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Encyclopedia > Caerleon
Caerleon
Welsh - Caerllion
Population 8,708 (2001 census)
OS grid reference ST336909
Principal area Newport
Ceremonial county Gwent
Constituent country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town NEWPORT
Postcode district NP18
Dialling code 01633
Police Gwent
Fire South Wales
Ambulance Welsh
UK Parliament Newport West
European Parliament Wales
List of places: UKWalesNewport

Coordinates: 51°36′54″N 2°57′32″W / 51.615, -2.959 Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 11 KB) Summary Description: A blank map of the United Kingdom, with country outline and coastline; contact the author for help with modifications or add-ons Source: Reference map provided by Demis Mapper 6 Date: 2006-21-06 Author: User... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... For local government purposes, Wales is divided into 22 unitary authorities. ... For other uses, see Newport (disambiguation). ... The Preserved counties of Wales are the current areas used in Wales for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy. ... Gwent is the area of south-easternmost Wales, bordering on the Welsh Marches of southwest England. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the former Yugoslavia[1], the Soviet Union and European institutions such as the Council of... This article is about the country. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A post town is a required part of all UK postal addresses. ... UK postal codes are known as postcodes. ... The NP postcode area, also known as the Newport postcode area[2], is a group of postal districts around Newport, Wales // The approximate coverage of the postal districts: ^ National Statistics, Postcode Directory Version Notes, (2006) ^ Royal Mail, Address Management Guide, (2004) List of postcode areas in the United Kingdom Categories... The UK telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Numbering Plan, is regulated by the Office of Communications (Ofcom), which replaced the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) in 2003. ... Gwent Police (Welsh: Heddlu Gwent) is the Home Office police force responsible for policing the local authority areas of Blaenau Gwent, Caerphilly, Monmouthshire, Newport and Torfaen in southeast Wales. ... A Fire Appliance belonging to the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service The fire service in the United Kingdom has undergone dramatic changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process that has been propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational... The South Wales Fire and Rescue Service (Welsh Gwasanaeth Tân ac Achub De Cymru) is the fire and rescue service covering the ten Welsh principal areas of Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire, Newport, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Torfaen and Vale of Glamorgan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Welsh Ambulance Service (also called the Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust or Ymddiriedolaeth GIG Gwasanaethau Ambiwlans Cymru) was established on April 1, 1998 and has 2,500 staff providing ambulance and related services to the 2. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... Newport West is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name. ... Wales is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in Wales Lists of places within principal areas List of places in Anglesey List of places in Blaenau Gwent List of places in Bridgend List of places in Caerphilly List of places in Cardiff List of places in Carmarthenshire List... This is a categorised list of places in the City of Newport, south Wales. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Caerleon (Welsh: Caerllion) is a suburban village and community, situated on the River Usk in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport (of which it is also a electoral ward) in south-east Wales. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... A Community (welsh Cymuned) is the lowest level of Local Government structure in Wales, corresponding to a civil parish in England. ... The River Usk, Afon Wysg in Welsh, rises in the mountains of mid-Wales then flows south-east through Abergavenny and the eponymous town of Usk to the Roman legionary fortress of Caerleon and the Bristol Channel at Newport. ... For other uses, see Newport (disambiguation). ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods... This article is about the country. ...

Contents

Geography

A view of Caerleon from Beechwood. The River Usk and Caerleon Golf Course can be be seen in the foreground, with the university campus on the far right.

The centre of Caerleon sits in the Usk valley and the river forms part of the community's southern boundary. In the northern part of the village, across the railway, the land rises sharply up to Lodge Wood and its hill fort. The community's western boundary is formed by the A4042 road and the northern one partly by the Malthouse Road and partly by the River Llwyd which flows southwards along the village's eastern side. Across the river, in the region of Penrhos Farm, are two Civil War forts. Across the Usk, St Julian's Park, the village of Christchurch and the upland region around Christchurch Hill as far as the M4 motorway and the A449 road are also within the community. It is also home to a large campus of the University of Wales, Newport. Image File history File links Caerleon. ... Image File history File links Caerleon. ... Beechwood is an electoral district (ward) and co-terminous community (parish) of the city of Newport. ... The River Usk, Afon Wysg in Welsh, rises in the mountains of mid-Wales then flows south-east through Abergavenny and the eponymous town of Usk to the Roman legionary fortress of Caerleon and the Bristol Channel at Newport. ... The University of Wales, Newport is a University of Wales institution located in Newport. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... The A4042 is a trunk road that runs from Abergavenny to Newport in the United Kingdom. ... Afon Llwyd is a small river in South Wales which flows from its source north of Blaenavon, through Abersychan, Pontypool and Cwmbran before flowing into the River Usk at Caerleon, which subsequently flows into the Bristol Channel in Newport. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Christchurch (Welsh: ) is a hamlet located on the top of Christchurch Hill in the Caerleon ward of the city of Newport, South Wales. ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... The A449 is a major road in the United Kingdom. ... The University of Wales, Newport is a University of Wales institution located in Newport. ...


History

Roman fortress

Remains of the amphitheatre
Main article: Isca Augusta

Caerleon is a site of considerable archaeological importance, being the site of a Roman legionary fortress (it was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about 75 to 300 AD) and an Iron Age hill fort. The name Caerleon is derived from the Welsh for "fortress of the legion"; the Romans themselves called it Isca. Substantial excavated Roman remains can be seen, including the military amphitheatre, baths and barracks. According to Gildas (followed by Bede), Roman Caerleon was the site of two early Christian martyrdoms, that of Julius and Aaron. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 1. ... Remains of the amphitheatre Isca Augusta (or, simply, Isca) was a legionary fortress in the Roman province of Britannia. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Legio II Augusta, or Second Augustan Legion, was a Roman legion, levied by Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus in 43 BC, and still operative in Britannia in 4th century. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 70 71 72 73 74 - 75 - 76 77 78 79 80 Events Last known cuneiform inscription Accession of Han Zhangdi. ... Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... Gildas (c. ... Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... Saints Julius and Aaron are celebrated as two British martyrs who died during the religious persecutions of the Emperor Diocletian in AD 304. ...


Middle Ages

The parish church of St Cadoc was founded on the site of the legionary headquarters building probably sometime in the 6th century. A Norman-style motte and bailey castle was built outside the eastern corner of the old Roman fort, probably by the Lord of Caerleon, Caradog ap Gruffydd. Caerleon was an important market and port and became a borough by 1171. Both castle and borough were seized by William Marshal in 1217 and the castle was rebuilt in stone. The remains of many of the old Roman buildings stood to some height until this time and were probably demolished for their building materials. A parish church is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. ... Saint Cadoc of Llancarvan, Abbot, ( died at Benevenna ) was one of the 6th-century Welsh saints whose life touched King Arthur. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ... Model of a motte-and-bailey Plan of Windsor Castle in 1743 by Batty Langley The remains of a motte, at Brinklow in Warwickshire, England The motte, at Knockgraffon, New Inn in County Tipperary, Ireland The remains of a Motte situated in Callan, Co Kilkenny, Ireland A motte-and-bailey... Caradog ap Gruffydd (died 1081) was a prince of Gwent in south-east Wales who made repeated attempts to gain power over all of southern Wales by seizing Deheubarth. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146–1219) was an English aristocrat and statesman. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ...


Georgian and Victorian times

The old wooden bridge at Caerleon was destroyed in a storm in 1779 and the present stone version was erected in the early 19th century. Until the Victorian development of the downstream docks at Newport, Caerleon acted as the major port on the Usk river. The wharf was located on the right bank, to the west of today's river bridge which marked the limit of navigability for masted ships. A tin plate works was established on the outskirts of the town around this time and Caerleon expanded to become almost joined to Newport. Caerleon Bridge is a crossing of the River Usk at Caerleon in the city of Newport, United Kingdom. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Arthurian legend

Geoffrey of Monmouth makes Caerleon one of the most important cities in Britain in his Historia Regum Britanniæ. He gives it a long glorious history from its founding by King Belinus then making it the location of a metroplitan see, an Archbishopric superior to Canterbury and York under Saint Dubricius. He was followed by St David who moved the archbishopric to St David's Cathedral. This builds up to its use by Geoffrey as a Court for King Arthur. Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... Belinus the Great was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... Saint Dubricius (also known in his native Welsh as Dyfrig and in corrupt Norman-French as Devereux) was the 6th century evangelist of Archenfield/Ergyng and much of South Wales. ... Saint David (c. ... St Davids Cathedral from the gatehouse St Davids Cathedral is situated in the tiny city of St Davids in Pembrokeshire. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ...


Caerleon is one of the sites most often connected with King Arthur's capital later called Camelot. There was no Camelot mentioned in the early Arthurian traditions recorded by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Wace, and Layamon. These early Arthurian authors say that Arthur's capital was in Caerleon, and even the later recaster of Arthurian material, Sir Thomas Malory, has Arthur re-crowned at "Carlion". It has been suggested that the still-visible Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon is the source of the 'Round-Table' element of the tales, and was used for discussion and entertainment. (The "Camelot" reference originates with the French writer of courtly romance, Chrétien de Troyes.) A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... This article is about the mythical castle. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wace (c. ... Layamon, or Laȝamon (using the archaic letter yogh), was a poet of the early 13th century, whose Brut (c. ... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ...


Geoffrey of Monmouth writes of Caerleon in the mid 12th century:

"For it was located in a delightful spot in Glamorgan, on the River Usk, not far from the Severn Sea. Abounding in wealth more than other cities, it was suited for such a ceremony. For the noble river I have named flows along it on one side, upon which the kings and princes who would be coming from overseas could be carried by ship. But on the other side, protected by meadow and woods, it was remarkable for royal palaces, so that it imitated Rome in the golden roofs of its buildings... Famous for so many pleasant features, Caerleon was made ready for the announced feast." (Historia Regum Britanniae "History of the Kings of Britain")

This is only a short part of a description which emphasises the power and wealth of Arthur's court a description transferred later to Camelot. The huge scale of the ruins along with Caerleon's importance as a urban centre in early mediæval Gwent would have inspired stories which Geoffrey expanded on. Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... The River Usk, Afon Wysg in Welsh, rises in the mountains of mid-Wales then flows south-east through Abergavenny and the eponymous town of Usk to the Roman legionary fortress of Caerleon and the Bristol Channel at Newport. ... The Severn is the name of a river in the United Kingdom. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... This article is about the mythical castle. ... Mediaeval kingdoms of Wales. ...


Caerleon also has later Arthurian literary associations, as the birthplace of the writer Arthur Machen who often used it as a location in his work. Alfred Lord Tennyson also wrote his Idylls of the King overlooking the Usk in a bay window of what is now the saloon bar of the Hanbury Arms public house. Arthur Machen (March 3, 1863 – December 15th, 1947) was a leading Welsh-born author of the 1890s. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... The Idylls of the King (1856 - 1885) are a cycle of poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson that express the legend of King Arthur in terms of the psychology and concerns of nineteenth-century England. ...


In Michael Morurgo's novel Arthur, High King of Britain, Caerleon is the castle where Arthur unknowingly commits incest with his half-sister Margause, resulting in the conception of his bastard son Mordred, who will later bring about his downfall. Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ...

Caerleon in 1800
Caerleon in 1800

Image File history File links Carleon. ... Image File history File links Carleon. ...

Sport

Caerleon is home to the Celtic Manor Resort, location of the 2010 Ryder Cup. Caerleon also has a good quality 9 hole municipal golf course and driving range, however, during winter months the golf course is prone to flooding due to its situation next to the river usk. The Celtic Manor Resort is a golf-based resort in the city of Newport, Wales, United Kingdom owned by Welsh/Canadian billionaire Sir Terry Matthews. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ryder Cup is a golf trophy contested biennially in an event called the Ryder Cup Matches by teams from Europe and the United States. ...


The association football club Caerleon A.F.C. are based in Caerleon along with two rugby union clubs; Newport High School Old Boys RFC and Caerleon RFC [1]. Caerleon A.F.C. is an association football club based in the Roman village of Caerleon on the northern outskirts of the City of Newport. ... Newport High School Old Boys (NHSOB) are a Welsh rugby union club based in Caerleon on the northern outskirts of Newport in South Wales. ...


Arts Festival and Roman Military Spectacular

Caerleon hosts an Arts festival in July each year which includes tree sculptors from around the world. Many of the sizeable sculptures are retained around Caerleon as local landmarks. The Arts festival coincides with the Roman Military re-enactment in the amphitheatre, demonstrating Roman military armour, fighting techniques on foot and horseback and machines such as ballista.


External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Caerleon: Information from Answers.com (971 words)
Caerleon (Welsh: Caerllion) (grid reference ST323914, 51.61° N 2.96° W) is a suburban village situated on the River Usk on the northern outskirts of the city of Newport.
Caerleon is a site of considerable archaeological importance, being the site of a Roman legionary fortress (it was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about 75 to 300 AD) and an iron age hill fort.
The name Caerleon is commonly thought to be from the Welsh for "fortress of the legion"; the Romans themselves called it Isca Silurum, "Usk of the Silures", after the Silures, the Celtic tribe that dwelt there.
Caerleon (193 words)
The name means "City of the Legion" in Welsh so it has been claimed that Caerleon is the location of Arthur's ninth battle in the Historia Brittonum although others say that Chester is the location meant in the context of that text.
Caerleon is called "City of the Legions" by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Caerleon was also the closest place to Geoffrey's home town of Monmouth with ancient ruins of any note.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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