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Encyclopedia > Cadmium
48 silvercadmiumindium
Zn

Cd

Hg
General
Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d
Appearance silvery gray metallic
Standard atomic weight 112.411(8) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.65 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.996 g·cm−3
Melting point 594.22 K
(321.07 °C, 609.93 °F)
Boiling point 1040 K
(767 °C, 1413 °F)
Heat of fusion 6.21 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 99.87 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 26.020 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 530 583 654 745 867 1040
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 2
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.69 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies 1st: 867.8 kJ/mol
2nd: 1631.4 kJ/mol
3rd: 3616 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 155 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 161 pm
Covalent radius 148 pm
Van der Waals radius 158 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (22 °C) 72.7 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 96.6 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 30.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2310 m/s
Young's modulus 50 GPa
Shear modulus 19 GPa
Bulk modulus 42 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 2.0
Brinell hardness 203 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-43-9
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of cadmium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
106Cd 1.25% >9.5×1017 y εε2ν - 106Pd
107Cd syn 6.5 h ε 1.417 107Ag
108Cd 0.89% >6.7×1017 y εε2ν - 108Pd
109Cd syn 462.6 d ε 0.214 109Ag
110Cd 12.49% Cd is stable with 62 neutrons
111Cd 12.8% Cd is stable with 63 neutrons
112Cd 24.13% Cd is stable with 64 neutrons
113Cd 12.22% 7.7×1015 y β- 0.316 113In
113mCd syn 14.1 y β- 0.580 113In
IT 0.264 113Cd
114Cd 28.73% >9.3×1017 y ββ2ν - 114Sn
115Cd syn 53.46 h β- 1.446 115In
116Cd 7.49% 2.9×1019 y ββ2ν - 116Sn
References

Cadmium (pronounced /ˈkædmiəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. A relatively rare, soft, bluish-white, transition metal, cadmium is known to cause cancer and occurs with zinc ores. Cadmium is used largely in batteries and pigments, for example in plastic products. This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Cadmium User:Femto/elements e6 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The Group 12 elements are: Zinc (30) Cadmium (48) Mercury (80) Ununbium (112) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid but mercury is liquid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Cadmium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Cadmium (Cd) Standard atomic mass: 112. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... (Redirected from 1 E19 s) To help compare orders of magnitude of different times, this page lists times longer than 1019 seconds (320,000 million years) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 105 seconds and 106 seconds (27. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... This article is about the chemical element. ... (Redirected from 1 E19 s) To help compare orders of magnitude of different times, this page lists times longer than 1019 seconds (320,000 million years) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 116 days and 1157 days or 3. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... This article is about the chemical element. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... (Redirected from 1 E19 s) To help compare orders of magnitude of different times, this page lists times longer than 1019 seconds (320,000 million years) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable or isomeric state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 3. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... Internal conversion or isomeric transition is the act of returning from an excited state by an atom or molecule. ... (Redirected from 1 E19 s) To help compare orders of magnitude of different times, this page lists times longer than 1019 seconds (320,000 million years) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 105 seconds and 106 seconds (27. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... (Redirected from 1 E19 s) To help compare orders of magnitude of different times, this page lists times longer than 1019 seconds (320,000 million years) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Extraction

Cadmium is a common impurity in zinc, and it is most often isolated during the production of zinc. Zinc sulfide ores are roasted in the presence of oxygen converting the zinc sulfide to the oxide. Zinc metal is produced either by smelting the oxide with carbon or by electrolysis in sulfuric acid. Cadmium is isolated from the zinc metal by vacuum distillation if the zinc is smelted, or cadmium sulfate is precipitated out of the electrolysis solution.[1] General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Smelting rhymes with melting Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Notable characteristics

Cadmium is a soft, malleable, ductile, toxic, bluish-white bivalent metal. It is similar in many respects to zinc but reacts to form more complex compounds. Malleability is a physical property of matter, signifying its capability of deformation, especially by hammering or rolling. ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... Bivalent (chemistry): two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule An atom which can form two covalent bonds with other molecules (such as oxygen) is said to be bivalent, posessing a valency of 2. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


The most common oxidation state of cadmium is +2, though rare examples of +1 can be found. In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ...


Applications

About three-quarters of cadmium is used in batteries (especially Ni-Cd batteries) and most of the remaining quarter is used mainly for pigments, coatings and plating, and as stabilizers for plastics. Other uses include: Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and pronounced nye-cad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys using the metals nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) as the active chemicals. ... About 65% to 75% of cadmium produced worldwide is used in the production of Ni-Cd Batteries. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...

  • Used in some of the lowest melting alloys.
  • Due to a low coefficient of friction and very good fatigue resistance, it is used in bearing alloys.
  • 6% of cadmium finds use in electroplating.
  • Many kinds of solder contain this metal.
  • As a barrier to control nuclear fission.
  • Compounds containing cadmium are used in black and white television phosphors and also in the blue and green phosphors for color television picture tubes.
  • Cadmium forms various salts, with cadmium sulfide being the most common. This sulfide is used as a yellow pigment. Cadmium selenide can be used as red pigment, commonly called cadmium red. To painters who work with the pigment, cadmium yellows, oranges and reds are the most potent colours to use. In fact, during production these colours are significantly toned down before they are ground with oils and binders, or blended into watercolours, gouaches, acrylics, and other paint and pigment formulations. These pigments are toxic and it is recommended to use a barrier cream on your hands to prevent absorption through the skin when working with them. There is no such thing as cadmium blue, green or violet.
  • Used in some semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, and cadmium telluride, which can be used for light detection or solar cells. HgCdTe is sensitive to infrared.
  • Some cadmium compounds are employed in PVC as stabilizers.
  • Used to block voltage-dependent calcium channels from fluxing calcium ions in molecular biology.

See also Cadmium compounds. An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... The resistance to lateral motion when one attempts to slide the surface of one object over another surface is called friction or traction. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Cadmium sulfide (UK English sulphide), the mineral greenockite, is an hexagonal, yellowish crystal with specific gravity of 4. ... About 65% to 75% of cadmium produced worldwide is used in the production of Ni-Cd Batteries. ... Cadmium selenide (CdSe) is a solid, binary compound of cadmium and selenium. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium with a zinc blende (cubic) crystal structure (space group F43m). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ... HgCdTe or Mercury cadmium telluride (also Cadmium Mercury Telluride or CMT) is an alloy of CdTe and HgTe and is sometimes claimed to be the third semiconductor of technological importance after Si and GaAs. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ...


History

Cadmium (Latin cadmia, Greek καδμεία meaning "calamine", a Cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals, which was named after the Greek god, Κάδμος (Cadmus)) was discovered in Germany in 1817 by Friedrich Strohmeyer. Strohmeyer found the new element within an impurity in zinc carbonate (calamine) and for 100 years Germany remained the only important producer of the metal. The metal was named after the Latin word for calamine since the metal was found in this zinc compound. Strohmeyer noted that some impure samples of calamine changed color when heated but pure calamine did not. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Calamine is a mixture of zinc oxide (ZnO) with about 0. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich Stromeyer (1776 - 1835) was a German chemist. ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Carbonate minerals ...


Even though cadmium and its compounds are highly toxic, the British Pharmaceutical Codex from 1907 states that cadmium iodide was used as a medicine to treat "enlarged joints, scrofulous glands, and chilblains". This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


In 1927, the International Conference on Weights and Measures redefined the meter in terms of a red cadmium spectral line (1m = 1,553,164.13 wavelengths). This definition has since been changed (see krypton). Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures, or BIPM) is a standards organization, one of the three organizations established to maintain the SI system under the terms of the Metre Convention. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ...


Occurrence

Cadmium metal
Cadmium metal
Cadmium output in 2005
Cadmium output in 2005
World production trend
World production trend

In 2005, China was the top producer of cadmium with almost one-sixth world share closely followed by South Korea and Japan, reports the British Geological Survey. Cadmium. ... Cadmium. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixels, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of cadmium output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 3,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixels, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of cadmium output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 3,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Cadmium_-_world_production_trend. ... Image File history File links Cadmium_-_world_production_trend. ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


Cadmium-containing ores are rare and when found they occur in small quantities. Greenockite (CdS), the only cadmium mineral of importance, is nearly always associated with sphalerite (ZnS). Consequently, cadmium is produced mainly as a byproduct from mining, smelting, and refining sulfide ores of zinc, and to a lesser degree, lead and copper. Small amounts of cadmium, about 10% of consumption, are produced from secondary sources, mainly from dust generated by recycling iron and steel scrap. Production in the United States began in 1907 but it was not until after World War I that cadmium came into wide use. Greenockite is a rare cadmium mineral that consists of cadmium sulfide, CdS, in crystalline form. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Sphalerite sample Another sphalerite sample The unit cell of sphalerite Sphalerite (ZnS) is a gay mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... This article is about the metal. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

See also Category:Cadmium minerals.

A role of cadmium in biology has been recently discovered. A cadmium-dependent carbonic anhydrase has been found in marine diatoms. Cadmium does the same job as zinc in other anhydrases, but the diatoms live in environments with very low zinc concentrations, thus biology has taken cadmium rather than zinc, and made it work. The discovery was made using x-ray absorption fluoresence spectroscopy (XAFS), and cadmium was characterised by noting the energy of the x-rays which were absorbed.

Image of the violet light from a helium cadmium metal vapor laser. The highly monochromatic color arises from the 441.563 nm transition line of cadmium.
Image of the violet light from a helium cadmium metal vapor laser. The highly monochromatic color arises from the 441.563 nm transition line of cadmium.
Main article: isotopes of cadmium

Naturally occurring cadmium is composed of 8 isotopes. For two of them, natural radioactivity was observed, and three others are predicted to be radioactive but their decays were never observed, due to extremely long half-life times. The two natural radioactive isotopes are 113Cd (beta decay, half-life is 7.7 × 1015 years) and 116Cd (two-neutrino double beta decay, half-life is 2.9 × 1019 years). The other three are 106Cd, 108Cd (double electron capture), and 114Cd (double beta decay); only lower limits on their half-life times have been set. At least three isotopes - 110Cd, 111Cd, and 112Cd - are absolutely stable. Among the isotopes absent in the natural cadmium, the most long-lived are 109Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, and 115Cd with a half-life of 53.46 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 2.5 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 5 minutes. This element also has 8 known meta states with the most stable being 113mCd (t½ 14.1 years), 115mCd (t½ 44.6 days) and 117mCd (t½ 3.36 hours). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1452x1166, 171 KB) Image of the (440nm) light from a helium cadmium laser. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1452x1166, 171 KB) Image of the (440nm) light from a helium cadmium laser. ... For other uses, see Helium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Something which is monochromatic has a single color. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... Cadmium (Cd) Standard atomic mass: 112. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus. ... In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The known isotopes of cadmium range in atomic mass from 94.950 u (95Cd) to 131.946 u (132Cd). The primary decay mode before the second most abundant stable isotope, 112Cd, is electron capture and the primary modes after are beta emission and electron capture. The primary decay product before 112Cd is element 47 (silver) and the primary product after is element 49 (indium). The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ...


Toxicity

Main article: Cadmium poisoning

Cadmium is an occupational hazard associated with industrial processes such as metal plating and the production of nickel-cadmium batteries, pigments, plastics and other synthetics. The primary route of exposure in industrial settings is inhalation. Inhalation of cadmium-containing fumes can result initially in metal fume fever but may progress to chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and death. [2] Cadmium has no constructive purpose in the human body. ... Occupational safety and health is the discipline concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of employees, organisations, and others affected by the work they undertake (such as customers, suppliers, and members of the public). ... Metal fume fever is illness caused primarily by exposure to fumes from zinc oxide (ZnO) or magnesium oxide (MgO), often through breathing fumes created by heating or welding certain metals, such as galvanized steel. ... Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ...


Cadmium is also a potential environmental hazard. Human exposures to environmental cadmium are primarily the result of the burning of fossil fuels and municipal wastes.[3] However, there have been notable instances of toxicity as the result of long-term exposure to cadmium in contaminated food and water. In the decades following World War II, Japanese mining operations contaminated the Jinzu River with cadmium and traces of other toxic metals. Consequently, cadmium accumulated in the rice crops growing along the riverbanks downstream of the mines. The local agricultural communities consuming the contaminated rice developed Itai-itai disease and renal abnormalities, including proteinuria and glucosuria.[4] Cadmium is one of six substances banned by the European Union's Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which bans carcinogens in computers. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Jinzū River (神通川) is a river which flows from Gifu Prefecture to Toyama Prefecture in Japan. ... The itai-itai disease (Japanese:イタイイタイ病, literally: ouch-ouch-disease) was the first cadmium poisoning in the world in Toyama prefecture, Japan in 1950. ... Proteinuria (from protein and urine) means the presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine. ... Glycosuria or glucosuria is a condition of osmotic diuresis typical in those suffering from diabetes mellitus. ... The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (ROHS) became European Law in February 2003. ...


Cadmium and several cadmium-containing compounds are known carcinogens and can induce many types of cancer [5]. The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Current research has found that cadmium toxicity may be carried into the body by zinc binding proteins; in particular, proteins that contain zinc finger protein structures. Zinc and cadmium are in the same group on the periodic table, contain the same common oxidation state (+2), and when ionized are almost the same size. Due to these similarities, cadmium can replace zinc in many biological systems, in particular, systems that contain softer ligands such as sulfur. Cadmium can bind up to ten times stronger than zinc in certain biological systems, and is notoriously difficult to remove. In addition, cadmium can replace magnesium and calcium in cetain biological systems, although, these replacements are rare. General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Cartoon representation of the protein Zif268 (blue) containing three zinc fingers in complex with DNA (orange). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...


Precautions

While working with cadmium it is important to do so under a fume hood or with the use of an appropriate respirator to protect against dangerous fumes. [6] Solder, for example, which may contain cadmium, should be handled with care. A common modern fume hood. ... It has been suggested that gas mask be merged into this article or section. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ...

Look up cadmium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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References

  1. ^ Cadmium at WebElements.com
  2. ^ [1] Principles and Methods of Toxicology (fourth edition). A. Wallace Hayes. Taylor and Francis Publishing Inc.; Philadelphia, 2001.
  3. ^ EPA summary on cadmium
  4. ^ [2] Environmental cadmium exposure, adverse effects, and preventative measures in Japan. Nogowa et al. Biometals. 2004 Oct; 17(5):581-7.
  5. ^ 11th Report on Carcinogens provided by the National Toxicology Program
  6. ^ OSHA Solutions for workplace cadmium exposure

External links

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cadmium.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cadmium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (914 words)
Even though cadmium and its compounds are highly toxic, the British Pharmaceutical Codex from 1907 states that cadmium iodide was used as a medicine to treat "enlarged joints, scrofulous glands, and chilblains".
Consequently, cadmium is produced mainly as a byproduct from mining, smelting, and refining sulfide ores of zinc, and to a lesser degree, lead and copper.
Cadmium poisoning is the cause of the itai-itai disease, which literally means "pain pain" in Japanese.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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