FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Caesium" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Caesium
55 xenoncaesiumbarium
Rb

Cs

Fr
General
Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55
Chemical series alkali metals
Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s
Appearance silvery gold
Standard atomic weight 132.9054519(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 6s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 1.93 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 1.843 g·cm−3
Melting point 301.59 K
(28.44 °C, 83.19 °F)
Boiling point 944 K
(671 °C, 1240 °F)
Critical point 1938 K, 9.4 MPa
Heat of fusion 2.09 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 63.9 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 32.210 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 418 469 534 623 750 940
Atomic properties
Crystal structure body centered cubic
Oxidation states 1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.79 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies 1st: 375.7 kJ/mol
2nd: 2234.3 kJ/mol
3rd: 3400 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 260 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 298 pm
Covalent radius 225 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 205 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 35.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 97 µm·m−1·K−1
Young's modulus 1.7 GPa
Bulk modulus 1.6 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.2
Brinell hardness 0.14 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-46-2
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of caesium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
133Cs 100% Cs is stable with 78 neutrons
134Cs syn 65.159 Ms
(2.0648y)
ε 1.229 134Xe
β- 2.059 134Ba
135Cs trace 73 Ts
(2,300,000y)
β- 0.269 135Ba
137Cs syn 948.9 Ms
(30.07y)
β- 1.176 137Ba
References

Caesium (also spelled cesium, IPA: /ˈsiːziəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C (83 °F) which makes it one of the metals that are liquid at or near room temperature along with rubidium (39°C), francium (27 °C), mercury (-39 °C), and gallium (30 °C). This element is most notably used in atomic clocks. General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Atomic mass 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Image by Daniel Mayer. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The alkali metals are a chemical series. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The s-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the first two groups: the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, plus hydrogen. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (366x720, 41 KB)Cesium metal ampoule from the Justin Urgitis collection. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (eg, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Room temperature describes a certain temperature within enclosed space that is uses for various purposes by human beings. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Caesium (Cs) Standard atomic mass: 132. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that is naturally occurring. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... It has been suggested that List of elements by atomic number be merged into this article or section. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... Room temperature describes a certain temperature within enclosed space that is uses for various purposes by human beings. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Atomic mass 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Standard atomic weight 69. ... Chip-scale atomic clock unveiled by NIST An Atomic Clock is a type of clock that uses an atomic resonance frequency standard to feed its counter. ...


The variant spelling cesium is sometimes used, especially in North American English, but caesium is the spelling used by the IUPAC, although since 1993 it has recognized cesium as a variant as well. North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

The electromagnetic spectrum of caesium has two bright lines in the blue part of the spectrum along with several other lines in the red, yellow, and green. This metal is silvery gold in color and is both soft and ductile. Caesium is the second most electropositive and alkaline of the chemical elements and has the second lowest ionization potential (after francium). Caesium is the least abundant of the five non-radioactive alkali metals. (Technically, francium is the least common alkali metal, but since it is highly radioactive with an estimated 550 grams in the entire Earth's crust at one time,[1] its abundance can be considered zero in practical terms.) Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... The term blue may refer to any of a number of similar colours. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... A yellow Tulip. ... Leafy green fountain in Wattens, Austria. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... An electropositive atom, or element, is one that easily loses electrons. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The ionization potential, or ionization energy, of an atom or molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


Along with gallium, francium, and mercury, caesium is among the only metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. Caesium reacts explosively in cold water and also reacts with ice at temperatures above −116°C (157K). General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Standard atomic weight 69. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Fig. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ...


Caesium hydroxide (CsOH) is a very strong base and will rapidly etch the surface of glass. CsOH is often stated to be the "strongest base" (after FrOH), but in fact many compounds such as n-butyllithium and sodium amide are stronger. Caesium hydroxide, (CsOH) is a chemical compound consisting of an atom of caesium and a hydroxide group (also known as hydroxyl). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... This article is about the material. ... An organolithium reagent is a carbon nucleophile similar to a Grignard reagent. ... Sodium amide, also called sodamide, is NaNH2. ...


There is an account that caesium, reacting with fluorine, takes up more fluorine than it stoichiometrically should.[citation needed] It is possible that, after the salt Cs+F has formed, the Cs+ ion, which has the same electronic structure as elemental xenon, can, like xenon, be oxidised further by fluorine and form traces of a higher fluoride such as CsF3, analogous to XeF2. General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... It has been suggested that Stoichiometric coefficient and Gas stoichiometry be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ...


Applications

Probably the most widespread use of caesium today is in caesium formate-based drilling fluids for the oil industry. The high density of the caesium formate brine (up to 2.3 sg,) coupled with the relative benignity of 133Cs , reduces the requirement for toxic high-density suspended solids in the drilling fluid, which is a significant technological, engineering and environmental advantage. [2] [3] Formate or methanoate is the ion is HCOO- (formic acid minus one hydrogen ion). ... Drilling mud, also called drilling fluid, is a lubricant used while drilling oil and natural gas wells. ...


Caesium is also notably used in atomic clocks, which are accurate to seconds in many thousands of years. Since 1967, the International System of Measurements bases its unit of time, the second, on the properties of caesium. SI defines the second as 9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation which corresponds to the transition between two electron spin energy levels of the ground state of the 133Cs atom. Chip-scale atomic clock unveiled by NIST An Atomic Clock is a type of clock that uses an atomic resonance frequency standard to feed its counter. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... In atomic physics, the spin quantum number is a quantum number that parametrizes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of a given particle. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... In physics, the ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ...

  • 134Cs has been used in hydrology as a measure of caesium output by the nuclear power industry. This isotope is used because, while it is less prevalent than either 133Cs or 137Cs, 134Cs can be produced solely by nuclear reactions. 135Cs has also been used in this function.
  • Like other elements of group 1, caesium has a great affinity for oxygen and is used as a "getter" in vacuum tubes.
  • This metal is also used in photoelectric cells due to its ready emission of electrons.
  • Caesium was used as a propellant in early ion engines. It used a method of ionization to strip the outer electron from the propellant by simple contact with tungsten. Caesium use as a propellant was discontinued when Hughes Research Laboratory conducted a study finding Xenon gas as a suitable replacement.
  • Caesium is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds.
  • Radioactive isotopes of caesium are used in the medical field to treat certain types of cancer.
  • Caesium fluoride is widely used in organic chemistry as a base and as a source of anhydrous fluoride ion.
  • Caesium vapor is used in many common magnetometers.
  • Because of their high density, caesium chloride solutions are commonly used in molecular biology for density gradient ultracentrifugation, primarily for the isolation of viral particles, subcellular organelles and fractions, and nucleic acids from biological samples.
  • Caesium nitrate is used as oxidiser to burn silicon in infrared flares[4] like the LUU-19 flare[5], because it emits much of its light in the near infrared spectrum.
  • More recently this metal has been used in ion propulsion systems.[citation needed]
  • Caesium-137 is an extremely common radioisotope used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications such as:
    • moisture density gauges
    • leveling gauges
    • thickness gauges
    • well-logging devices (used to measure the thickness of rock-strata)
  • also used as an internal standard in spectrophotometry

Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... For fusion power, see Fusion power. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mianly by nuclear fission (half life is about 27 years). ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... To prevent any remaining gases from remaining in a free state in a vacuum tube, modern tubes are constructed with getters, which are usually small, circular troughs filled with metals that oxidize quickly, with barium being the most common. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ion thruster. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Overview Caesium fluoride (cesium fluoride in North America), is an ionic compound usually found as a hygroscopic white solid. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength of magnetic fields. ... Caesium chloride is an ionic compound best known as a structural type. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 3, p Appearance as coarse powder, dark grey with bluish tinge Standard atomic weight 28. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... Look up Flare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... An ion engine test An ion thruster is a type of spacecraft propulsion that uses beams of ions for propulsion. ...

History

Caesium (Latin caesius meaning "sky blue" or "light blue") was spectroscopically discovered by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in 1860 in mineral water from Dürkheim, Germany. Its identification was based upon the bright blue lines in its spectrum and it was the first element discovered by spectrum analysis. The first caesium metal was produced in 1882 by Carl Setterberg. Historically, the most important use for caesium has been in research and development, primarily in chemical and electrical applications. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (31 March 1811 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist. ... Gustav Robert Kirchhof (March 12, 1824 – October 17, 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Occurrence

Pollucite, a caesium mineral
Pollucite, a caesium mineral

An alkali metal, caesium occurs in lepidolite, pollucite (hydrated silicate of aluminium and caesium) and within other sources. One of the world's most significant and rich sources of this metal is at Bernic Lake in Manitoba. The deposits there are estimated to contain 300,000 metric tons of pollucite at an average of 20% caesium. Pollucite (Caesium mineral) Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pollucite (Caesium mineral) Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Crystal of lepidolite, Brazil Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2) is a lilac or rose-violet colored phyllosilicate mineral of the mica group that is a secondary source of lithium. ... Pollucite is a mineral, one of the Zeolite group pf minerals. ... Hydrate is a term which means different things in inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... General Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, period, block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ...


It can be isolated by electrolysis of fused caesium cyanide and in a number of other ways. Exceptionally pure and gas-free caesium can be made by the thermal decomposition of caesium azide. The primary compounds of caesium are caesium chloride and its nitrate. The price of caesium metal in 1997 was about $US 30 per gram, but its compounds are much cheaper. This article is about the chemical process. ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... An azide is the N3- anion, the anion of hydrazoic acid or a reactive group in organic chemistry where a carbon substituent is attached as RN3. ... Caesium chloride is an ionic compound best known as a structural type. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ...

See also Caesium minerals.

Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of caesium

Caesium has at least 39 known isotopes, which is more than any other element except francium. The atomic masses of these isotopes range from 112 to 151. Even though this element has a large number of isotopes, it has only one naturally occurring stable isotope, 133Cs. Most of the other isotopes have half-lives from a few days to fractions of a second. The radiogenic isotope 137Cs has been used in hydrologic studies, analogous to the use of 3H. 137Cs is produced from the detonation of nuclear weapons and is produced in nuclear power plants, and was released to the atmosphere most notably from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown. It's because this isotope (137Cs) is one of the numerous products of fission, directly issued from the fission of uranium. Caesium (Cs) Standard atomic mass: 132. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... A radiogenic nuclide is one that is produced by a process of radioactive decay. ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A nuclear power station. ... The nuclear power plant at Chernobyl prior to the completion of the sarcophagus. ...


Beginning in 1945 with the commencement of nuclear testing, 137Cs was released into the atmosphere where it is absorbed readily into solution and is returned to the surface of the earth as a component of radioactive fallout. Once 137Cs enters the ground water, it is deposited on soil surfaces and removed from the landscape primarily by particle transport. As a result, the input function of these isotopes can be estimated as a function of time. Caesium-137 has a half-life of 30.17 years. It decomposes to barium-137m (a short-lived product of decay) then to a form of nonradioactive barium. Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... “Air” redirects here. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion and is named from the fact that it falls out of the atmosphere in to which it is spread during the explosion. ...


Precautions

All alkali metals are highly reactive. Caesium, being one of the heavier alkali metals, is also one of the most reactive and is highly explosive when it comes in contact with water, as the hydrogen gas produced by the reaction is heated by the thermal energy released at the same time, causing ignition, and a violent explosion (the same as all alkali metals) - but caesium is so reactive, this explosive reaction can even be triggered by cold water or ice. Caesium hydroxide is an extremely strong base, and can etch glass. The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Caesium hydroxide, (CsOH) is a chemical compound consisting of an atom of caesium and a hydroxide group (also known as hydroxyl). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... This article is about the material. ...


Caesium compounds are encountered rarely by most persons. All caesium compounds should be regarded as mildly toxic because of its chemical similarity to potassium. Large amounts cause hyperirritability and spasms, but such amounts would not ordinarily be encountered in natural sources, so Cs is not a major chemical environmental pollutant. Rats fed caesium in place of potassium in their diet die, so this element cannot replace potassium in function. General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Irritability is an excessive response to stimuli. ... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ...


The isotopes 134Cs and 137Cs (present in the biosphere in small amounts as a result of radiation leaks) represent a radioactivity burden which varies depending on location. Radiocaesium does not accumulate in the body as effectively as many other fission products (such as radioiodine and radiostrontium), which are actively accumulated by the body. Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ...


See also

  • Cs-137
  • Goiânia accident, a major radioactive contamination incident involving a small rod of caesium chloride.
  • Caesium compounds
  • Dirty bomb

Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mianly by nuclear fission (half life is about 27 years). ... The Goiânia accident was an incident of radioactive contamination in central Brazil that killed several people and injured many others. ... The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a radiological dispersal device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. ...

References

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up caesium in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caesium - LoveToKnow 1911 (804 words)
Caesium is found in the mineral springs of Frankenhausen, Montecatini, di Val di Nievole, Tuscany, and Wheal Clifford near Redruth, Cornwall (W. Miller, Chem.
The platino-chlorides are reduced by hydrogen, and the caesium and rubidium chlorides extracted by water.
Caesium hydroxide, Cs(OH) 2, obtained by the decomposition of the sulphate with baryta water,is a greyish-white deliquescent solid,which melts at a red heat and absorbs carbon dioxide rapidly.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Caesium (6141 words)
Caesium is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds.
Caesium fluoride is widely used in organic chemistry as a base and as a source of anhydrous fluoride ion.
The primary compounds of caesium are caesium chloride and its nitrate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m