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Encyclopedia > Caesarean section

A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. It is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at risk, although in recent times it has been also performed upon request for births that would otherwise have been normal.[1][2][3] For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Parturition redirects here. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... A laparotomy is a surgical maneuver involving an incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... A hysterotomy is an incision in the uterus, commonly combined with a laparotomy during a caesarean section. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... Caesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR), is a form of an elective caesarean section, where the the conduct of a delivery via a caesarean section (CS, or c-section) is dictated not by medical necessity or obstetrical indication but specifically the request of the pregnant patient. ...


(see Actual Video)

Contents

Etymology

The earliest attested usages of the made up language in an obstetric context date from the first century.[4] There are three theories about the origin of the name:

  1. In the English language, the name for the procedure is said to derive from a Roman legal code called "Lex Caesarea", which allegedly contained a law prescribing that the baby be cut out of its mother's womb in case she dies before giving birth.[5] (The Merriam-Webster dictionary is unable to trace any such law; but "Lex Caesarea" might mean simply "imperial law" rather than a specific statute of Julius Caesar.)
  2. The derivation of the name is also often attributed to an ancient story, told in the first century A.D. by Pliny the Elder, which claims that Caesar's ancestor was delivered thus.[6] Whether or not the story is true, it may have been widely enough believed to give its name to the operation. (The reverse view, that the name "Caesar" was derived from the operation, is clearly indefensible, see below.)
  3. An alternative etymology has been proposed, suggesting that the procedure's name derives from the Latin verb caedere (supine stem caesum), "to cut," in which case the term "Caesarean section" is a tautology. Proponents of this view consider the traditional derivation to be a false etymology, though the supposed link with Julius Caesar has clearly influenced the spelling. The merits of this view must be considered separately from the corollary believed by some, that Caesar himself derived his name from the operation. This is certainly false: the cognomen "Caesar" had been used in the Julii family for centuries before Julius Caesar's birth[1], and the Historia Augusta cites three possible sources for the name Caesar, none of which have to do with Caesarean sections or the root word caedere.

The link with Julius Caesar, or with Roman emperors generally, exists in other languages as well. For example, the modern German & Dutch terms are respectively Kaiserschnitt & keizersnede (literally: "Emperor's section")[7]. The German term has also been imported into Japanese (帝王切開) and Korean (제왕절개), both literally meaning "emperor incision." The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In rhetoric, a tautology is an unnecessary (and usually unintentional) repetition of meaning, utilising different words, i. ... A false etymology is an assumed or postulated etymology which is incorrect from the perspective of modern scholarly work in historical linguistics. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Julius (fem. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


History

Successful caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda. As observed by R. W. Felkin in 1879.
Successful caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda. As observed by R. W. Felkin in 1879.

Pliny the Elder theorized that Julius Caesar's namesake came from an ancestor who was born by Caesarian section, but the truth of this is debated (see here). The Ancient Roman c-section was first performed to remove a baby from the womb of a mother who died during childbirth. Caesar's mother, Aurelia, lived through childbirth and successfully gave birth to her son, ruling out the possibility that the Roman Dictator and General was a c-section baby. (In fact, she died 45 years later.) It should be noted that Maimonides, the famous rabbi, philosopher, and doctor, says that it was known in ancient Rome how to perform a c-section without killing the mother, but that the medical knowledge of his day was lacking and it was not performed. Thus it would seem that, according to what Maimonides knew, c-sections were not performed solely on dying women, but also on mothers who would live after the birth of their child. From http://www. ... From http://www. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC) (i. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


The Catalan saint, Raymond Nonnatus (1204-1240), received his surname — from the Latin non natus ("not born") — because he was born by C-section. His mother died while giving birth to him.[8] Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Saint Raymond Nonnatus (Raymund Nonnatus; Raimundo Nonato; Raymond Nonnat) (1204—1240) is a saint from Catalonia. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


In 1316 the future Robert II of Scotland was delivered by caesarean section — his mother, Marjorie Bruce, died. This may have been the inspiration for Macduff in Shakespeare's play Macbeth". (see below). Robert the warrior and knight: the reverse side of Robert IIs Great Seal, enhanced as a 19th century steel engraving. ... Marjorie Bruce or Margaret de Bruce (December, 1296 - March 2, 1316) was the oldest daughter of Robert I of Scotland, by his first wife Isabella of Mar. ... Macduff is a fictional character in Shakespeares play Macbeth. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ...


Caesarian section sacrificed the mother for the sake of the child; the first recorded incidence of a woman surviving a caesarean section was in 1500, in Siegershausen, Switzerland: Jakob Nufer, a pig gelder, is supposed to have performed the operation on his wife after a prolonged labour. For most of the time since the sixteenth century, the procedure had a high mortality. In Great Britain and Ireland the mortality rate in 1865 was 85%. Key steps in reducing mortality were: Kemmental is a municipality in the district of Kreuzlingen, in the canton of Thurgau, Switzerland. ... Jakob Nufer was a Swiss pig-gelder who in 1500 performed the first caesarean section in history in which the mother (his wife) survived. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...

European travelers in the Great Lakes region of Africa during the 19th century observed caeserean sections being performed on a regular basis. The expectant mother was normally anesthetized with alcohol, and herbal mixtures were used to encourage healing. From the well-developed nature of the procedures employed, European observers concluded that they had been employed for some time. Asepsis is the practice to reduce or eliminate contaminants (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) from entering the operative field in surgery or medicine to prevent infection. ... Max Saenger (or Sänger) (1853-1903) was a gynecologist in Prague who invented a method of suturing the uterus. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... The Great Lakes of Africa are a series of lakes in and around the Great Rift Valley. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On March 5, 2000, Inés Ramírez performed a caesarean section on herself and survived, as did her son, Orlando Ruiz Ramírez. She is believed to be the only woman to have performed a successful caesarean section on herself. This article is about the day. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Inés Ramírez Pérez (b. ...


Types

A caesarean section in progress.
A caesarean section in progress.

There are several types of caesarean sections (CS). The differences between them primarily lie in the deep incision made on the uterus, below the skin and subcutaneous tissue, and should be differentiated from the skin incision, such as a Pfannenstiel incision. Download high resolution version (1484x1112, 136 KB)A fathers view of birth by caesarian section. ... Download high resolution version (1484x1112, 136 KB)A fathers view of birth by caesarian section. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... A Pfannenstiel incision (IPA: /ˈPfɑnənˌʃtil/) is a type of surgical incision that allows access to the abdomen. ...

  • The classical caesarean section involves a midline longitudinal incision which allows a larger space to deliver the baby. However, it is rarely performed today as it is more prone to complications.
  • The lower uterine segment section is the procedure most commonly used today; it involves a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair.
  • An emergency caesarean section is a caesarean performed once labour has commenced.
  • A crash caesarean section is a caesarean performed in an obstetrical emergency, where complications of pregnancy onset suddenly during the process of labor, and swift action is required to prevent the deaths of mother, child(ren) or both.
  • A caesarean hysterectomy consists of a caesarean section followed by the removal of the uterus. This may be done in cases of intractable bleeding or when the placenta cannot be separated from the uterus.
  • Traditionally other forms of CS have been used, such as extraperitoneal CS or Porro CS.
  • a repeat caesarean section is done when a patient had a previous section. Typically it is performed through the old scar.

In many hospitals, especially in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand the mother's birth partner is encouraged to attend the surgery to support the mother and share the experience. The anaesthetist will usually lower the drape temporarily as the child is delivered so the parents can see their newborn. The term, longitudinal means front-to-back or top-to-bottom as opposed to transverse which means side-to-side. In automotive engineering, the term, longitudinal refers to an engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle, front to back. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... // Routine Problems of Pregnancy Back Pain Common, particularly in the third trimester when the patients center of gravity has shifted. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates, such as some mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Eduardo Porro (1842-1902) was an Italian obstetrician. ... An anesthesiologist (American English), or anaesthetist (British English), is a medical doctor trained to administer Australia, for example, training is overseen by the United States, anesthesiologists are medical doctors (MD). ...


Indications

Caesarean section is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby. Reasons for caesarean delivery include The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ...

However, different providers may disagree about when a caesarean is required. For example, while one obstetrician may feel that a woman is too small to deliver her baby, another might well disagree. Similarly, some care providers may be much quicker to cite "failure to progress" than others. Disagreements like this help to explain why caesarean rates for some physicians and hospitals are much higher than are those for others. The medico-legal restrictions on vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC), have also increased the caesarean rate. Parturition redirects here. ... Dystocia (antonym eutocia) is an abnormal or difficult childbirth or labour. ... In medicine (obstetrics), fetal distress is the presence of signs in a pregnant woman—before or during childbirth—that the fetus is not well or is becoming excessively fatigued. ... Pre-eclampsia (US: preeclampsia) is a medical condition where hypertension arises in pregnancy (pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association with significant protein in the urine. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... Cord prolapse is an obstetric emergency during pregnancy or labour. ... Uterine rupture is a potentially catastrophic event during childbirth by which the integrity of the myometrial wall is breached. ... Identical triplet brothers at graduation. ... Breech, by W.Smellie, 1792 A breech birth (also known as breech presentation) refers to the position of the baby in the uterus such that it will be delivered buttocks first as opposed to the normal head first position. ... The term transverse means side-to-side, as opposed to longitudinal, which means front-to-back. In automotive engineering, the term transverse refers to an engine in which the crankshaft is oriented side-to-side relative to the wheels of the vehicle. ... Induction is a way of artificially bringing on labour in a woman. ... Plastic forceps are intended to be disposable Forceps are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. ... Ventouse is a vacuum device used to assist the delivery of a baby when labour has not progressed adequately. ... Macrosomia, sometimes also called big baby syndrome, is a potential complication during childbirth and the latter stages of pregnancy. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates, such as some mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Placental abruption (Also known as abruptio placentae) is a complication of pregnancy, wherein the placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother. ... Placenta accreta is a severe obstetric complication involving an abnormal attachment of the placenta to the myometrium (the middle layer of the uterine wall). ... The pelvis (pl. ... A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... In human anatomy, the perineum, also called the taint, or gooch, is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining between). ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ...


For religious, personal or other reasons, a mother may refuse to undergo caesarean section. In the United Kingdom, the law states that a woman in labour has the absolute right to refuse any medical treatment including caesarean section "for any reason or none", even if that decision may cause her own death, or that of her baby. Other countries have different laws.


As scheduled caesarean sections have become a rather safe operation (but see section on Risks), there has been a movement to perform caesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR). There is also a consumer-driven movement to support VBAC as an alternative for repeat caesareans in the face of increased medico-legal restrictions on vaginal birth. Caesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR), is a form of an elective caesarean section, where the the conduct of a delivery via a caesarean section (CS, or c-section) is dictated not by medical necessity or obstetrical indication but specifically the request of the pregnant patient. ...


Risks

Statistics from the 1990s suggest that less than one woman in 2,500 who has a caesarean section will die, compared to a rate of one in 10,000 for a vaginal delivery.[9] However the mortality rate for both continues to drop steadily. The UK National Health Service gives the risk of death for the mother as three times that of a vaginal birth.[10] However, it is misleading to directly compare the mortality rates of vaginal and caesarean deliveries. Women with severe medical disease often require a caesarean section which can distort the mortality figures. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... “NHS” redirects here. ...


A study published in the 13 February 2007 issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that women that have planned caesareans had an overall rate of severe morbidity of 27.3 per 1000 deliveries compared to an overall rate of severe morbidity of 9.0 per 1000 planned vaginal deliveries. The planned caesarean group had increased risks of cardiac arrest, wound haematoma, hysterectomy, major puerperal infection, anaesthetic complications, venous thromboembolism, and haemorrhage requiring hysterectomy over those suffered by the planned vaginal delivery group. [11] is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


A study published in the February 2007 issue of the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology found that women who had just one previous ceasarian section were more likely to have problems with their second birth. Women who delivered their first child by cesarean delivery had increased risks for malpresentation, placenta previa, antepartum hemorrhage, placenta accreta, prolonged labor, emergency cesarean, uterine rupture, preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age and stillbirth in their second delivery.[12] Placenta praevia (placenta previa AE) is a obstetric complication that can occur in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. ... In obstetrics, antepartum haemorrhage (APH), also antepartum hemorrhage, is bleeding from the vagina during pregnancy from twenty weeks gestational age to term. ... Placenta accreta is a severe obstetric complication involving an abnormal attachment of the placenta to the myometrium (the middle layer of the uterine wall). ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


A study published in the June 2006 issue of the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology found that women who had multiple caesarian sections were more likely to have problems with later pregnancies, and recommended that women who want larger families should not seek caesarian section as an elective. The risk of placenta accreta, a potentially life-threatening condition, is 0.13% after two c-sections, and increases to 2.13% after four and then to 6.74% after six or more surgeries. Along with this is a similar rise in the risk of emergency hysterectomies at delivery. The findings were based on outcomes from 30,132 caesarean deliveries.[13] (see also review by WebMD.com) Placenta accreta is a severe obstetric complication involving an abnormal attachment of the placenta to the myometrium (the middle layer of the uterine wall). ...


Babies born by caesarean sometimes have some initial trouble breathing. In addition, because the baby may be drowsy from the pain medication administered to the mother, and because the mother's mobility is reduced, breastfeeding may be difficult.[citation needed] An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ...


A caesarean section is a major operation, with all that it entails, including the risk of post-operative adhesions. Pain at the incision can be intense, and full recovery of mobility can take several weeks or more. A prior caesarean section increases the risk of uterine rupture during subsequent labour. An adhesion is a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures. ... Uterine rupture is a potentially catastrophic event during childbirth by which the integrity of the myometrial wall is breached. ...


If a CS is performed under emergency situations, the risk of the surgery may be increased due to a number of factors. The patient's stomach may not be empty, increasing the anesthesia risk.[14]


Prevalence

The World Health Organisation estimates the rate of caesarean sections at between 10% and 15% of all births in developed countries. In 2004, the caesarean rate was about 20% in the United Kingdom. In 2005 the caesarean rate was 30.2% in the United States.[15] During 20012002, the Canadian caesarean section rate was 22.5%.[16] In the United States the caesarean rate has risen 46% since 1996.[15] For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Studies have shown that continuity of care with a known carer may significantly decrease the rate of caesarean delivery[17] but that there is also research that appears to show that there is no significant difference in caesarean rates when comparing midwife continuity care to conventional fragmented care.[18]


Elective caesarean sections

Concerns have been raised in recent years that caesarean section is performed for reasons other than medical necessity. Critics worry that caesareans are performed because they are profitable for the hospital, or because a quick caesarean is more convenient for an obstetrician than a lengthy vaginal birth, or because it is easier to perform surgery at 7 a.m. than to respond to nature's schedule and deliver a baby at 3 a.m:[19] for unknown reasons, naturally-occurring labour seems to occur most often between midnight and dawn.[citation needed] Another contributing factor may be fear of medical malpractice lawsuits. For example, the failure to perform a caesarean section became the core of numerous lawsuits against obstetricians over incidents of cerebral palsy. [citation needed] Medico-legal restrictions on VBAC (vaginal birth after caesarean) are also driving the caesarean rate.[citation needed] Elective caesarean section (AE elective cesarean section) refers to a caesarean section (CS) that is done on a pregnant woman who is not in labor, either on the basis of an obstetrical or medical indication or at the request of the pregnant patient. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Medical necessity is generally considered that which is reasonable, necessary, and/or appropriate based on evidence-based clinical standards of care. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Studies of US women have indicated that married white women giving birth in private hospitals are more likely to have a caesarean section than poorer women even though they are less likely to have complications that may lead to a caesarian section being required. The women in these studies have indicated that their preference for caesarian section is more likely to be partly due to considerations of pain and vaginal tone.[20] A recent study in the British Medical Journal retrospectively analysed a large number of caesarean sections and stratified them by social class. Their finding was that caesarean sections are not more likely in women of higher social class than in women in other classes.[21] While such 'vanity' caesareans do occur, the prevalence of them does not appear to be statistically significant, while a much larger number of women wanting to have a vaginal birth find that the lack of support and medico-legal restrictions led to their caesarean.[citation needed] United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... For other meanings of vanity, see vanity (disambiguation). ...


Anaesthesia

The mother has the option of receiving regional anaesthesia (spinal or epidural) or general anaesthesia for caesarean section. Regional anaesthesia has the advantage of allowing her to remain awake for the delivery and avoids sedation of the newborn. Pain relief after the caesarean is also improved. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nerve block. ... Spinal anaesthesia is a form of local, or more specifically regional, anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), generally through a long fine needle. ... An epidural catheter after insertion. ...


General anaesthesia for caesarean section is becoming less common as scientific research has now clearly established the benefits of regional anaesthesia for both the mother and baby. [citation needed] General anaesthesia tends to be reserved for emergencies where the mother or baby's life is immediately threatened or other high-risk cases. The risks of general anaesthesia for mother and baby are still extremely small overall. In modern medical practice, general anaesthesia (AmE: anesthesia) is a state of total unconsciousness resulting from general anaesthetic drugs. ...


If the mother already has an epidural in, this epidural can often be used for the caesarean section. Multiple recent studies have now shown that epidurals in labour do not increase the caesarean section rate (Meta analysis 2005 Anim-Somuah, Cochrane Review) but they may increase the risk of a forceps or instrumental delivery. Epidurals placed after 5cms dilation is achieved do not affect chance of c-section. Epidurals traditionally have been known to slow down the progress of labour, but recent work has shown that they may actually speed up the labour process (COMET Study, Lancet 2001).


Vaginal births after caesarean

Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is not uncommon today. The medical practice until the late 1970s was "once a caesarean, always a caesarean" but a consumer-driven movement supporting VBAC changed the medical practice. Rates of VBAC in the 80s and early 90s soared, but more recently the rates of VBAC have dramatically dropped due to medico-legal restrictions.


In the past, caesarean sections used a vertical incision which cut the uterine muscle fibres in an up and down direction (a classical caesarean). Modern caesareans typically involve a horizontal incision along the muscle fibres in the lower portion of the uterus (hence the term lower uterine segment caesarean section, LUSCS/LSCS). The uterus then better maintains its integrity and can tolerate the strong contractions of future childbirth. Cosmetically the scar for modern caesareans is below the "bikini line."


Obstetricians and other caregivers differ on the relative merits of vaginal and caesarean section following a caesarean delivery; some still recommend a caesarean routinely, others do not. What should be emphasised in modern obstetric care is that the decision should be a mutual decision between the obstetrician and the mother/birth partner after assessing the risks and benefits of each type of delivery.


Twenty years of medical research on VBAC support a woman's choice to have a vaginal birth after caesarean. Because the consequences of caesareans include a higher chance of re-hospitalization after birth, infertility, and uterine rupture in the next birth, preventing the first caesarean remains the priority. For women with one or more previous caesareans, as an alternative to major abdominal surgery, some claim that VBAC remains a safer option.[22]


Caesareans in fiction

The first caesarean section according to mythology was performed by Apollo on his lover Coronis when he delivered Asklepios. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Coronis (crow or raven), daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths, was one of Apollos lovers. ... Asclepius was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ...


In Persian mythology, Rudaba's labour of Rostam was prolonged due to the extraordinary size of her baby. Zal, her lover and husband, was certain that his wife would die in labour. Rudaba was near death when Zal decided to summon the Simurgh. The Simurgh appeared and instructed him upon how to perform a caesarean section, thus saving Rudaba and the child, who later on became one of the greatest Persian heroes. The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Rudaba or Roodabeh (رودابه in Persia) was Daughter of Mehrab Kaboli. ... Rostam Slaying the Dragon- A miniature Painting by Master Mahmoud Farshchian. ... Zål (زال in Persian) was a mythical warrior of ancient Iran. ... Sassanid silk twill textile of a Simorgh in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. ...


A caesarean section appears in Shakespeare's play Macbeth. Macbeth hears a prophecy that "none of woman born shall harm Macbeth," an impossibility, but later finds out that MacDuff was "from his mother's womb untimely ripp'd," the product of a caesarean section birth (not unlike Robert II of Scotland). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ... Robert the warrior and knight: the reverse side of Robert IIs Great Seal, enhanced as a 19th century steel engraving. ...


The stillborn child of character Katherine Barkley is delivered by caesarean section in the Hemingway novel A Farewell to Arms. The expected result of pregnancy is the birth of a living child. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... For the Machine Head song, see A Farewell to Arms (song). ...


In the video game Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, a main character called 'The Boss' exposes a c-section scar to Naked Snake (The player's character). The scar is possibly from a blundered procedure and runs from the abdomen to the breasts, and is in the shape of a snake. Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (commonly abbreviated MGS3) is a stealth-based game directed by Hideo Kojima, developed and published by Konami for the PlayStation 2. ...


In Alexandra Ripley's "Scarlett", the main character, Scarlett O'Hara, has a caesarean section performed by a so-called "medicine woman". She almost miraculously recovers after giving birth to a girl. Alexandra Ripley, née Braid (January 8, 1934 - January 10, 2004) was a U.S. writer best known as the author of Scarlett (1991), the sequel to Gone With the Wind. ... Scarlett is a novel written in 1991 by Alexandra Ripley as a sequel to Margaret Mitchells Gone with the Wind. ... Scarlett OHara (full name Katie Scarlett OHara Hamilton Kennedy Butler) of French-Irish ancestry is the protagonist in Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel, Gone with the Wind, and in the later film of the same name. ...


In the novel, Midwives, by Chris Bohjalian, midwife Sybil Danforth, stranded with a labouring mother in a storm, performs a caesarian section when the mother dies in order to save the child. The story revolves around the court case that ensues when doubts are raised as to whether the mother was in fact dead at the time of the surgery or the midwife made a mistake. Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... Chris Bohjalian is an American novelist of Armenian ancestry (paternal grandparents are Armenian). ...


In the novel Restoration set in Britain of the 1660's the surgeon protagonist delivers his own daughter by caesarean, but the mother dies shortly thereafter. Restoration is a novel by Rose Tremain, published in 1989. ...


References

  • Williams Obstetrics. 14th Edition. Appleton Century-Crofts, New York, 1971, pages 1163-1190.
  1. ^ http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/fear-a-factor-in-surgical-births/2007/10/06/1191091421081.html
  2. ^ http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/4198257a11.html
  3. ^ Finger (2003). "Caesarean section rates skyrocket in Brazil. Many women are opting for caesareans in the belief that it is a practical solution.". Lancet 362: 628. PMID 12947949. 
  4. ^ See the quotations listed in the Oxford English Dictionary article "Caesarean, Caesarian," definition A.2.
  5. ^ England, Pam and Rob Horowitz, Birthing From Within, p. 149
  6. ^ Pliny the Elder, Historia naturalis 7.47.
  7. ^ For a summary (in German), of an article (also in German) that deals usefully with many of the relevant historical and linguistic questions raised here, go here.
  8. ^ St. Raymond Nonnatus. Catholic Online. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  9. ^ Robin Elise Weiss. Risks of Cesarean Section. childbirth.org. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  10. ^ Cesarean Section. NHS Direct. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  11. ^ Liu, Shiliange, Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned cesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term Canadian Medical Association Journal, 13 February 2007; 176 (4).
  12. ^ Risks of Adverse Outcomes in the Next Birth After a First Cesarean Delivery Kennare, Robyn Obstetrics and Gynecology, February 2007, vol. 109; pp. 270-276.
  13. ^ Silver, R.M. Obstetrics and Gynecology, June 2006; vol. 107: pp. 1226-1232.
  14. ^ Why are Caesareans Done?. Gynaecworld. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  15. ^ a b Preliminary Births for 2005: Infant and Maternal Health. National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  16. ^ "Canada's caesarean section rate highest ever", CTV, April 21, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-07-26. 
  17. ^ Homer Caroline et al. (2001). "Collaboration in maternity care: a randomized controlled trial comparing community-based continuity of care with standard hospital care.". JBritish Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2001 vol 108 p16-22. 
  18. ^ Hodnett, E. D. (2000). "Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth" (PDF, fee may be required). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD000062. 
  19. ^ Mackenzie IZ, Cooke I, Annan B. Indications for caesarean section in a consultant unit over the decades. J Obstet Gynecol 2003;23:233-8
  20. ^ Wagner, Marsden. Born in the USA: How a Broken Maternity System Must Be Fixed to Put Women and Children First (registration required), p42. 
  21. ^ "Social class and elective caesareans in the English NHS", British Medical Journal, 2004-06-12. Retrieved on 2006-10-01. 
  22. ^ Vernon, D (2005). Having a Great Birth in Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian College of Midwives. ISBN 0-9751674-3-X. 

The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NHS Direct is the name of a telephone and online service provided by the National Health Service in the UK. It was introduced throughout England and Wales in 1999 and rolled out into Scotland (where it is called NHS24) in 2004. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is one of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Broadcast Television Network CTV, for the broadcasting television company see CTVglobemedia. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Vernon is an Australian writer. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... The Australian College of Midwives is the professional organisation representing midwives and midwifery policy in Australia. ...

External links

  • International Cesarean Awareness Network: a consumer-driven organization that supports caesarean and VBAC awareness.
  • Caesareans and VBACs FAQ: a private research site
  • C-section recovery, site to assist in cesearean recovery. Includes information on depression, post-partum doulas, online resources and books.
  • VBAC Backlash"Why are hospitals forbidding women who have had C-sections the right to have vaginal births?" Slate, December 2004
  • "Medlineplus about Cesareans", a government site that is all about caesareans; includes information and a video.
  • www.caesarean.org.uk: Independent UK website providing information and support on caesarean and VBAC issues.
  • Our Bodies Ourselves chapter on Maternal Request for Cesarean Delivery: Myth or Reality?
  • med/3434 at eMedicine
  • Birthrites: Healing After Caesarean: Australian support group, providing information and de-briefing services, online and IRL, and information on VBAC.

  Results from FactBites:
 
C-section: When is it the best option? - MayoClinic.com (1087 words)
Caesarean birth — also known as a C-section — is the birth of a baby through an incision in the mother's abdomen.
In this case, Caesarean birth is often safer than vaginal birth — especially for the second baby.
Caesarean delivery also carries a higher risk of complications, just as with other types of major surgery.
Caesarean section - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2498 words)
A prior caesarean section increases the risk of uterine rupture during subsequent labour.
In current practice, general anaesthesia for caesarean section is becoming less common as scientific research has now clearly established the benefits of regional anaesthesia for both the mother and baby.
Caesarian section sacrificed the mother for the sake of the child; the first recorded incidence of a woman surviving a caesarean section was in 1500, in Siegershausen, Switzerland: Jacob Nufer, a pig gelder, is supposed to have performed the operation on his wife after a prolonged labor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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