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Encyclopedia > Caesar Augustus
The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta
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The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta

Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most important Roman Emperors, though he downplayed his own position by preferring the traditional Republic title of princeps, usually translated as "first citizen". Although he preserved the outward form of the Roman Republic, he ruled as an autocrat for more than 40 years. He ended a century of civil wars and gave Rome an era of peace, prosperity, and imperial greatness, known as the Pax Romana. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1646, 1850 KB) Description: Die Statue Kaiser Augustus in den Vatikanischen Museen, Rom Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra am 17. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1646, 1850 KB) Description: Die Statue Kaiser Augustus in den Vatikanischen Museen, Rom Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra am 17. ... Caesar (p. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace, is the long period of relative peace experienced by states within the Roman Empire. ...

Contents


Early life

Augustus was born in Rome with the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus. His father, also Gaius Octavius, came from a respectable but undistinguished family of the equestrian order and was governor of Macedonia. More importantly, his mother, Atia Balba Caesonia, was the niece of Rome's greatest general and de facto ruler, Julius Caesar. He spent his early years in his grandfather's house near Veletrae (modern Velletri). In 58 BC, when he was four, his father died. He spent most of his childhood in the house of his stepfather, Lucius Marcius Philippus. Gaius Octavius (d. ... An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... Julia Caesaris and her husband, the praetor and commissioner Marcus Atius Balbus, had 3 daughters, all named Atia Balba. ... A bust of Julius Caesar. ... Velletri (ancient Velitrae) is a commune in the province of Rome, in Lazio (Latium) It is bounded by other communes of Rocca di Papa Lariano, Cisterna di Latina, Artena, Aprilia, Nemi, Genzano di Roma, Lanuvio. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Philippus was a member of a senatorial family. ...


In 51 BC, aged eleven, he delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother Julia Caesaris. He put on the toga virilis at fifteen, and was elected to the College of Pontiffs. Caesar requested that Octavius join his staff for his campaign in Africa, but Atia protested that he was too young. The following year, 46 BC, she consented for him to join Caesar in Hispania, but he fell ill and was unable to travel. When he had recovered, he sailed to the front, but was shipwrecked; after coming ashore with a handful of companions, he made it across hostile territory to Caesar's camp, which impressed his great-uncle considerably. Caesar and Octavius returned home in the same carriage, and Caesar secretly changed his will. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48... Julia Caesaris Julia Caesaris is the name of all women in the Julii Caesares patrician family (to which, for instance Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus belonged), since feminine names were their fathers gens and cognomen declined in the female form. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was the distinctive garb of Ancient Rome. ... In ancient Rome, the College of Pontiffs was a body whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the polytheistic state religion. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC... Roman aqueduct in Segovia Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ...


Rise to power

Bust of Caesar Augustus.
Bust of Caesar Augustus.

When Caesar was assassinated in March 44 BC, Octavius was with the army at Apollonia, in what is now Albania. When Caesar's will was read it revealed that, having no legitimate children, he had adopted his great-nephew as his son and main heir. By virtue of his adoption, Octavius assumed the name Gaius Julius Caesar. Roman tradition dictated that he also append the surname Octavianus to indicate his biological family, from which historians derive the name Octavian; however, no evidence exists that he ever used the name Octavianus. Mark Antony later charged that he had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors, though Suetonius describes Antony's accusation as political slander.[1] Emperor Augustus An old, beginning of the 20th century photo plate. ... Emperor Augustus An old, beginning of the 20th century photo plate. ... A bust of Julius Caesar. ... Possibly the most famous Roman adoptee, Augustus Caesar In ancient Rome, adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (ca. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (69/70 AD - After 130 AD) or known as Suetonius was a prominent Roman Writer. ...


Octavian, as he is now conventionally called, crossed over to Italy and recruited an army from among Caesar's veterans, gathering support by emphasizing his status as heir to Caesar. Only eighteen years old, he was consistently underestimated by his rivals for power.


In Rome, he found Caesar's republican assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius, in control. After a tense standoff, he formed an uneasy alliance with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Caesar's principal colleagues. The three formed a junta called the Second Triumvirate, an explicit grant of special powers lasting five years and supported by law, unlike the unofficial First Triumvirate of Pompey, Caesar and Crassus.[2] Marcus Junius Brutus Caepio (85 BC – 42 BC), or simply Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Gaius Cassius Longinus was the prime mover and Senator in the conspiracy against Julius Caesar. ... This page is about the contemporary of Caesar Augustus. ... In modern usage, junta (pronounced as in Spanish HUN-ta or HOON-ta) typically refers to a military dictatorship, especially in Latin America, which is officially run by a committee of high-ranking military officers. ... The Second Triumvirate is the name historians give to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian, later Caesar Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... bust of Pompey the Great For the ancient Roman city, see Pompeii. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS·DIVES¹) (ca. ...


The triumvirs then set in motion proscriptions in which three hundred senators and two thousand equites were deprived of their property and, for those who failed to escape, their lives, going beyond a simple purge of those allied with the assassins, and probably motivated by a need to raise money to pay their troops.[3] An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ...


Antony and Octavian then marched against Brutus and Cassius, who had fled to the east. At Philippi in Macedonia, the Caesarian army was victorious and Brutus and Cassius committed suicide (42 BC). While Octavian returned to Rome, Antony went to Egypt where he allied himself with Queen Cleopatra, the ex-lover of Julius Caesar and mother of Caesar's infant son, Caesarion. Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... It has been suggested that Suicide and culture be merged into this article or section. ... Events October 3 - First Battle of Philippi: The Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesars assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius. ... Egyptian statue of Cleopatra VII Cleopatra VII Philopator (January 69 BC – August 12, 30 BC) was queen of ancient Egypt, the last member of the Ptolemaic dynasty and hence the last Hellenistic ruler of Egypt. ... Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) (lived June 23, 47 BC to August, 30 BC; reigned September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC), believed to be the son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII of Egypt and...


While in Egypt, Antony had an affair with Cleopatra that resulted in the birth of three children, Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene, and Ptolemy Philadelphus. Antony later left Cleopatra to make a strategic marriage with Octavian's sister Octavia in 40 BC. During their marriage Octavia gave birth to two daughters, both named Antonia. In 37 BC Antony deserted Octavia and went back to Egypt to be with Cleopatra. The Roman dominions were then divided between Octavian in the west and Antony in the east. Alexander Helios (25 December 40 BC – ? ) was the son of Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Mark Antony, and the twin brother of Cleopatra Selene. ... This article is in reference to the daughter of Cleopatra VII. For the daughter of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III, see Cleopatra Selene (I). ... Ptolemy Philadelphus (Autumn 36 - ? BC) was the youngest child of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 10s BC Years: 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37... Antonia can refer to: Roman Antiquity The name of any women of the Antonius family in Ancient Rome, according to the Roman naming convention. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC...


Antony occupied himself with military campaigns in the east and a romantic affair with Cleopatra; Octavian built a network of allies in Rome, consolidated his power, and spread propaganda implying that Antony was becoming less than Roman because of his preoccupation with Egyptian affairs and traditions. The situation grew more and more tense, and finally, in 32 BC, Octavian declared war. It was quickly decided: in the bay of Actium on the western coast of Greece, after Antony's men began deserting, the fleets met in a great battle in which many ships burned and thousands on both sides lost their lives. Octavian defeated his rivals who then fled to Egypt. He pursued them, and after another defeat, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra also committed suicide after her upcoming role in Octavian's triumph was "carefully explained to her" and Caesarion, the supposed son of Julius Caesar by Cleopatra, was "butchered without compunction". [4](It is said that Cleopatra possibly used a snake to kill herself.) Soviet propaganda poster from the Great Patriotic War depicting the victory of war hero General Georgi Zhukov over Nazi Germany. ... Events Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius become Roman Consuls. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) (lived June 23, 47 BC to August, 30 BC; reigned September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC), believed to be the son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII of Egypt and...


Octavian becomes Augustus: the creation of the Principate

Augustus as a magistrate
Augustus as a magistrate

The Western half of the Empire had sworn allegiance to Octavian prior to Actium in 30 BC, and after Actium and the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, the Eastern half of the Empire followed suit, placing Octavian in the position of ruler of the entire Empire. Years of civil war had left Rome in a state of near-lawlessness, but Rome was not prepared to accept the control of Octavian as a despot; however, Octavian could not simply give up his authority without risking further civil wars amoungst the Roman generals, and even if he desired no position of authority whatsoever, his position demanded that he look to the well-being of the provinces. Disbanding his personal forces, Octavian held elections and took up the position of consul; as such, though he had given up his personal armies, he was now legally in command of the legions of Rome. Caesar Augustus - statue in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Caesar Augustus - statue in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,823,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... For modern diplomatic consuls, see Consulate general. ...


The First Settlement

In 27 BC he officially returned power to the Senate of Rome, and offered to relinquish his own military supremacy over Egypt. Reportedly, the suggestion of Octavian stepping down as consul led to rioting amongst the Plebeians in Rome. A compromise was reached between the Senate and Octavian's supporters, known as the First Settlement. Octavian was given proconsular authority over the Western half of the empire and Syria — the provinces that, combined, contained almost 70% of the Roman legions. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... The Roman Senate (Latin, Senatus) was a deliberative body which was important in the government of both the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. ...


The Senate also gave him the titles Augustus and Princeps. Augustus was a title of religious rather than political authority. In the mindset of contemporary religious beliefs, it would have cleverly symbolized a stamp of authority over humanity that went beyond any constitutional definition of his status. Additionally, after the harsh methods employed in consolidating his control, that the change in name would also serve to separate his benign reign as Augustus from his reign of terror as Octavian. Princeps translates to "first-citizen" or "first-leader". It had been a title under the Republic for those who had served the state well; for example, Gnaeus Pompey had held the title. Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ...


Additionally, and perhaps the most dangerous innovation, Augustus was granted the right to wear the Civic Crown of laurel and oak. This crown was usually held above the head of a Roman general during a Triumph, with the individual holding the crown charged to continually repeat, "Remember, thou art mortal," to the triumphant general. The fact that not only was Augustus awarded this crown but awarded the right to actually wear it upon his head is perhaps the clearest indication of the creation of a monarchy. However, it must be noted that none of these titles, or the Civic Crown, granted Octavian any additional powers or authority; for all intents and purposes the new Augustus was simply a highly-honored Roman citizen, holding the consulship. A Roman triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ...


These actions were highly abnormal from the Roman Senate, but this was not the same body of patricians that had murdered Caesar. Both Antony and Octavian had purged the Senate of suspect elements and planted it with their loyal partisans. How free a hand the Senate had in these transactions, and what backroom deals were made, remain unknown.


The Second Settlement

In 23 BC Augustus renounced the consulship, but retained his consular imperium, leading to a second compromise between Augustus and the Senate known as the Second Settlement. Augustus was granted the power of a tribune (tribunicia potestas), though not the title, which allowed him to convene the Senate and people at will and lay business before it, veto the actions of either the Assembly or the Senate, preside over elections, and the right to speak first at any meeting. Also included in Augustus' tribunician authority were powers usually reserved for the Roman censor; these included the right to supervise public morals and scrutinize laws to ensure they were in the public interest, as well as the ability to hold a census and determine the membership of the Senate. No Tribune of Rome ever had these powers, and there was no precedent within the Roman system for combining the powers of the Tribune and the Censor into a single position, nor was Augustus ever elected to the office of Censor. Whether censorial powers were granted to Augustus as part of his tribunician authority, or he simply assumed these responsibilities, is still a matter of debate. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18... Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by several elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... For omission and secrecy, see censorship. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


In addition to tribunician authority, Augustus was granted sole imperium within the city of Rome itself: all armed forces in the city, formerly under the control of the Praefects, were now under the sole authority of Augustus. Additionally, Augustus was granted imperium proconsulare maius, or "imperium over all the proconsuls", which translated to the right to interfere in any province in the Roman Empire and override the decisions of any governor. With maius imperium, Augustus was the only individual able to receive a triumph as he was obstensibly the head of every Roman army.


Many of the political subtleties of the Second Settlement seem to have evaded the comprehension of the Plebeian class. When in 22 BC Augustus failed to stand for election as consul, fears arose once again that Augustus, seen as the great "defender of the people", was being forced from power by the aristocratic Senate. In 22, 21, and 20 BC the people rioted in response, and only allowed a single consul to be elected for each of those years, obstensibly to leave the other position open for Augustus. Finally in 19 BC the Senate voted to allow Augustus to wear the consul's insignia in public and before the Senate. This seems to have assuaged the populace; regardless of whether or not Augustus was actually a consul, the importance was that he appeared as one before the people. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC...


With these powers in mind, it must be understood that all forms of permanent and legal power within Rome officially lay with the Senate and the people; Augustus was given extraordinary powers, but only as a pronconsul and magistrate under the authority of the Senate. Augustus never presented himself as a king or autocrat, once again only allowing himself to be addressed by the title Princeps. After the death of Lepidus in 13 BC he additionally took up the position of pontifex maximus. The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ...


Later Roman Emperors would generally be limited to the powers and titles originally granted to Augustus, though often, in order to display humility, newly appointed Emperors would often decline one or more of the honorifics given to Augustus. Just as often, as their reign progressed, Emperors would appropriate all of the titles, regardless of whether they had actually been granted by the Senate. The Civic Crown, consular insignia, and later the purple robes of a Triumphant general (toga picta) became the imperial insignia well into the Byzantine era, and were even adopted by many Germanic tribes invading the former Western empire as insignia of their right to rule. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Reign

Having gained power by means of great audacity, Augustus ruled with great prudence. In exchange for near absolute power, he gave Rome 40 years of civic peace and increasing prosperity, celebrated in history as the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. He created Rome's first permanent army and navy and stationed the legions along the Empire's borders, where they could not meddle in politics. A special unit, the Praetorian Guard, garrisoned Rome and protected the Emperor's person. He also reformed Rome's finance and tax systems. Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace, is the long period of relative peace experienced by states within the Roman Empire. ... Legion can refer to several encylopedic topics, including: In military history, an organization or military unit: A Roman legion. ... The Praetorian Guard of Caesar Augustus - 1st century A.D. Depicted in a marble bas-relief. ...


The Roman Empire expanded enormously during the reign of Augustus. A war in the mountains of northern Hispania from 26 BC to 19 BC finally resulted in that territory's conquest. After Gallic raids, the Alpine territories were conquered. Rome's borders were advanced to the natural frontier of the Danube, and the province of Galatia was occupied. Further west, an attempt to advance into Germany ended with the defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9. Thereafter Augustus and his successors accepted the Rhine as the Empire's permanent border. In the east, he satisfied himself with establishing Roman control over Armenia and the Transcaucasus. He left the Parthian Empire alone maintaining generally good relations with them. The Cantabrian Wars (29 BC-19 BC) occurred during the Roman conquest of the ancient province of Cantabria. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... The Danube (Donau in German; Dunaj in Slovak; Duna in Hungarian; Dunav in Croatian; Дунав/Dunav in Serbian; Дунав in Bulgarian; Dunăre in Romanian; Дунай (Dunay) in Ukrainian; Danuvius in Latin) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... For the Greek name for Gaul, see Gaul Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (now Turkey). ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, and Bructeri) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength Unknown, but probably 18,000 Roman legions 17, 18 and 19, probably 24,000 Casualties Unknown, maybe 7,000 About 23,000 In the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (A.D. 9), an alliance...   This article is about the year 9. ... At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (German Rhein, French Rhin, Dutch Rijn, Romansch: Rein, Italian: Reno) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BC. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and...


In domestic matters, Augustus channeled the enormous wealth brought in from the Empire to keeping the army happy with generous payments, and keeping the citizens of Rome happy by beautifying the capital and staging magnificent games. He famously boasted that he "found Rome brick and left it marble". He built the Senate a new home, the Curia, and built temples to Apollo and the Divine Julius. He also built a shrine near the Circus Maximus. The Capitoline Temple and the Theater of Pompey are recorded as projects of Augustus, whose name was deliberately uncredited. He founded a ministry of transport that built an extensive network of roads — enabling improved communication, trade, and mail. Augustus also founded the world's first fire brigade, and created a regular police force for Rome. The Curia, inside the Forum The Curia of ancient Rome was the place where the Senate met to discuss the making of laws and take decisions about the affairs of the Republic. ... Statue of Apollo at the British Museum Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn; Απελλων) is a god in Greek and Roman mythology, the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis (goddess of the hunt), one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian divinities. ... Map of downtown Rome during the Roman Empire, with Circus Maximus at the lower right corner The Circus Maximus is a park today. ... bust of Pompey the Great For the ancient Roman city, see Pompeii. ... Postbox redirects here. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ...

Bronze statue of Augustus, Archaeological Museum, Athens
Bronze statue of Augustus, Archaeological Museum, Athens

Roman rulers understood little about economics, and Augustus was no exception. Like all the Emperors, he overtaxed agriculture and spent the revenue on armies, temples, and games. Once the Empire stopped expanding, and had no more loot coming in from conquests, its economy began to stagnate and eventually decline. The reign of Augustus is thus seen in some ways as the high point of Rome's power and prosperity. Augustus settled retired soldiers on the land in an effort to revive agriculture, but the capital remained dependent on grain imports from Egypt. Bronze Augustus, Archaeological Museum, Athens File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bronze Augustus, Archaeological Museum, Athens File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Augustus also strongly supported worship of Roman gods, especially Apollo, and depicted Roman defeat of Egypt as Roman gods defeating Egypt's. He sponsored Virgil's Aeneid in the hopes that it would increase pride in Roman heritage. Augustus also launched a morality crusade, promoting marriage, family, and childbirth while discouraging luxury, unrestrained sex (including prostitution and homosexuality), and adultery. It was largely unsuccessful (indeed, his own daughter was banished due to it.) Roman mythology can be considered as two parts. ... Statue of Apollo at the British Museum Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn; Απελλων) is a god in Greek and Roman mythology, the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis (goddess of the hunt), one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian divinities. ... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BCE (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ... A prostitute in Germany Prostitution is the sale of sexual services, such as oral sex or sexual intercourse, for money. ... Since its inception, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...


As a patron of the arts, Augustus showered favors on poets, artists, sculptors, and architects. His reign is considered the Golden Age of Roman literature. Horace, Livy, Ovid, and Virgil flourished under his protection, but in return, they had to pay tribute to his genius and adhere to his standards. (Ovid was banished from Rome for violating Augustus's morality codes.) He eventually won over most of the Roman intellectual class, although many still pined in private for the Republic. His use of games and special events to celebrate himself and his family cemented his popularity. By the time Augustus died, a return to the old system was unimaginable. The only question was who would succeed him as sole ruler. The literature of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire written in the Latin language. ... Horace Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading lyric poet in Latin, the son of a freedman, but himself born free. ... Bust of Livy Titus Livius (around 59 BC - 17 AD), known as Livy in English, wrote a monumental history of Rome, Ab urbe condita, from its founding (traditionally dated to 753 BC). ... Bush is the worst president~ signed the black shark ... A sculpture of Virgil, probably from the 1st century AD. Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC–19 BC), known in English as Virgil or Vergil, is a Latin poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that...


Succession

Augustus' control of power throughout the Empire was so absolute that it allowed him to name his successor, a custom that had been abandoned and derided in Rome since the foundation of the Republic. At first, indications pointed toward his sister's son Marcellus, who had been married to Augustus' daughter Julia Caesaris. However, Marcellus died of food poisoning in 23 BC. Reports of later historians that this poisoning, and other later deaths, were caused by Augustus' wife Livia Drusilla are inconclusive at best. Marcus Claudius Marcellus (42-23 BC) was the son of Octavia Thurina Minor, sister of Caesar Augustus, and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor, a former consul. ... Julia Caesaris Julia Caesaris is the name of all women in the Julii Caesares patrician family (to which, for instance Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus belonged), since feminine names were their fathers gens and cognomen declined in the female form. ... Livia Livia Drusa Augusta, Livia Drusilla, or Julia Augusta (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus and the most powerful woman in Roman history, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ...


After the death of Marcellus, Augustus married his daughter to his right hand man, Marcus Agrippa. This union produced five children, three sons and two daughters: Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Vipsania Julia, Agrippina the Elder, and Postumus Agrippa, so named because he was born after Marcus Agrippa died. Augustus' intent to make the first two children his heirs was apparent when he adopted them as his own children. Augustus also showed favor to his stepsons, Livia's children from her first marriage, Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus and Tiberius Claudius, after they had conquered a large portion of Germany. Marcus Agrippa Agrippa redirects here. ... Several notable individuals of the Roman Empire were commonly called Gaius Caesar: Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus was the son of Agrippa and Julia Caesaris, and the heir apparent to Augustus Caesar, but died in AD 4. ... Lucius Caesar (17 BC-2, born Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa and adopted as Lucius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus) was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia Caesaris. ... Vipsania Julias full name was Vipsania Julia Agrippina (19 BC- AD early 29). ... Agrippina the Elder Julia Vipsania Agrippina (circa 14 BC– AD 33), known as Agrippina Major (Agrippina the Elder), was one of the most powerful women in the Roman Empire in the early 1st century AD. She was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa by his third wife Julia Caesaris, was... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was the grandson of Roman Emperor Augustus and was named after his father Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. ... Decimus or Nero Claudius Drusus, usually called simply Drusus or Drusus I (38 - 9 BC) was the younger son of Livia, wife of Augustus Caesar, and her first husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero. ... A bust of younger Emperor Tiberius For the city in Israel, see Tiberias. ...


After Agrippa died in 12 BC, Livia's son Tiberius divorced his own wife and married Agrippa's widow. Tiberius shared in Augustus' tribune powers, but shortly thereafter went into retirement. After the early deaths of both Gaius and Lucius in AD 4 and AD 2 respectively, and the earlier death of his brother Drusus (9 BC), Tiberius was recalled to Rome, where he was adopted by Augustus. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC...   This article is about the year 4. ... Events Ariobarzanes II King of Media Atropatene becomes the king of Armenia. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC Events...


On August 19, AD 14, Augustus died. Postumus Agrippa and Tiberius had been named co-heirs. However, Postumus had been banished, and was put to death around the same time. Who ordered his death is unknown, but the way was clear for Tiberius to assume the same powers that his stepfather had. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ...


Augustus's legacy

Portrait drawing of Augustus: a detail of the famous statue found at Prima Porta
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Portrait drawing of Augustus: a detail of the famous statue found at Prima Porta

Augustus was deified soon after his death, and both his borrowed surname, Caesar, and his title Augustus became the permanent titles of the rulers of Rome for the next 400 years, and were still in use at Constantinople fourteen centuries after his death. In many languages, caesar became the word for emperor, only in a derived form, like in German: Kaiser and Dutch: keizer. The derived titles (in the english language) Kaiser and Tsar would be used until the early part of the 20th century for the German and Russian emperors. The cult of the Divine Augustus continued until the state religion of the Empire was changed to Christianity in the 4th century. Consequently, there are many excellent statues and busts of the first, and in some ways the greatest, of the emperors. Augustus' mausoleum also originally contained bronze pillars inscribed with a record of his life, the Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Tsar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь, Serbian цар) ▶(?); often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the Bulgarian Empire in 913-1396/1422 and 1908-1946, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to... The history of Christianity is difficult to extricate from that of the European West (and several other culture-regions) in general. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ...


Many consider Augustus to be Rome's greatest emperor; his policies certainly extended the empire's life span and initiated the celebrated Pax Romana or Pax Augusta. He was handsome, intelligent, decisive, and a shrewd politician, but he was not perhaps as charismatic as Julius Caesar or Marc Antony. Nevertheless, his legacy proved more enduring. Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace, is the long period of relative peace experienced by states within the Roman Empire. ...


The month of August (Latin Augustus) is named after Augustus; until his time it was called Sextilis (the sixth month of the Roman calendar). August reputedly has 31 days because Augustus wanted his month to match the length of Julius Caesar's July. Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... Sextilis was the Latin name for the sixth month in the Roman calendar. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...


In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity should not be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People were born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican oligarchy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus' own experience, his patience, his tact, and his political acumen also played their parts. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus' ultimate legacy was the peace and prosperity the empire enjoyed for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor, and although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him (Trajan). His reign laid the foundations of a regime that lasted for 250 years. Emperor Trajan Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53 – August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98-117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the so-called Five Good Emperors of the Roman Empire. ...


Augustus in popular culture

In the HBO television series "Rome", young Octavian is portrayed by Max Pirkis. HBO (Home Box Office) is a premium cable television network. ... Rome is a critically acclaimed historical drama, produced for television by HBO and the BBC. The shows first season originally ran on HBO between August 28th and November 20th, 2005, and subsequently broadcast on BBC Two in the UK between November 2nd, 2005 and January 6th, 2006. ... Max William R. Pirkis (born 6 January 1989) is a British film actor. ...


Augustus was ranked #18 on Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history. Michael H. Hart is an astrophysicist who has worked for NASA and been a professor of astronomy and physics at a college in Maryland, USA. He holds degrees in physics, astronomy, and law and is the author of the best selling book, The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential... In 1978, Michael H. Hart published a book called The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. ...


See also

Augustus (honorific) Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ...


Notes

  1. ^  Suetonius, Augustus 68, 71
  2. ^  From the Gracchi to Nero: HH Scullard p163
  3. ^  From the Gracchi to Nero: HH Scullard p164
  4. ^  Alexander to Actium: Peter Green pp 697

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (69/70 AD - After 130 AD) or known as Suetonius was a prominent Roman Writer. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links i would like to see some quotations by or about goebbels. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

Primary sources

Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ...

Secondary material

Preceded by:
Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Antonius
Consul of the Roman Republic
44 BC
Succeeded by:
Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Preceded by:
Aemilius Lepidus Paullus
Consul of the Roman Republic
33 BC
Succeeded by:
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius

Bust of Julius Caesar This article is about Julius Caesar the Roman dictator. ... Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (c. ... This list of Republican Roman Consuls is based on the Varronian chronology, which intercalates four dictator years and has other peculiarities. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Aulus Hirtius (c. ... Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (d. ... Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (full name: Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus) (d. ... This list of Republican Roman Consuls is based on the Varronian chronology, which intercalates four dictator years and has other peculiarities. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC... Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, a member of the noble Ahenobarbus family, accompanied his father at Corfinium and Pharsalus, and, having been pardoned by Julius Caesar, returned to Rome in 46 BC. After Caesars assassination he attached himself to Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius, and in 43 BC was condemned by...

Preceded by:
Roman Emperor
27 BC-14 AD
Succeeded by:
Tiberius

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