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Encyclopedia > Caffeine
Caffeine
Caffeine
Caffeine
IUPAC name 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione
Other names 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, trimethylxanthine,
theine, methyltheobromine
Identifiers
CAS number [58-08-2]
RTECS number EV6475000
SMILES C[n]1cnc2N(C)C(=O)N(C)C(=O)c12
Properties
Molecular formula C8H10N4O2
Molar mass 194.19 g·mol−1
Appearance Odorless, white needles or powder
Density 1.2 g·cm−3, solid
Melting point

237 °C (non-equilibrium, superheated) Caffeine can mean: - Caffeine is the name of an alkaloid present in certain plants, e. ... Image File history File links Caffeine. ... Image File history File links Caffeine-3D-QuteMol. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

178 °C (sublimes) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Solubility in water 22 mg·mL−1 (25 °C)
180 mg·mL−1 (80 °C)
670 mg·mL−1 (100 °C)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards May be fatal if inhaled, swallowed
or absorbed through the skin.
NFPA 704
1
2
0
 
Flash point N/A
LD50 192 mg/kg (rat, oral)[1]
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Caffeine is a bitter white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a psychoactive stimulant drug and a mild diuretic[2] in humans and other animals. Caffeine was discovered by a German chemist, Friedrich Ferdinand Runge, in 1819. He coined the term "kaffein", a chemical compound in coffee, which in English became caffeine. [3] Caffeine is also called guaranine when found in guarana, mateine when found in mate, and theine when found in tea; all of these names are synonyms for the same chemical compound. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... This article is about the toxicological term. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... Binomial name Kunth Guarana (Brazillian name guaraná) (IPA: , or ), Paullinia cupana (syn. ... Mate Mate (pronounced ) is a caffeinated infusion prepared by steeping dried leaves of erva-mate (Portuguese) / yerba mate (Spanish) (Ilex paraguariensis) in hot water. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...


Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the beans, leaves, and fruit of over 60 plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants. It is most commonly consumed by humans in infusions extracted from the beans of the coffee plant and the leaves of the tea bush, as well as from various foods and drinks containing products derived from the kola nut or from cacao. Other sources include yerba mate, guarana berries, and the Yaupon Holly. Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... u fuck in ua ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ... Binomial name Coffea arabica L. Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to Ethiopia. ... Binomial name (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... Species See text Kola nut (Cola) is a genus of about 125 species of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... Binomial name A. St. ... Binomial name Kunth Guarana (Brazillian name guaraná) (IPA: , or ), Paullinia cupana (syn. ... Binomial name Ilex vomitoria Yaupon Holly (Ilex vomitoria), also called cassina (a name shared with the Dahoon Holly), is an evergreen holly found in the southeast United States. ...


In humans, caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, having the effect of temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness. Beverages containing caffeine, such as coffee, tea, soft drinks and energy drinks enjoy great popularity. Caffeine is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive substance, but unlike most other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all jurisdictions. In North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.[4] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration lists caffeine as a "Multiple Purpose Generally Recognized as Safe Food Substance".[5] Recent research, however, suggests that regular caffeine use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage.[6] A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... A variety of energy drinks are available; the skinny bullet can shape is popular. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ...

Contents

Occurrence

Roasted coffee beans, the world's primary source of caffeine

Caffeine is a plant alkaloid, found in many plant species, where it acts as a natural pesticide, with high caffeine levels being reported in seedlings that are still developing foliages, but are lacking mechanical protection;[7] caffeine paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding upon the plant.[8] High caffeine levels have also been found in the surrounding soil of coffee bean seedlings. It is therefore understood that caffeine has a natural function in both a natural pesticide and as an inhibitor of seed germination of other nearby coffee seedlings[9] thus giving it a better chance of survival. Download high resolution version (525x700, 91 KB)Coffee beans. ... Download high resolution version (525x700, 91 KB)Coffee beans. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera...


The most commonly used caffeine-containing plants are coffee, tea, and to a lesser extent cocoa. Other, less commonly used, sources of caffeine include the yerba mate[10] and guarana plants, which are sometimes used in the preparation of teas and energy drinks. Two of caffeine's alternative names, mateine[11] and guaranine,[12] are derived from the names of these plants. Some yerba mate enthusiasts assert that mateine is a stereoisomer of caffeine, which would make it a different substance altogether.[10] However, caffeine is an achiral molecule, and therefore has no enantiomers; nor does it have other stereoisomers. Many natural sources of caffeine also contain widely varying mixtures of other xanthine alkaloids, including the cardiac stimulants theophylline and theobromine and other substances such as polyphenols which can form insoluble complexes with caffeine.[13] For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... Binomial name A. St. ... Binomial name Kunth Guarana (Brazillian name guaraná) (IPA: , or ), Paullinia cupana (syn. ... Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... In chemistry, enantiomers (from the Greek ἐνάντιος, opposite, and μέρος, part or portion) are stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable complete mirror images of each other, much as ones left and right hands are the same but opposite. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Polyphenols are a group of vegetable chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. ...


The world's primary source of caffeine is the coffee bean (the seed of the coffee plant), from which coffee is brewed. Caffeine content in coffee varies widely depending on the type of coffee bean and the method of preparation used;[14] even beans within a given bush can show variations in concentration. In general, one serving of coffee ranges from 40 milligrams, for a single shot (30 milliliters) of arabica-variety espresso, to about 100 milligrams for a cup (120 milliliters) of drip coffee. Generally, dark-roast coffee has less caffeine than lighter roasts because the roasting process reduces the bean's caffeine content.[15][16] Arabica coffee normally contains less caffeine than the robusta variety.[14] Coffee also contains trace amounts of theophylline, but no theobromine. Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ... Espresso brewing, with a dark reddish-brown foam, called crema or schiuma. ... Binomial name Coffea arabica L. Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to Ethiopia. ... Binomial name Coffea canephora L. Coffea canephora (Robusta Coffee; syn. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ...


Tea is another common source of caffeine. Tea usually contains about half as much caffeine per serving as coffee, depending on the strength of the brew. Certain types of tea, such as black and oolong, contain somewhat more caffeine than most other teas. Tea contains small amounts of theobromine and slightly higher levels of theophylline than coffee. Preparation has a significant impact on tea, and color is a very poor indicator of caffeine content.[17] Teas like the pale Japanese green tea gyokuro, for example, contain far more caffeine than much darker teas like lapsang souchong, which has very little. For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Rolled Oolong tea leaves Oolong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a traditional Chinese tea somewhere between green and black in oxidation. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Gyokuro is a fine Green tea from Japan. ... Lapsang souchong is a black tea originally from the Zheng Shan part of Mount Wuyi in the Fujian province of China[1]. The tea leaves have been withered over pine or cedar fires, pan-fried, rolled and oxidized before being fully dried in bamboo baskets over burning pine. ...


Caffeine is also a common ingredient of soft drinks such as cola, originally prepared from kola nuts. Soft drinks typically contain about 10 to 50 milligrams of caffeine per serving. By contrast, energy drinks such as Red Bull contain as much as 80 milligrams of caffeine per serving. The caffeine in these drinks either originates from the ingredients used or is an additive derived from the product of decaffeination or from chemical synthesis. Guarana, a prime ingredient of energy drinks, contains large amounts of caffeine with small amounts of theobromine and theophylline in a naturally occurring slow-release excipient.[18] A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... For other uses, see Cola (disambiguation). ... Species See text Kola nut (Cola) is a genus of about 125 species of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). ... A variety of energy drinks are available; the skinny bullet can shape is popular. ... For other uses, see Red Bull (disambiguation). ... Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans and tea. ... Binomial name Kunth Guarana (Brazillian name guaraná) (IPA: , or ), Paullinia cupana (syn. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Slow-release is a strategy in material science in which a chemical compound is introduced into a system at a reduced speed. ... An excipient is an inactive substance used as a vehicle for medication, or an active ingredient. ...


Chocolate derived from cocoa contains a small amount of caffeine. The weak stimulant effect of chocolate may be due to a combination of theobromine and theophylline as well as caffeine.[19] Chocolate contains too little of these compounds for a reasonable serving to create effects in humans that are on par with coffee. A typical 28-gram serving of a milk chocolate bar has about as much caffeine as a cup of decaffeinated coffee. For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Candy bar redirects here. ...


In recent years various manufacturers have begun putting caffeine into shower products such as shampoo and soap, claiming that caffeine can be absorbed through the skin.[20] However, the effectiveness of such products has not been proven, and they are likely to have little stimulatory effect on the central nervous system because caffeine is not readily absorbed through the skin.[21] Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ...


History

A coffeehouse in Palestine, circa 1900
A coffeehouse in Palestine, circa 1900
Main articles: History of cocoa, History of coffee, Origin and early history of tea

Humans have consumed caffeine since the Stone Age.[22] Early peoples found that chewing the seeds, bark, or leaves of certain plants had the effects of easing fatigue, stimulating awareness, and elevating mood. Only much later was it found that the effect of caffeine was increased by steeping such plants in hot water. Many cultures have legends that attribute the discovery of such plants to people living many thousands of years ago. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x635, 108 KB) A Coffee-house in Palestine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x635, 108 KB) A Coffee-house in Palestine. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Origins of coffee be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Stone Age fishing hook. ...


According to one popular Chinese legend, the Emperor of China Shennong, reputed to have reigned in about 3,000 BCE, accidentally discovered that when some leaves fell into boiling water, a fragrant and restorative drink resulted.[23] Shennong is also mentioned in Lu Yu's Cha Jing, a famous early work on the subject of tea.[24] The history of coffee has been recorded as far back as the ninth century. During that time, coffee beans were available only in their native habitat, Ethiopia. A popular legend traces its discovery to a goatherder named Kaldi, who apparently observed goats that became elated and sleepless at night after browsing on coffee shrubs and, upon trying the berries that the goats had been eating, experienced the same vitality. The earliest literary mention of coffee may be a reference to Bunchum in the works of the 9th century Persian physician al-Razi. In 1587, Malaye Jaziri compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee, entitled "Undat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa". In this work, Jaziri recorded that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani, mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use of coffee in 1454, and that in the 15th century the Sufis of Yemen routinely used coffee to stay awake during prayers. For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Shennong‎ Shennong (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Yan Emperor (炎帝) or the Emperor of the Five Grains (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a legendary ruler of China and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to had lived some 5,000 years ago, and taught... A caffeinated drink is a drink which contains caffeine, a stimulant which is legal and popular in most developed countries. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia A goatherd or a goatherder is a person who herds goats for a living. ... Kaldi is apparently the legendary name of an Ethiopian goatherd who discovered the coffee plant when he found his goats temperaments to be greatly excited after feasting on the ripe red cherries of a small tree that grew on the side of a mountain. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Malaye Jaziri (or Melayê Cizîrî),(1570-1640) was a Kurdish writer , poet and mystic. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


Towards the close of the 16th century, the use of coffee was recorded by a European resident in Egypt, and about this time it came into general use in the Near East. The appreciation of coffee as a beverage in Europe, where it was first known as "Arabian wine," dates from the 17th century. During this time "coffee houses" were established, the first being opened in Constantinople and Venice. In Britain, the first coffee houses were opened in London in 1652, at St Michael's Alley, Cornhill. They soon became popular throughout Western Europe, and played a significant role in social relations in the 17th and 18th centuries.[25] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... A Street Cafe, Jerusalem, Henry Fenn (1838- ): steel engraving in Picturesque Palestine, ca 1875 A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or caf shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... , Cornhill is one of the principal streets of the City of London, the historic nucleus of modern London. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ...


The kola nut, like the coffee berry and tea leaf, appears to have ancient origins. It is chewed in many West African cultures, individually or in a social setting, to restore vitality and ease hunger pangs. In 1911, kola became the focus of one of the earliest documented health scares when the US government seized 40 barrels and 20 kegs of Coca-Cola syrup in Chattanooga, Tennessee, alleging that the caffeine in its drink was "injurious to health".[26] On March 13, 1911, the government initiated The United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola, hoping to force Coca-Cola to remove caffeine from its formula by making claims, such as that the excessive use of Coca-Cola at one girls' school led to "wild nocturnal freaks, violations of college rules and female proprieties, and even immoralities."[27] Although the judge ruled in favor of Coca-Cola, two bills were introduced to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1912 to amend the Pure Food and Drug Act, adding caffeine to the list of "habit-forming" and "deleterious" substances which must be listed on a product's label. Species See text Kola nut (Cola) is a genus of about 125 species of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Chattanooga redirects here. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The United States v. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... This is an article about the United States Food and Drug Act; for the Canadian version see Food and Drugs Act. ...


The earliest evidence of cocoa use comes from residue found in an ancient Mayan pot dated to 600 BCE. In the New World, chocolate was consumed in a bitter and spicy drink called xocoatl, often seasoned with vanilla, chile pepper, and achiote. Xocoatl was believed to fight fatigue, a belief that is probably attributable to the theobromine and caffeine content. Chocolate was an important luxury good throughout pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and cocoa beans were often used as currency. For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Binomial name Bixa orellana L. Achiote, or Achiotl, (Bixa orellana) is a shrub or small tree from the tropical regions of the Americas, also known also by its Tupi name of urucum. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... This article is about the culture area. ...


Chocolate was introduced to Europe by the Spaniards and became a popular beverage by 1700. They also introduced the cacao tree into the West Indies and the Philippines. It was used in alchemical processes, where it was known as Black Bean. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...


In 1819, the German chemist Friedrich Ferdinand Runge isolated relatively pure caffeine for the first time. According to Runge, he did this at the behest of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.[28] In 1927, Oudry isolated "theine" from tea, but it was later proved by Mulder and Jobat that theine was the same as caffeine.[28] The structure of caffeine was elucidated near the end of the 19th century by Hermann Emil Fischer, who was also the first to achieve its total synthesis.[29] This was part of the work for which Fischer was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1902. Friedrich (or Friedlieb/Friedlob) Ferdinand Runge (born near Hamburg on 8 February 1795, died in Oranienburg on 25 March 1867) was an analytical chemist. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Gerardus Johannes Mulder (1802 - 1880) was a Dutch biochemist. ... Hermann Emil Fischer (October 9, 1852 - July 15, 1919) was a German chemist and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1902. ... A total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple, commercially available (petrochemical) precursors. ...


Today, global consumption of caffeine has been estimated at 120,000 tons per annum,[30] making it the world's most popular psychoactive substance. This number equates to one serving of a caffeine beverage for every person, per day. In North America, 90% of adults consume some amount of caffeine daily.[4]


Pharmacology

Caffeine is a central nervous system and metabolic stimulant,[31] and is used both recreationally and medically to reduce physical fatigue and restore mental alertness when unusual weakness or drowsiness occurs. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system first at the higher levels, resulting in increased alertness and wakefulness, faster and clearer flow of thought, increased focus, and better general body coordination, and later at the spinal cord level at higher doses.[32] Once inside the body, it has a complex chemistry, and acts through several mechanisms as described below. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Metabolism

Caffeine is metabolized in the liver into three primary metabolites: paraxanthine (84%), theobromine (12%), and theophylline (4%)
Caffeine is metabolized in the liver into three primary metabolites: paraxanthine (84%), theobromine (12%), and theophylline (4%)

Caffeine is completely absorbed by the stomach and small intestine within 45 minutes of ingestion. After ingestion it is distributed throughout all tissues of the body and is eliminated by first-order kinetics.[33] Image File history File links Caffeine_metabolites. ... Image File history File links Caffeine_metabolites. ... Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethylxanthine compound structurally related to caffeine. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... For a chemical reaction, the rate law or rate equation is an equation which links the reaction rate with concentrations or pressures of reactants. ...


The half-life of caffeine—the time required for the body to eliminate one-half of the total amount of caffeine consumed at a given time—varies widely among individuals according to such factors as age, liver function, pregnancy, some concurrent medications, and the level of enzymes in the liver needed for caffeine metabolism. In healthy adults, caffeine's half-life is approximately 3–4 hours. In women taking oral contraceptives this is increased to 5–10 hours,[34] and in pregnant women the half-life is roughly 9–11 hours.[35] Caffeine can accumulate in individuals with severe liver disease when its half-life can increase to 96 hours.[36] In infants and young children, the half-life may be longer than in adults; half-life in a newborn baby may be as long as 30 hours. Other factors such as smoking can shorten caffeine's half-life.[37] The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ...


Caffeine is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme system (specifically, the 1A2 isozyme) into three metabolic dimethylxanthines,[38] which each have their own effects on the body: The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ...

Each of these metabolites is further metabolized and then excreted in the urine. Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethylxanthine compound structurally related to caffeine. ... Lipolysis is the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ...


Mechanism of action

Caffeine's principal mode of action is as an antagonist of adenosine receptors in the brain. They are presented here side by side for comparison.
Caffeine's principal mode of action is as an antagonist of adenosine receptors in the brain. They are presented here side by side for comparison.

Caffeine acts through multiple mechanisms involving both action on receptors and channels on the cell membrane, as well as intracellular action on calcium and cAMP pathways. By virtue of its purine structure it can act on some of the same targets as adenosine related nucleosides and nucleotides, like the cell surface P1 GPCRs for adenosine, as well as the intracellular Ryanodine receptor (RyR) which is the physiological target of cADPR (cyclic ADP-ribose), and cAMP-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE). Although the action is agonistic in some cases, it is antagonistic in others. Physiologically, however, caffeine action is unlikely due to increased RyR opening, as it requires plasma concentration above lethal dosage. The action is most likely through adenosine receptors.[citation needed] Image File history File links Caffeine_and_adenosine. ... Image File history File links Caffeine_and_adenosine. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Structure of cAMP cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. ... Purine (1) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... In cell biology, G-protein-coupled receptors (also known as GPCRs, seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors) are transmembrane receptors that transduce an extracellular signal (ligand binding) into an intracellular signal (G protein activation). ... Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form a class of calcium channels in various forms of muscle and other excitable animal tissue. ... Cyclic ADP Ribose popularly known as cADPR is a cyclic adenine nucleotide (like cAMP) with two phosphate groups present on 5 OH of the adenosine (like ADP), further connected to another ribose at the 5 position which in turn closes the cycle by glycosidic bonding to the Nitrogen1 of the... A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ...


Like alcohol, nicotine, and antidepressants, caffeine readily crosses the blood brain barrier. Once in the brain, the principal mode of action of caffeine is as an antagonist of adenosine receptors found in the brain.[39] The caffeine molecule is structurally similar to adenosine, and binds to adenosine receptors on the surface of cells without activating them (an "antagonist" mechanism of action). Therefore, caffeine acts as a competitive inhibitor. The reduction in adenosine activity results in increased activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine, largely accounting for the stimulatory effects of caffeine. Caffeine can also increase levels of epinephrine/adrenaline,[40] possibly via a different mechanism. Acute usage of caffeine also increases levels of serotonin, causing positive changes in mood.[41] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... The blood-brain barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels in the central nervous system, and the central nervous system itself. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... In biochemistry there are three ways in which certain chemical substances may reduce or prevent the activities of enzymes: competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ...


Caffeine is also a known competitive inhibitor of the enzyme cAMP-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE), which converts cyclic AMP (cAMP) in cells to its noncyclic form, allowing cAMP to build up in cells. Cyclic AMP participates in activation of Protein Kinase A (PKA) to begin the phosphorylation of specific enzymes used in glucose synthesis. By blocking its removal caffeine intensifies and prolongs the effects of epinephrine and epinephrine-like drugs such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, or methylphenidate. Increased concentrations of cAMP in parietal cells causes an increased activation of protein kinase A (PKA) which in turn increases activation of H+/K+ ATPase, resulting finally in increased gastric acid secretion by the cell. A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. ... Structure of cAMP cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. ... In cell biology, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), also known as protein kinase A (PKA)(EC 2. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ... Human parietal cells - stomach Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are the stomach epithelium cells which secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor. ... In cell biology, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), also known as protein kinase A (PKA, EC 2. ... Gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase also know as H+/K+ ATPase // Function and location The gastric hygrogen potassium ATPase or H+/K+ ATPase is the proton pump of the stomach and as such is the enzyme primarily responsible for the acidification of the stomach contents. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ...


Caffeine (and theophylline) can freely diffuse into cells and causes intracellular calcium release (independent of extracellular calcium) from the calcium stores in the endoplasmic reticulum(ER). This release is only partially blocked by Ryanodine receptor blockade with ryanodine, dantrolene, ruthenium red, and procaine (thus may involve ryanodine receptor and probably some additional calcium channels), but completely abolished after calcium depletion of ER by SERCA inhibitors like Thapsigargin (TG) or cyclopiazonic acid (CPA).[42] The action of caffeine on the ryanodine receptor may depend on both cytosolic and the luminal ER concentrations of Ca2+. At low millimolar concentration of caffeine, the RyR channel open probability (Po) is significantly increased mostly due to a shortening of the lifetime of the closed state. At concentrations >5 mM, caffeine opens RyRs even at picomolar cytosolic Ca2+ and dramatically increases the open time of the channel so that the calcium release is stronger than even an action potential can generate. This mode of action of caffeine is probably due to mimicking the action of the physiologic metabolite of NAD called cADPR (cyclic ADP ribose) which has a similar potentiating action on Ryanodine receptors. The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Ryanodine is a poisonous alkaloid found in the South American plant Ryania speciosa. ... Dantrolene sodium is a muscle relaxant that is currently the only specific and effective treatment for malignant hyperthermia. ... Ruthenium red is a Ruthenium containing red dye. ... Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. ... Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form a class of calcium channels in various forms of muscle and other excitable animal tissue. ... SERCA stands for Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase SERCA resides in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) within muscle cells. ... Thapsigargin is a tightly-binding inhibitor of a class of enzymes known by the acronym SERCA, which stands for sarco / endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase. ... Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is a toxic fungal secondary methabolite. ... Cyclic ADP Ribose popularly known as cADPR is a cyclic adenine nucleotide (like cAMP) with two phosphate groups present on 5 OH of the adenosine (like ADP), further connected to another ribose at the 5 position which in turn closes the cycle by glycosidic bonding to the Nitrogen1 of the... Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form a class of calcium channels in various forms of muscle and other excitable animal tissue. ...


Caffeine may also directly inhibit delayed rectifier and A-type K+ currents and activate plasmalemmal Ca2+ influx in certain vertebrate and invertebrate neurons.


The metabolites of caffeine contribute to caffeine's effects. Theobromine is a vasodilator that increases the amount of oxygen and nutrient flow to the brain and muscles. Theophylline, the second of the three primary metabolites, acts as a smooth muscle relaxant that chiefly affects bronchioles and acts as a chronotrope and inotrope that increases heart rate and efficiency. The third metabolic derivative, paraxanthine, is responsible for an increase in the lipolysis process, which releases glycerol and fatty acids into the blood to be used as a source of fuel by the muscles.[43] The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... The bronchioles are the first airway branches that no longer contain cartilage. ... Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time) are those that change the heart rate. ... An inotrope is an agent which increases or decreases the force or energy of muscular contractions. ... Lipolysis is the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ...

Caffeine has a significant effect on spiders, which is reflected in their web construction
Caffeine has a significant effect on spiders, which is reflected in their web construction

Image File history File links Caffeinated_spiderwebs. ... Image File history File links Caffeinated_spiderwebs. ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... Spiders web redirects here. ...

Effects when taken in moderation

The precise amount of caffeine necessary to produce effects varies from person to person depending on body size and degree of tolerance to caffeine. It takes less than an hour for caffeine to begin affecting the body and a mild dose wears off in three to four hours.[32] Consumption of caffeine does not eliminate the need for sleep: it only temporarily reduces the sensation of being tired.


With these effects, caffeine is an ergogenic: increasing the capacity for mental or physical labor. A study conducted in 1979 showed a 7% increase in distance cycled over a period of two hours in subjects who consumed caffeine compared to control tests.[44] Other studies attained much more dramatic results; one particular study of trained runners showed a 44% increase in "race-pace" endurance, as well as a 51% increase in cycling endurance, after a dosage of 9 milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight.[45] The extensive boost shown in the runners is not an isolated case; additional studies have reported similar effects. Another study found 5.5 milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body mass resulted in subjects cycling 29% longer during high intensity circuits.[46] Ergogenic aids are any external influences which can positively affect physical or mental performance. ...


Breathing problems in premature infants, apnea of prematurity, are sometimes treated with citrated caffeine, which is available only by prescription in many countries.[47] A reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia has been exhibited in premature infants treated with caffeine citrate therapy regimens. The only short term risk associated with this treatment is a temporary reduction in weight gain during the therapy.[48] Longer term studies (18 to 21 months) have shown lasting benefits of treatment of premature infants with caffeine. [49] [50] In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... Apnea of prematurity is defined as cessation of breathing that lasts for more than 15 seconds and is accompanied by hypoxia or bradycardia. ... Caffeine citrate (Cafcit®) is a citrate salt of caffeine, sometimes used in medical treatment, including short-term treatment of lack of breathing in premature infants: apnea of prematurity. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


While relatively safe for humans, caffeine is considerably more toxic to some other animals such as dogs, horses and parrots due to a much poorer ability to metabolize this compound. Caffeine has a much more significant effect on spiders, for example, than most other drugs do.[51] For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ...


Caffeine relaxes the internal anal sphincter muscles and thus should be avoided by those with incontinence.[52] The Sphincter ani internus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... Fecal incontinence is the loss of regular control of the bowels. ...


Tolerance and withdrawal

Caffeine content of select common food and drugs.[53] [54]
*This table assumes that coffee is drunk fairly strong, and tea very weak;
as is normally the case in North America, and ignores other caffeine-like substances,
for instance theobromine, present in some sources.
Product Serving size Caffeine per serving (mg) Caffeine per litre (mg)
Caffeine tablet (regular strength) 1 tablet 100
Caffeine tablet (extra strength) 1 tablet 200
Excedrin tablet 1 tablet 65
Chocolate, Dark (Hershey's Special Dark) 1 bar (43 g; 1.5 oz) 31
Chocolate, Milk (Hershey Bar) 1 bar (43 g; 1.5 oz) 10
Coffee, brewed 240 mL (8 U.S. fl oz) 135* 563*
Coffee, decaffeinated 240 mL (8 U.S. fl oz) 5* 21*
Coffee, espresso 57 mL (2 U.S. fl oz) 100* 1750*
Tea, leaf or bag 240 mL (8 U.S. fl oz) 50* 208*
Tea, green 240 mL (8 U.S. fl oz) 30* 63*
Soft drink, Coca-Cola Classic 355 mL (12 U.S. fl oz) 34 96
Soft drink, Mountain Dew 355 mL (12 U.S. fl oz) 54.5 154
Soft drink, Jolt Cola 694 mL (23.5 U.S. fl oz) 150 216
Red Bull 250 mL (8.2 U.S. fl oz) 80 320

Because caffeine is primarily an antagonist of the central nervous system's receptors for the neurotransmitter adenosine, the bodies of individuals who regularly consume caffeine adapt to the continual presence of the drug by substantially increasing the number of adenosine receptors in the central nervous system. This increase in the number of the adenosine receptors makes the body much more sensitive to adenosine, with two primary consequences.[55] First, the stimulatory effects of caffeine are substantially reduced, a phenomenon known as a tolerance adaptation. Second, because these adaptive responses to caffeine make individuals much more sensitive to adenosine, a reduction in caffeine intake will effectively increase the normal physiological effects of adenosine, resulting in unwelcome withdrawal symptoms in tolerant users.[55] Kg redirects here. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Kg redirects here. ... Excedrin is an over-the-counter headache pain reliever, typically in the form of tablets or caplets. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... The Hershey Foods Corporation ( NYSE: HSY) is the worlds largest chocolate company. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... This article is about Ounce (unit of mass). ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ... Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans. ... Espresso brewing, with a dark reddish-brown foam, called crema or schiuma. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Mountain Dew is a caffeinated, sweet, citrus-flavored soft drink produced by PepsiCo, Inc. ... Jolt Cola logo used until 2006 Jolt Cola is a carbonated soft drink produced by Wet Planet Beverages. ... For other uses, see Red Bull (disambiguation). ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. ...


Other research questions the idea that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is responsible for tolerance to the locomotor stimulant effects of caffeine, noting, among other things, that this tolerance is insurmountable by higher doses of caffeine (it should be surmountable if tolerance was due to an increase in receptors), and that the increase in adenosine receptor number is modest and doesn't explain the large tolerance which develops to caffeine.[56]


Caffeine tolerance develops very quickly, especially among heavy coffee and energy drink consumers. Complete tolerance to sleep disruption effects of caffeine develops after consuming 400 mg of caffeine 3 times a day for 7 days. Complete tolerance to subjective effects of caffeine was observed to develop after consuming 300 mg 3 times per day for 18 days, and possibly even earlier.[57] Partial tolerance to caffeine has been observed in other areas. Studies with mice indicate that after a long period of caffeine exposure, the learning benefits of caffeine observed earlier cannot be found to any significant level. Considering that 80% to 90% of American adults consume caffeine daily, and their mean daily caffeine intake exceeds 200 mg/day,[58] it can be surmised that a large fraction of the U.S. adult population is completely tolerant to most of the effects of caffeine.


Because adenosine, in part, serves to regulate blood pressure by causing vasodilation, the increased effects of adenosine due to caffeine withdrawal cause the blood vessels of the head to dilate, leading to an excess of blood in the head and causing a headache and nausea. Reduced catecholamine activity may cause feelings of fatigue and drowsiness. A reduction in serotonin levels when caffeine use is stopped can cause anxiety, irritability, inability to concentrate and diminished motivation to initiate or to complete daily tasks; in extreme cases it may cause mild depression. Together, these effects have come to be known as a "crash".[59] The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ... For other uses, see Depression. ...


Withdrawal symptoms—possibly including headache, irritability, an inability to concentrate, and stomach aches[60]—may appear within 12 to 24 hours after discontinuation of caffeine intake, peak at roughly 48 hours, and usually last from one to five days, representing the time required for the number of adenosine receptors in the brain to revert to "normal" levels, uninfluenced by caffeine consumption. Analgesics, such as aspirin, can relieve the pain symptoms, as can a small dose of caffeine.[61] Most effective is a combination of both an analgesic and a small amount of caffeine. Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... This article is about the drug. ...


This is not the only case where caffeine increases the effectiveness of a drug. Caffeine makes pain relievers 40% more effective in relieving headaches and helps the body absorb headache medications more quickly, bringing faster relief.[62] For this reason, many over-the-counter headache drugs include caffeine in their formula. It is also used with ergotamine in the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches as well as to overcome the drowsiness caused by antihistamines. Ergotamine is a vasoconstrictor used for migraine prevention and is sometimes mixed with caffeine. ... Cluster headaches are rare headaches that occur in groups or clusters. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ...


Overuse

In large amounts, and especially over extended periods of time, caffeine can lead to a condition known as caffeinism.[63][64] Caffeinism usually combines caffeine dependency with a wide range of unpleasant physical and mental conditions including nervousness, irritability, anxiety, tremulousness, muscle twitching (hyperreflexia), insomnia, headaches, respiratory alkalosis[65] and heart palpitations.[66] Furthermore, because caffeine increases the production of stomach acid, high usage over time can lead to peptic ulcers, erosive esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease.[67] A chemical dependency is such a strong dependency on a substance that it becomes necessary to have this substance just to function properly; The need of a substance developed from abusing the substance, requiring the substance for survival, like the need for food, or water See also: addiction drug tolerance... This article is about state anxiety. ... Irritability is an excessive response to stimuli. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... For the film see Tremors (film). ... A fasciculation (or muscle twitching) is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction (twitching) visible under the skin arising from the spontaneous discharge of a bundle of skeletal muscle fibres. ... Hyperreflexia is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Respiratory alkalosis results from increased alveolar respiration (hyperventilation) leading to decreased plasma carbon dioxide concentration. ... A palpitation is an abnormal, rapid beating of the heart, brought on by overexertion, disease or drugs. ... A benign gastric ulcer (from the antrum) of a gastrectomy specimen. ... Esophagitis (or Oesophagitis) is inflammation of the esophagus. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD or GORD using the British Å“sophageal) is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux in the esophagus[1]. This is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. ...


There are four caffeine-induced psychiatric disorders recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition: caffeine intoxication, caffeine-induced anxiety disorder, caffeine-induced sleep disorder, and caffeine-related disorder not otherwise specified (NOS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... Caffeine-induced sleep disorder is a psychiatric disorder that results from overconsumption of the stimulant caffeine. ...


Caffeine intoxication

An acute overdose of caffeine, usually in excess of about 300 milligrams, dependent on body weight and level of caffeine tolerance, can result in a state of central nervous system over-stimulation called caffeine intoxication.[68] Some people seeking caffeine intoxication resort to insufflation (snorting) of caffeine powder, usually finely crushed caffeine tablets. This induces a faster and more intense reaction. The symptoms of caffeine intoxication are not unlike overdoses of other stimulants. It may include restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushing of the face, increased urination, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, a rambling flow of thought and speech, irritability, irregular or rapid heart beat, and psychomotor agitation.[66] In cases of much larger overdoses mania, depression, lapses in judgment, disorientation, loss of social inhibition, delusions, hallucinations, psychosis, rhabdomyolysis, and death may occur.[69][70] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... Anxiety is a complex combination of the feeling of fear, apprehension and worry often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... Diuresis is the production of urine by the kidney. ... Gut redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Twitching. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychomotor agitation is a series of unintentional and purposeless motions that stem from mental tension of an individual. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: (1) time, (2) place and (3) person. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a false belief, and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Rhabdomyolysis is the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


In cases of extreme overdose, death can result. The median lethal dose (LD50) given orally, is 192 milligrams per kilogram in rats.[1] The LD50 of caffeine in humans is dependent on weight and individual sensitivity and estimated to be about 150 to 200 milligrams per kilogram of body mass, roughly 80 to 100 cups of coffee for an average adult taken within a limited time frame that is dependent on half-life. Though achieving lethal dose with caffeine would be exceptionally difficult with regular coffee, there have been reported deaths from overdosing on caffeine pills, with serious symptoms of overdose requiring hospitalization occurring from as little as 2 grams of caffeine.[71][72][73][74] Death typically occurs due to ventricular fibrillation brought about by effects of caffeine on the cardiovascular system. An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... The biological half life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physcial or a chemical process. ... Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a cardiac condition which consists of a lack of coordination of the contraction of the muscle tissue of the large chambers of the heart that eventually leads to the heart stopping altogether. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...


Treatment of severe caffeine intoxication is generally supportive, providing treatment of the immediate symptoms, but if the patient has very high serum levels of caffeine then peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or hemofiltration may be required. Peritoneal dialysis In medicine, peritoneal dialysis is a method for removing waste such as urea and potassium from the blood, as well as excess fluid, when the kidneys are incapable of this (i. ... It has been suggested that Artificial kidney be merged into this article or section. ... In medicine, hemofiltration, also haemofiltration, is a renal replacement therapy similar to hemodialysis which is used almost exclusively in the intensive care setting. ...


Anxiety and sleep disorders

Long-term overuse of caffeine can elicit a number of psychiatric disturbances. Two such disorders recognized by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) are caffeine-induced sleep disorder and caffeine-induced anxiety disorder. Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ...


In the case of caffeine-induced sleep disorder, an individual regularly ingests high doses of caffeine sufficient to induce a significant disturbance in his or her sleep, sufficiently severe to warrant clinical attention.[68] A study in the British Journal of Addiction concluded that caffeinism, although infrequently diagnosed, may afflict as many as one person in ten of the population.[64]


Parkinson's disease

Several large studies have shown that caffeine intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) in men, but studies in women have been inconclusive.[75] The mechanism by which caffeine affects PD remains a mystery. In animal models, researchers have shown that caffeine can prevent the loss of dopamine-producing nerve cells seen in Parkinson's Disease, but researchers still do not know how this occurs.[76]


Effects on memory and learning

An array of studies found that caffeine could have nootropic effects, inducing certain changes in memory and learning. However, it is still not definitely clear whether the effect is negative or positive. Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ...


Researchers have found that long-term consumption of low dose caffeine (0.3 g/L) slowed hippocampus-dependent learning and impaired long-term memory. Caffeine consumption for 4 weeks also significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis compared to controls during the experiment. The conclusion was that long-term consumption of caffeine could inhibit hippocampus-dependent learning and memory partially through inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis. [77] For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ...


In one study, caffeine was added to rat neurons in vitro. The dendritic spines (a part of the brain cell used in forming connections between neurons) taken from the hippocampus (a part of the brain associated with memory), grew by 33% and new spines formed. After an hour or two, however, these cells returned to their original shape.[78] In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... Close up of the dendrite of a striatal medium spiny neuron. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ...


Another study showed that subjects—after receiving 100 milligrams of caffeine—had increased activity in brain regions located in the frontal lobe, where a part of the working memory network is located, and the anterior cingulum, a part of the brain that controls attention. The caffeinated subjects also performed better on the memory tasks.[79]


However, a different study showed that caffeine could impair short term memory and increase the likelihood of the tip of the tongue phenomenon. The study allowed the researchers to suggest that caffeine could aid short-term memory when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but also to hypothesize that caffeine hinders short-term memory when the train of thought is unrelated.[80] In essence, focused thought coupled with caffeine consumption increases mental performance. Tongue Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon is the feeling of knowing something that cannot be immediately recalled. ... Released on November 11, 2003, Train of Thought is an album by the progressive metal band Dream Theater. ...


Effects on the heart

Caffeine increases the levels of cAMP in the heart cells, mimicking the effects of epinephrine. cAMP diffuses through the cell and acts as a "secondary messenger," activating protein kinase A (PKA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase). According to one study, caffeine, in the form of coffee, significantly reduces the risk of heart disease in epidemiological studies. However, the protective effect was found only in participants who were not severely hypertensive (i.e. patients that are not suffering from a very high blood pressure). Furthermore, no significant protective effect was found in participants aged less than 65 years or in cerebrovascular disease mortality for those aged equal or more than 65 years.[81] Adrenaline redirects here. ... In cell biology, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), also known as protein kinase A (PKA, EC 2. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... In medicine, hypertension refers to the problem of abnormally high blood pressure. ... Cerebrovascular disease is damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. ...


Effects on children

It is commonly believed that caffeine consumption causes stunted growth in children, but this is not supported by scientific research.[82] However, just as with adults, there may be legitimate reason to limit the amount consumed by children.[83]


Caffeine intake during pregnancy

The Food Standards Agency has recommended that pregnant women should limit their caffeine intake to less than 300 mg of caffeine a day – the equivalent of four cups of coffee a day. A higher intake may be associated with miscarriage.[84][85] The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ...


Dr De-Kun Li of Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, which appears in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, concludes that an intake of 200 milligrams or more per day, representing two or more cups, "significantly increases the risk of miscarriage". [86] However, an epidemiologic study published in early January 2008 found no observable increase in risk on miscarriage from caffeine. [6]


Production

Anhydrous (dry) USP-grade caffeine
Anhydrous (dry) USP-grade caffeine

Being readily available as a byproduct of decaffeination of tea and coffee, caffeine is not usually manufactured.[87] If desired, it may be synthesized from dimethyl urea and malonic acid.[88] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1402x910, 94 KB)Anhydrous USP grade Caffeine Photographer: William Rafti of the William Rafti Institute File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1402x910, 94 KB)Anhydrous USP grade Caffeine Photographer: William Rafti of the William Rafti Institute File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... The United States Pharmacopoeia is a compendium of drugs published every five years by the United States Pharmacopoeial Convention. ... Malonic acid (IUPAC systematic name: propanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure CH2(COOH)2. ...


Decaffeination

Main article: Decaffeination

Pure caffeine is a white powder, and can be extracted from a variety of natural sources. Caffeine extraction is an important industrial process and can be performed using a number of different solvents. Benzene, chloroform, trichloroethylene and dichloromethane have all been used over the years but for reasons of safety, environmental impact, cost and flavor, they have been superseded by the following main methods: Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans and tea. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point None Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Water extraction

Coffee beans are soaked in water. The water, which contains not only caffeine but also many other compounds which contribute to the flavor of coffee, is then passed through activated charcoal, which removes the caffeine. The water can then be put back with the beans and evaporated dry, leaving decaffeinated coffee with a good flavor.[89] Coffee manufacturers recover the caffeine and resell it for use in soft drinks and over-the-counter caffeine tablets. Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ...


Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

Supercritical carbon dioxide is an excellent nonpolar solvent for caffeine (as well as many other organic compounds), and is safer than the organic solvents that are used for caffeine extraction. The extraction process is simple: CO2 is forced through the green coffee beans at temperatures above 31.1 °C and pressures above 73 atm. Under these conditions, CO2 is in a "supercritical" state: it has gaslike properties which allow it to penetrate deep into the beans but also liquid-like properties which dissolve 97–99% of the caffeine. The caffeine-laden CO2 is then sprayed with high pressure water to remove the caffeine. The caffeine can then be isolated by charcoal adsorption (as above) or by distillation, recrystallization, or reverse osmosis.[89] Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature phase diagram Supercritical carbon dioxide refers to carbon dioxide with some unique properties. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorbate). ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Insulin crystals Recrystallization is an essentially physical process that has meanings in chemistry, metallurgy and geology. ... Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. ...


Extraction by nonhazardous organic solvents

Organic solvents such as ethyl acetate present much less health and environmental hazard than previously used chlorinated and aromatic solvents. The hydrolysis products of ethyl acetate are ethanol and acetic acid, both nonhazardous in small quantities. Another method is to use triglyceride oils obtained from spent coffee grounds. R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , Flash point −4 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylate esters Methyl acetate, Butyl acetate Related compounds Acetic acid, ethanol Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Stereochemistry

The nitrogen atoms are all essentially planar (in sp2 orbital hybridisation). Even though some are often drawn with three single bonds, the lone pairs on these atoms are involved in resonance with adjacent double-bonded carbon atoms, resulting in the caffeine molecule having aromatic character. Four sp3 orbitals. ... Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ...


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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Erowid. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Bristol was founded in 1876 as the University College, Bristol. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up Caffeine in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

General information

  • How Stuff Works: "How Caffeine Works"
  • Erowid Caffeine Vaults
  • National Geographic January 2005: Caffeine
  • Caffeine Zone: Social and Medical info on caffeine and its effects.
  • #caffeine! The Caffeine Information Archive
  • Naked Scientists Online: Why do plants make caffeine?
  • The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Caffeine: A User's Guide
  • The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs, Caffeine-Part 1 Part 2
  • Coffee: A Little Really Does Go a Long Way, NPR, September 28, 2006
  • Does coffee really give you a buzz? by John Triggs in the Daily Express April 17 2007

is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

News

  • Alcohol and Drugs History Society: Caffeine news page
  • National Post: Caffeine linked to psychiatric disorders
  • Caffeine Withdrawal Recognized as a Disorder

Health

  • Is Caffeine a Health Hazard?
  • eMedicine Caffeine-Related Psychiatric Disorders
  • The Effects Of Caffeine Addiction
  • Caffeine: Psychological Effects, Use & Abuse
  • Protects brain from Alzheimer's?

Appendix

Relative content: comparison of different sources

Caffeine equivalents[1][2]
In general, each of the following contains approximately 200 milligrams of caffeine:
  • One 200 milligram caffeine pill
  • One 12 fluid ounce cup of regular Starbucks coffee (355 millilitres)
  • One and one quarter 16 fluid ounce cans of Monster Energy (590 millilitres)
  • One and a half pounds of milk chocolate[a] (680 grams)
  • Two 8 fluid ounce containers of regular coffee (470  millilitres)
  • 1/2 tube of Spazzstick Caffeinated Lip Balm
  • Two Foosh Energy Mints
  • Two Buzz Bites Chocolate Energy Chews
  • Two and a half 10 fluid ounce bottles of Bawls caffeinated drink (740 millilitres)
  • Three 6 fluid ounce cups of black tea (0.54 litres) (70 mg per 6 oz cup according to [1])
  • Three standard Excedrin pills
  • Three 8 fluid ounce cups of Red Bull energy drink (710 millilitres)
  • Four 8 fluid ounce cups of Vault energy drink (1.0 litre)
  • Five 1 fluid ounce shots of espresso from robusta beans (150 millilitres)
  • Five 8 fluid ounce cups of Mountain Dew (1.2 litres)
  • Five 12 fluid ounce cans of typical soda pop (1.8 litres) (variable)
  • Eight and a half 8 fluid ounce cups of Coca-Cola Classic (68 fl oz is approximately 2.0 litres)
  • Ten 8 fluid ounce cups of green tea (2.4 litres)
  • Fifty 8 fluid ounce cups of decaffeinated coffee (12 litres)

Notes: Kg redirects here. ... A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ... For other uses of Starbuck, see Starbuck. ... The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... Monster Energy (usually simply known as Monster) is a brand of energy drink manufactured by Monster Beverage Company Inc. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chocolate block in melted chocolate Chocolate is a common ingredient in many kinds of sweets—one of the most popular in the world. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Bawls Guarana is a soft drink containing a relatively large amount of caffeine (approximately 107 mg per 16 oz can and 66. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Excedrin is an over-the-counter headache pain reliever, typically in the form of tablets or caplets. ... For other uses, see Red Bull (disambiguation). ... Vault is a carbonated beverage that was released by The Coca-Cola Company in June 2006 (and Vault Red Blitz in 2007). ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Espresso brewing, with a dark reddish-brown foam, called crema or schiuma. ... Binomial name Coffea canephora L. Coffea canephora (Robusta Coffee; syn. ... Mountain Dew is a caffeinated, sweet, citrus-flavored soft drink produced by PepsiCo, Inc. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans and tea. ...


a. Chocolate and other products of cacao contain substantial quantities of other caffeine-like chemicals (especially theobromine) as well as actual caffeine. The properties of these substances are in at least some respects very similar to caffeine. For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ...

In pharmacology, a psychoanaleptic is a medication which produces an arousing effect upon the patient. ... A psychostimulant is a substance that enhances locomotor behavior. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System containing Psychoanaleptics. ... Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Amphetaminil is a cental nervous system stimulant. ... Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Fencamfamine (Glucoenergan, Reactivan) is a stimulant which was developed in the 1960s as an appetite supressant, but was later withdrawn for this application due to problems with dependence and abuse. ... Fenozolone is a centrally acting sympathomimetic. ... Fenethylline (Captagon) is a synthetic stimulant drug. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ... Mesocarb (Sidnocarb, Sydnocarb) is a stimulant drug which was developed in the USSR in the 1970s. ... Pemoline is a medication for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Pipradrol (Meretran) is a mild CNS stimulant which is no longer widely used in most countries due to concerns about its abuse potential, although this is less of a problem than with other stimulants that still are in current use such as methylphenidate. ... Prolintane is a central nervous system simulant. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Propentofylline is a xanthine derivative and phosphodiesterase inhibitor with purported neuroprotective effects. ... Racetams are a class of nootropic drugs that share a pyrrolidine nucleus. ... Aniracetam (Draganon®, Sarpul®, Ampamet®) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. ... Oxiracetam (2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is a nootropic. ... Carphedon (C12H14N2O2, 2-(4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is a derivative of the nootropic drug piracetam. ... Piracetam (brand name: Nootropil®, Myocalm®), is a nootropic, (though it is only called so by off-label users, see As a nootropic below). ... Pramiracetam (amacetam, CI 879) is a nootropic derived from piracetam, but is more potent (lower dosage is used). ... Ampakines are a new class of modified benzamide compounds known to enhance attention span and alertness. ... CX516 is an ampakine compound that works as an AMPA modulator and is being devolped by a collaboration of Cortex and Shire and Servier. ... Adrafinil chemical structure Adrafinil is a mild central nervous system stimulant drug used to relieve excessive sleepiness and inattention in elderly patients. ... Armodafinil (Nuvigil®) is a drug produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon, currently in the process of receiving FDA approval. ... Modafinil is a eugeroic drug generally prescribed to treat narcolepsy, made by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc. ... Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. ... Citicoline (INN, also known as cytidine diphosphate choline and cytidine 5-diphosphocholine) is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Cyprodenate (Actebral) is a stimulant drug. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dimethylethanolamine is a nitrogen organic compound. ... Dimebon (Dimebolin) is an antihistamine drug which has been used clinically in Russia since 1983. ... Fipexide is a piperazine derivative drug invented in Italy in 1983. ... Linopirdine is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Nootropics ... Nizofenone is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Pirisudanol (or pyrisuccideanol) is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Nootropics are drugs that are used to enhance mental performance in healthy individuals. ... Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion®) is a precursor to thiamine (i. ... Vinpocetine (brand names: Cavinton, Intelectol; chemical name: ethyl apovincaminate) is a semisynthetic derivative of vincamine, which is extracted from the periwinkle plant. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caffeine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4317 words)
Caffeine is a plant alkaloid, found in numerous plant species, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding upon them.
Caffeine's principal mode of action is as an antagonist of adenosine receptors in the brain.
Because caffeine is primarily an antagonist of the central nervous system's receptors for the neurotransmitter adenosine, the bodies of individuals who regularly consume caffeine adapt to the continual presence of the drug by substantially increasing the number of adenosine receptors in the central nervous system.
Caffeine (1194 words)
Caffeine and some of its metabolites can cause changes in the cells of the body and in the way in which they reproduce themselves, and caffeine certainly enhances this kind of action by some known carcinogens.
Caffeine is added for its ability to relieve headache, including that caused by caffeine withdrawal, and for its ability to help analgesics do their work better.
The ability of caffeine to stimulate breathing is used in the treatment of apnea (cessation of breathing) in newborn babies, and as an antidote against the depression of breathing by overdose of heroin and other opiate drugs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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