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Encyclopedia > Cadwallon ap Cadfan

Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c. 591633/634) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle in 633 or 634. The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered for devastating Northumbria and defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia. Events Ethelbert of Kent elected Bretwalda after Ceawlin of Wessex, the former Bretwalda, is deposed. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... This article is about the medieval kingdom of Gwynedd. ... Events Pope Boniface V succeeded by Pope Honorius I Births Adamnan, abbot of Iona Empress Wu Zetian of China Deaths Pope Boniface V Categories: 625 ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Cadfan ap Iago ( 580–625; reigned from 615) (Latin: Catamanus; English: Gideon) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Northumbria is primarily the name of an Anglian or Anglo-Saxon kingdom which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the earldom which succeeded the kingdom. ... Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) ( 584–October 12, 632/633) was the King of Northumbria from about 616 until his death. ... Oswald (c. ...


Cadwallon was initially defeated by Edwin of Northumbria, who invaded Anglesey, and was besieged by the Northumbrians at Priestholm (or Glannauc), a small island off eastern Anglesey. The Annales Cambriae dates this siege to 629. [1]  (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/annalescambriae.html) According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (which includes a fairly extensive account of Cadwallon's life but is largely legendary—for example, Geoffrey has Cadwallon surviving until after the Battle of Winwaed in 654 or 655), Cadwallon subsequently went to Ireland, and then to the island of Guernsey. From there, according to Geoffrey, Cadwallon led an army into Dumnonia, where he encountered and defeated the Mercians besieging Exeter, and forced their king, Penda, into an alliance. Geoffrey also reports that Cadwallon married a half-sister of Penda. However, his history is, on this as well as all matters, suspect, and it should be treated with caution. [The Isle of] Anglesey or Anglesea ( Welsh: [Ynys] Môn, pronounced as Uh-niss Mawn, in IPA), is an island and county at the Western extremity of North Wales. ... Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, is a compendium of events thought to be significant occurring during the year they were recorded. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... Geoffrey of Monmouth was a clergyman and one of the major figures in the development of British history. ... Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniæ (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) was written around 1136. ... The Battle of the Winwaed was fought on November 15, 655 between King Penda of Mercia and Oswiu of Bernicia, ending in the Mercians defeat and Pendas death. ... Events King Reccaswinth issues Visigothic law code. ... Events November 15 - Northumbrian king Oswiu defeats the pagan Mercian king Penda in the Battle of Winwaed Empress Saimei ascends to the throne of Japan. ... A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... The Bailiwick of Guernsey is a British crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. ... The Dumnonii is the Latin name for a Celtic tribe which emerged in the wake of the Roman withdrawal from England during the 4th century AD. Their territory spanned Somerset, Devon and Cornwall with further holdings in Dorset. ... Mercia, sometimes spelled Mierce, was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy, in what is now England, in the region of the Midlands, with its heart in the valley of the River Trent and its tributary streams. ... A number of other places have taken their names from Exeter The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in England, UK. It is located at 50° 43 25 N, 3° 31 39 W. In the 2001 census its population was recorded at 111,066. ... Penda (died November 15, 6551) was a 7th century King of Mercia. ...


In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633 (or 632, according to another interpretation of the chronology), which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith. After this, the Kingdom of Northumbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia, but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of Northumbria". Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, tells us that Cadwallon was besieged by the new king of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the Northumbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious king, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant." Furthermore, Bede tells us that "...Cadwalla [Cadwallon], though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behaviour, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain." The Battle of Hatfield Chase was fought in Anglo-Saxon England between the Northumbrians under Edwin and the allied Welsh of Gwynedd under Cadwallon ap Cadfan and Mercians under Penda. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Deira (from Brythonic Deifr, meaning waters) was a kingdom in England during the 6th century AD. It later merged with the kingdom of Bernicia (Brythonic, Brynaich) to the north to form the kingdom of Northumbria. ... Bernicia (Brythonic, Brynaich) was a kingdom of the Angles in northern England during the 6th and 7th centuries AD. It later merged with the kingdom of Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria. ... The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of (mainly) secondary source documents narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Britain. ... Depiction of Bede from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 Bede ( Latin Beda), also known as Saint Bede or, more commonly, the Venerable Bede (c. ... The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Christian church in England, and of England generally. ...


The king of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand". Cadwallon's soldiers fled after a battle, and he was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook". Eanfrith (c. ... Oswald (c. ... The Battle of Heavenfield was fought in 633 or 634 between a Northumbrian army under Oswald of Bernicia and a Welsh army under Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd. ...


References

  • Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book II, Chapter XX (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/bede-book2.html), and Book III, Chapter I. (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/bede-book3.html)
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, Part Eight: "The Saxon Domination."

Further reading

  • Alex Woolf, "Caedualla Rex Brittonum and the Passing of the Old North", in Northern History, Vol. 41, Issue 1, March 2004, pages 5–24. Woolf presents a case against the identification of the Cadwallon mentioned in Bede's history with a son of Cadfan.


Preceded by:
Cadfan ap Iago
Kings of Gwynedd
Succeeded by:
Cadfael Cadomedd
Preceded by:
Saxon Interregnum
Mythical British Kings
Succeeded by:
Cadwallader


Cadfan ap Iago ( 580–625; reigned from 615) (Latin: Catamanus; English: Gideon) was a King of Gwynedd. ... This article is about the medieval kingdom of Gwynedd. ... Cadfael ap Cynfeddw (reigned 634– 655), also known as Cadfael Cadomedd (Battle-Shirker), was a king of Gwynedd. ... As accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth, after the rule of Keredic there was an interregnum, and no British King was crowned. ... The term King of the Britons refers to the legendary kings of Celtic Great Britain as established by such pseudo-historical authors as Nennius, Gildas, and predominantly Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon ( 633–682, reigned from 655) (Latin: Catuvelladurus; English: Cadwallader), also known as Cadwaladr Fendigaid (the Blessed) was a king of Gwynedd. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cadwallon ap Cadfan - definition of Cadwallon ap Cadfan in Encyclopedia (386 words)
The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered for devastating Northumbria and defeating and killing its king, Edwin.
Cadwallon was initially defeated by Edwin of Northumbria, who invaded Anglesey, and was besieged by the Northumbrians at Priestholm, a small island off eastern Anglesey.
However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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