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Encyclopedia > Caesaropapist
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Caesaropapism is the phenomenon of combining the power of secular government with the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it is a political theory in which the head of state is also also the head of the church. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


The first Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine, showed some inclination towards Caesaropapism. It is recorded that, before the Battle of Milvian Bridge, he had a vision of a labarum with the message, "by this sign you shall conquer", and was victorious. Constantine then presented himself to the Bishop of Rome, and offered gifts of thanksgiving, in the form of clemency and tolerance, although later claims of land based upon a "Donation of Constantine" were proved to be a forgery in the 15th century. Constantine, however, declined baptism until he was near death. He also viewed himself as the overseer/bishop (the word "bishop" is simply from the Greek for "overseer") of external relations of the Christian Church. He decreed that the bishops gather at the First Ecumenical Council. The assertion of imperial power over the fathers (papa) of the church by the rulers/emperors (Caesars) was opposed by Ambrose of Milan and by many bishops, especially those of Rome, and some others. Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Jump to: navigation, search Constantine. ... The Battle of Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Maxentius. ... An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Saint Peter, given the keys to heaven by Jesus, was the first Bishop of Rome. ... The Donation of Constantine (Latin, Constitutum Donatio Constantini or Constitutum domini Constantini imperatoris) is a famous forged Roman imperial edict devised probably between 750CE and 850CE. Its precise purpose is not entirely certain, but it was clearly a defence of papal interests, perhaps against the claims of either the Byzantine... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... Caesar (p. ... Saint Ambrose, mosaic in church St. ... Location within Italy Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese dialect: Milán) is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy. ... Jump to: navigation, search City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost...


The idea that a eastern "counterweight" existed to the western phenomenon of "Caesaropapism" is highly debatable. Imperial control over the Church in the East did not experience a massive upswing after the Great Schism, for example. The East-West Schism, known also as the Great Schism (though this latter term sometimes refers to the later Western Schism), was the event that divided Chalcedonian Christianity into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. ...


The idea of a political leader ruling the religious realm has been a very prevalent meme throughout western history. Among the several instances of western tendencies toward imperial interference in the western church, we can count the Investiture Controversy of the Holy Roman Empire, the Anglican schism of Henry VIII of England, and the settlement of the Treaty of Westphalia, which prescribed that an individual German principality's state church, or ecclesiastical community, would be the same as its ruler. Also many actions and controversies of French kings can be included, which go under the umbrella title Gallicanism. The term meme (pronounced in IPA; from the Greek word μνήμη for memory) first came into popular use with the publication of the book The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins in 1976. ... The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... Jump to: navigation, search This page is about the Germanic empire. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gallicanism is the belief that monarchs authority over the Roman Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Popes. ...


In the east, struggle between the political rulers and the hierarchy re-occurred in the Bulgarian Church at the northern border of the Eastern Roman Empire. Later, this Bulgarian Church would provide the Slavic language texts for the Church of Rus' at Kiev. In the northern reaches of Rus', the Russian Orthodox Church developed in Suzdal and, later, Moscow, also becoming the scene of the involvement of political rulers in the affairs of the church. It must be stated that the ultimate expression of "Caesaropapism" did occur in Russia, wherein Tsar Peter the Great suppressed the patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church, who opposed his modernization reforms, and made the church subordinate to the Emperor. This lasted until shortly before the Russian Revolution, when a synod of Russian Orthodox bishops elected a patriarch. A notable example of caesaropapism is found in the Russian Constitution of 1906: The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... St. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia. ...

ART. 64. The Tsar as Christian ruler is the supreme defender and upholder of the doctrines of the ruling faith, the protector of the true belief, and of every ordinance in the holy Church.
ART. 65. In the administration of the Church the autocratic power acts through the Holy Directorial Synod, which it has created.

In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. ...

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