply. Analysts trying to grasp the magnitude of the change coined terms like "hyper-urbanization.


Tourism

The Egyptian Museum

Main article: Egyptian Museum
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. It has 136,000 items on display, with many more hundreds of thousands in its basement storerooms Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 72 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 72 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ...


Khan El-Khalili

Main article: Khan El-Khalili

Khan el-Khalili is for many the most entertaining part of Cairo. It is an ancient shopping area, nothing less, but some of the shops have also their own little factories or workshops. Khan el-Khalili is for many the most entertaining part of Cairo. ...


The suq (which is the Arabic name for bazaar, or market) dates back to 1382, when Emir Djaharks el-Khalili built a big caravanserai (or khan) right here. A caravanserai was a sort of hotel for traders, and usually the focal point for economic activity for any surrounding area. This caravanserai is still there, you just ask for the narrow street of Sikka Khan el-Khalili and Badestan.


Old Cairo

Main article: Old Cairo

The part of Cairo that contains Coptic Cairo and Fostat, which contains the Coptic Museum, Babylon Fortress, Hanging Church, the Greek Church of St. George, many other Coptic churches, the Ben Ezra Synagogue and Amr ibn al-'As Mosque. Cairo, channel between Rhoda Island and Old Cairo, Egypt Old Cairo (Egyptian Arabic: Masr el Adīma) is a part of Cairo that contains the remnants of those cities which were capitals before Cairo, such as Fustat, as well as some other elements from the citys varied history. ... The Convent of Saint George The Art Detail Inside The Hanging Church Coptic Cairo is a part of Old Cairo which encompasses the Babylon Fortress, the Coptic Museum, the Hanging Church, the Greek Church of St. ... Fostat (also spelled Fustat; Arabic: ) was the first capital city of Egypt under Arab rule. ... Coptic Museum The Coptic Museum is a museum in Coptic Cairo, Egypt with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. ... Babylon Fortress .Babylon (Greek: , Strabo xvii. ... The Hanging Church is Cairos most famous Coptic church first built in the AD 3rd or 4th century Saint Virgin Marys Coptic Orthodox Church also known as the Hanging Church (El Muallaqa) is one of the oldest churches in Egypt and the history of a church on this... Coptic is an adjective referring to the original inhabitants of Egypt, the Copts. ... The Ben Ezra Synagogue (‎, Arabic: ) is a synagogue situated in Coptic Cairo, Egypt. ... ˤAmr ibn al-ˤĀs (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (born c. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


Cairo Tower

Main article: Cairo Tower

The Cairo Tower is a free-standing concrete TV tower in Cairo. It stands in the Zamalek district on Gezira Island in the River Nile, in the city centre. At 187 meters, it is 43 meters higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some 15 km to the southwest. Cairo Tower The Cairo Tower (Arabic: برج المصر) is free-standing concrete TV tower in Cairo, Egypt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x1280, 495 KB) The Tower of Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x1280, 495 KB) The Tower of Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. ... Cairo Tower The Cairo Tower (Arabic: برج المصر) is free-standing concrete TV tower in Cairo, Egypt. ...


Pollution

Cairo is a rapidly expanding city, which has led to many environmental problems. The air pollution in Cairo is a matter of serious concern. Greater Cairo's volatile aromatic hydrocarbon levels are higher than many other similar cities.[11] Air quality measurements in Cairo have also been recording dangerous levels of lead, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and suspended particulate matter concentrations due to decades of unregulated vehicle emissions, urban industrial operations, and chaff and trash burning. There are over 2,000,000 cars on the streets of Cairo, 60% of which are over 10 years old, and therefore lack modern emission cutting features like catalytic converters. Cairo has a very poor dispersion factor because of lack of rain and its layout of tall buildings and narrow streets, which create a bowl effect. A mysterious black cloud (as Egyptians refer to it) appears over Cairo every fall and causes serious respiratory diseases and eyes irritations for the city citizens. Tourists who are not familiar to that high level of pollution must take extra care.[12]

Average temperature and precipitation values in Cairo
Average temperature and precipitation values in Cairo
Smog in Cairo
Smog in Cairo

Cairo also has many unregistered lead and copper smelters which heavily pollute the city. The results of this has been a permanent haze over the city with particulate matter in the air reaching over three times normal levels. It is estimated that 10,000 to 25,000 people a year in Cairo die due to air pollution-related diseases. Lead has been shown to cause harm to the central nervous system and neurotoxicity particularly in children[13]. In 1995, the first environmental acts were introduced and the situation has seen some improvement with 36 air monitoring stations and emissions tests on cars. 20,000 buses have also been commissioned to the city to improve congestion levels, which are very high. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1183 × 887 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of Cairo in smog. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1183 × 887 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of Cairo in smog. ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ...


The city also suffers from a high level of land pollution. Cairo produces 10,000 tons of rubbish each day, 4,000 tons of which is not collected or managed. This once again is a huge health hazard and the Egyptian Government is looking for ways to combat this. The Cairo Cleaning and Beautification Agency was founded to collect and recycle the rubbish; however, they also work with the Zabbaleen (or Zabaleen ), a community that has been collecting and recycling Cairo's rubbish since the turn of the 20th century and live in an area known locally as Manshiyat naser[14]. Both are working together to pick up as much rubbish as possible within the city limits, though it remains a pressing problem. The Zabbaleen are an informal system of waste collectors and recyclers in the city of Cairo. ... The Zabaleen (Egyptian Arabic: زبالين garbage people[1]) are an Egyptian community of mainly Coptic Christians who are employed in the city of Cairo to collect and dispose of much of the citys waste [2]. They live in an area known locally as Garbage City. ... Manshiyat naser is a slum settlement in the city of Cairo. ...


The city also suffers from water pollution as the sewer system tends to fail and overflow. On occasion, sewage has escaped onto the streets to create a health hazard. This problem is hoped to be solved by a new sewer system funded by the European Union, which could cope with the demand of the city. The dangerously high levels of mercury in the city's water system has global health officials concerned over related health risks. There is also more concern about environmental issues among Egyptians than before. There is now general awareness and some projects are laid down to help make the public aware of the importance of clean environment.


Town twinning (sister cities)

Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...

Famous Cairenes

  • Ahmed Zewail- Noble Winner in Chemistry
  • Anwar El Sadat- Egyptian President, noble peace prize winner with Israeli Prime Minister
  • Omar Sharif- Egyptian Hollywood Actor, Lawrence of Arabia
  • Om kalthoum-Diva Singer of the Arab world (also known as 'kawkab al shark' or shrine of the East)

Abu Said al-Afif was a renowned Samaritan physician in fifteenth century Cairo. ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي, Coptic: Î’OΥΤΡΟC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about the Egyptian novelist. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... It has been suggested that Olympia 74 be merged into this article or section. ... Golden record redirects here. ... ... Orascom Telecom or Orascom Telecom Holding S.A.E. is the first multinational Egyptian corporation, it is one of the core Orascom Group companies. ... Farouk El-Baz Farouk El-Baz is an Egyptian-born scientist who worked with NASA training astronauts in lunar observations. ... Sir Magdi Yacoub, the leading cardiologist in the world Sir Magdi Habib Yacoub was born on November 16th 1935 in Cairo, Egypt to a Coptic Orthodox family. ... Constantin Xenakis (Κωνσταντίνος Ξενάκης) was born in Cairo, Egypt, on 28 December 1931. ... Voula Zouboulaki (b. ... Raffi on the cover of his album Bananaphone Raffi Cavoukian, OC, OBC (born July 8, 1948), usually known simply as Raffi, is a popular childrens entertainer in Canada, the United States, and the Western world at large. ... Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... Mohamed Al-Fayed (b. ... Fulham Football Club (FFC) is a football team based in Fulham, London. ... Hossam Ghaly (Arabic: ‎) (born December 15, 1981 in Kafr El-Sheikh) is an Egyptian football midfielder who currently plays for Tottenham Hotspur. ... Derby County Football Club are an English football club based in Derby, currently playing in the Football League Championship. ... Mohamed Shawky (Arabic: محمد شوقي) (born October 15, 1981) is an Egyptian footballer. ... Middlesbrough F.C. are an English football team, commonly known as Boro. ... Ahmed Hossam Hussein Abdelhamid, also known as Mido, (Arabic: أحمد حسام ميدو) (born February 23, 1983 in Cairo, Egypt)[1] is an Egyptian footballer, who is currently playing for Premier League club Middlesbrough as a striker. ... Middlesbrough F.C. are an English football team, commonly known as Boro. ... Ahmed Hassan Zewail (Arabic: أحمد حسن زويل) (born February 26, 1946 in Damanhur, Egypt) is an Egyptian American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry. ... Sadat redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Umer Sharif. ... Umm Kulthum (أم كلثوم, Oum Kalsoum) (c. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Population and Housing Census 2006, Governorate level, Population distribution by sex (excel-file) Adjusted census result, as Helwan governorate was created on the 17th of April 2008 from a.o. parts of the Cairo governorate.
  2. ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-cairo.htm
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Microsoft Word - dmgua2007-front.doc
  5. ^ The challenge of urban growth in Cairo
  6. ^ Irene Beeson (September/October 1969). "Cairo, a Millennial" 24, 26-30. Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  7. ^ "Cairo, Egypt", WeatherBase.com (14 April 2008). 
  8. ^ http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/779/feature.htm
  9. ^ "Aga Khan and Madame Mubarak Inaugurate Cairo's Al-Azhar Park - AKDN, March 25, 2005". Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  10. ^ "Article: Rescuing Cairo's Lost Heritage - Islamica Magazine, Issue 15, 2006". Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  11. ^ Khoder, M.I. (January 2007). "Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo". Atmospheric Environment 41 (3): 554–566. Air Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.051. ISSN: 1352-2310. Retrieved on 2007-01-01. 
  12. ^ Khoder, M. "Black cloud reappears over Cairo". Middle East online 41: 554. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.051. 
  13. ^ Lidsky, T. I. (January 2003). "Lead neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates". Brain 126 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1093/brain/awg014. PMID 12477693. Retrieved on 2008-04-19. 
  14. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/06/03/MNGKOJ82991.DTL

Saudi Aramco World is a bi-motnhly magazine published by Saudi Aramco, the national oil company of Saudi Arabia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

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Preceded by
Fustat
Capital of Egypt
since 1169
Succeeded by
n/a

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  Results from FactBites:
 
cairographics.org (180 words)
Cairo is designed to produce consistent output on all output media while taking advantage of display hardware acceleration when available (eg.
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Cairo is the capital of Egypt, and with a total population in excess of 16 million people, one of the largest cities in both Africa and the Middle East (which regions it conveniently straddles) - it is also the 13th largest city in the world.
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No trip to Cairo would be complete, for example, without a visit to the Giza Pyramids, to nearby Saqqara, or to the Egyptian Museum in the center of town.
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