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Encyclopedia > Cactus
Cacti

Ferocactus pilosus (Mexican Lime Cactus) growing south of Saltillo, Coahuila, northeast Mexico
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Cactaceae
Juss.
Subfamilies

See also taxonomy of the Cactaceae Download high resolution version (740x1102, 201 KB)Ferocactus pilosus near Saltillo in Coahuila, northeast Mexico - photo MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species See text. ... Saltillo is a city in northeast Mexico, located at 25°42′ N 101°00′ W. It is the current capital of the state of Coahuila. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text. ... Portrait of Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (April 12, 1748 - September 17, 1836) was a French botanist. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera See Taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural, cacti or cactuses) is a type of (usually) succulent plant belonging to the dicotyledonous flowering plant family, Cactaceae. ... Species Maihuenia patagonica Maihuenia poeppigii Maihuenia is a genus of cacti (family Cactaceae) and the sole genus of the subfamily Maihuenioideae, which is the smallest subfamily of the Cactaceae. ... Species Some 250, see also Example species. ... Species See text The genus Pereskia comprises 25 tropical species and varieties of leafy cacti. ... Because of their infrequent watering needs, cacti are very easy to grow in pots. ...

A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. They are often used as ornamental plants, but some are also crop plants. Succulent plants, such as this Aloe, store water in their fleshy leaves Succulent plants, also known as succulents or fat plants, are water-retaining plants adapted to xerophilic climatic or soil conditions. ... Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see crop (disambiguation). ...


Cacti are distinctive and unusual plants, which are adapted to extremely arid and hot environments, showing a wide range of anatomical and physiological features which conserve water. Their stems have expanded into green succulent structures containing the chlorophyll necessary for life and growth, while the leaves have become the spines for which cacti are so well known. For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Succulent plants, or succulents, are plants that store water in their enlarged fleshy leaves, stems, or roots. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ...


Cacti come in a wide range of shapes and sizes. The tallest is Pachycereus pringlei, with a maximum recorded height of 19.2 m,[1] and the smallest is Blossfeldia liliputiana, only about 1 cm diameter at maturity.[2] Cactus flowers are large, and like the spines and branches arise from areoles. Many cactus species are night blooming, as they are pollinated by nocturnal insects or small animals, principally moths and bats. Cacti's sizes range from small and round to pole-like and tall. Binomial name Pachycereus pringlei (S.Watson) Britton & Rose Pachycereus pringlei (Cardón) is a species of cactus, native to northwestern Mexico in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora. ... Binomial name Blossfeldia liliputiana Werderm. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Areoles are the distinctive feature of cacti, and identify them as a separate family from other succulent plants. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Moths A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ...

Contents

Description

Closeup image of a cactus flower (Echinopsis spachiana) showing large number of stamens.

The cacti are succulent plants that grow either as trees, shrubs or in the form of ground cover. Most species grow on the ground, but there is also a whole range of epiphytic species. In most species, except for the sub-family of the Pereskioideae (see image), the leaves are greatly or entirely reduced. The flowers, mostly radially symmetrical and hermaphrodite, bloom either by day or by night, depending on species. Their shape varies from tube-like through bell-like to wheel-shaped, and their size from 0.2 to 15-30 meters. Most of them have numerous sepals (from 5 to 50 or more), and change form from outside to inside, from bracts to petals. They have stamens in great numbers (from 50 to 1,500, rarely fewer). Nearly all species of cacti have a bitter milk-like substance contained within them. The berry-like fruits may contain few, but mostly many (3,000), seeds, which can be between 0.4 and 12 mm long.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 332 KB) Closeup image of a cactus flower (Echinopsis spachiana) taken as a focus bracket of 8 images at f/11 to maximize DOF If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 332 KB) Closeup image of a cactus flower (Echinopsis spachiana) taken as a focus bracket of 8 images at f/11 to maximize DOF If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or... Binomial name Echinopsis spachiana Echinopsis spachiana, previously known as Trichocereus spachianus is a type of cactus native to South America. ... An example of an epiphyte assemblage of orchids and bromeliads in a garden setting The term epiphyte refers to any plant that grows upon or attached to another living plant. ... Species See text The genus Pereskia comprises 25 tropical species and varieties of leafy cacti. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... Toothed bracts on Rhinanthus minor In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, from the axil of which a flower or flower stalk arises; or a bract may be any leaf associated with an inflorescence. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ...


The life of a cactus is seldom longer than 300 years, and there are cacti which live only 25 years (although these flower as early as their second year). The Saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) grows to a height of about 2ft tall on modern days in summer weather up to 15 meters (the record is 17 meters 67cm), but in its first ten years it grows only 10 centimeters. The "mother-in-law's cushion" (Echinocactus grusonii) reaches a height of 2.5 meters and a diameter of 1 meter and - at least on the Canaries - is already capable of flowering after 6 years. The diameter of cactus flowers ranges from 5 to 30 cm; the colors are often conspicuous and spectacular. Binomial name Carnegiea gigantea Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is a large, tree-sized cactus that is native to the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... Binomial name Echinocactus grusonii Hildm. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


Distribution

Cacti are almost exclusively New World plants. This means that they are native only in North America, South America, and the West Indies. There is however one exception, Rhipsalis baccifera; this species has a pantropical distribution, occurring in the Old World tropical Africa, Madagascar and Sri Lanka as well as in tropical America. This plant is thought to be a relatively recent colonist in the Old World (within the last few thousand years), probably carried as seeds in the digestive tracts of migratory birds. Many other cacti have become naturalized to similar environments in other parts of the world after being introduced by people. The Tehuacán Valley of Mexico has one of the richest occurrences of cacti in the world.[4] This article is about the desert plant. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Binomial name Rhipsalis baccifera (J.S. Mueller) Stearn Rhipsalis baccifera or Mistletoe cactus is an Epiphytic cactus which originates from Central and Southern America, Caribbean and Florida. ... In biology, pantropical refers to the area of geographical occurrence. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... The Tehuacán Valley matorral is a xeric shrubland ecoregion in Mexico. ...


Cacti believed to have evolved in the last 30 to 40 million years. Long ago, the Americas were joined to the other continents, but separated due to continental drift. Unique species in the New World must have developed after the continents had moved apart. Significant distance between the continents was only achieved in around the last 50 million years. This may explain why cacti are so rare in Africa as the continents had already separated when cacti evolved. Many succulent plants in both the Old and New World bear a striking resemblance to cacti, and are often called "cactus" in common usage. This is, however, due to parallel evolution; none of these are closely related to the Cactaceae. For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... Succulent plants, such as this Aloe, store water in their fleshy leaves Succulent plants, also known as succulents or fat plants, are water-retaining plants adapted to xerophilic climatic or soil conditions. ... Bee hovering in flight In evolutionary biology, parallel evolution refers to the independent evolution of similar traits in closely related lineages of species, while convergent evolution refers to the appearance of striking similarities among lineages of organisms only very distantly related. ...


Prickly pears (genus Opuntia) were imported into Australia in the 19th century to be used as a natural agricultural fence and to establish a cochineal dye industry, but quickly became a widespread weed. This invasive species is inedible for local herbivores and has rendered 40,000 km² of farming land unproductive. Species Many, see text Opuntia is a genus in the cactus family Cactaceae. ... Species Some 250, see also Example species. ... Binomial name Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ...


Adaptations to dry environment

Some environments, such as deserts, semi-deserts and dry steppes, receive little water in the form of precipitation. Plants that inhabit these dry areas are known as xerophytes, and many of them are succulents, with thick or reduced, "succulent", leaves. Apart a few exceptions (for example, the genus "Rhodocactus") all cacti are succulent plants, although not all succulent plants are cacti. Like other succulents, these cacti have a range of specific adaptations that enable them to survive in these environments. A xerophyte is an organism that has adaptations to enable it to get through, or even thrive, in areas with very little free moisture. ... Succulent plants, or succulents, are plants that store water in their enlarged fleshy leaves, stems, or roots. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species See text. ... Sempervivum heuffelii, type from Romania, in cultivation, a member of the Crassulaceae, storing water in its thick leaves. ...

Pereskia grandifolia: Pereskia is a weakly succulent genus, which also possesses leaves, and is believed to be very similar to the ancestor of all cacti.
Barrel Cactus growing on a cliff in the Mojave Desert. These cactus can reach up to six feet tall in some cases.

Cacti have never lost their leaves completely; they have only reduced the size so that they reduce the surface area through which water can be lost by transpiration. In some species the leaves are still remarkably large and ordinary while in other species they have become microscopic but they still contain the stomata, xylem and phloem. Certain cactus species have also developed ephemeral leaves, which are leaves that last for a short period of time when the stem is still in its early stages of development. A good example of a species that has ephemeral leaves is the Opuntia ficus-indica, better known as the prickly pear. Cacti have also developed spines which allow less water to evaporate through transpiration by shading the plant, and defend the cactus against water-seeking animals. The spines grow from specialized structures called areoles. Very few members of the family have leaves, and when present these are usually rudimentary and soon fall off; they are typically awl-shaped and only 1-3 mm. long. Two genera, Pereskia and Pereskiopsis, do however retain large, non-succulent leaves 5-25 cm. long, and also non-succulent stems. Pereskia has now been determined to be the ancestral genus from which all other cacti evolved.[5] Image File history File links Pereskia_grandifolia3. ... Image File history File links Pereskia_grandifolia3. ... Species see text The genus Pereskia comprises 16 species of very primitive cacti originating from Brazil to Mexico. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 384 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 384 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Barrel Cactus in Virgin River Gorge, Arizona 2005 by David Jolley. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 384 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 384 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Barrel Cactus in Virgin River Gorge, Arizona 2005 by David Jolley. ... Barrel cactus A Barrel cactus is a type of cactus characterized by being approximately barrel-shaped. ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ... This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ... In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue, phloem being the other one. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... Binomial name (L.) Mill. ... Raised thorns on the stem of the wait-a-bit climber Thorns on rose stems A spine is a rigid, pointed surface protuberance or needle-like structure on an animal, shell, or plant, presumably serving as a defense against attack by predators. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Areoles are the distinctive feature of cacti, and identify them as a separate family from other succulent plants. ... Species see text The genus Pereskia comprises 16 species of very primitive cacti originating from Brazil to Mexico. ... Species Pereskiopsis diguetii Pereskiopsis gatesii etc. ...

Many species of cactus have long, sharp spines.

Enlarged stems carry out photosynthesis and store water. Unlike many other succulents, the stem is the only part of a true cactus where this takes place. Much like many other plants that have waxy coatings on their leaves, Cacti often have a waxy coating on their stems to prevent water loss. This works by preventing water from spreading on the surface and allowing water to trickle down the stem to be absorbed by the roots and used for photosynthesis. Cacti have a thick, hard-walled, succulent stem - when it rains, water is stored in the stem. The stems are photosynthetic, green, and fleshy. The inside of the stem is either spongy or hollow (depending on the cactus). A thick, waxy coating keeps the water inside the cactus from evaporating. Cactus1. ... Cactus1. ... Raised thorns on the stem of the wait-a-bit climber Prickles on rose stems Thorns of the Ocotillo A spine is a rigid, pointed surface protuberance or needle-like structure on an animal, shell, or plant, presumably serving as a defense against attack by predators. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ...


The bodies of many cacti have become thickened during the course of evolution, and form water-retentive tissue and in many cases assume the optimal shape of the sphere (combining highest possible volume with lowest possible surface area). By reducing its surface area, the body of the plant is also protected against excessive sunlight.

Saguaro cactus in Arizona, USA. This species is well known from Western films.

Most cacti have a short growing season and long dormancy. For example, a fully-grown Saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) can absorb up to 3,000 litres of water in ten days. This is helped by cacti's ability to form new roots quickly. Only two hours after rain following a relatively long drought the formation of new roots begins. Apart from a few exceptions an extensively ramified root system is formed, which spreads out immediately beneath the surface. The salt concentration in the root cells is relatively high, so that when moisture is encountered, water can immediately be absorbed in the greatest possible quantity. Image File history File linksMetadata Cactus_arizona. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cactus_arizona. ... For the Palm OS program, see Saguaro(Palm OS). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In agriculture, the growing season is the period of each year when crops can be grown. ... Binomial name Carnegiea gigantea Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is a large, tree-sized cactus that is native to the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ...


But the plant body itself is also capable of absorbing moisture (through the epidermis and the thorns), which for plants that are exposed to moisture almost entirely, or indeed in some cases solely, in the form of fog, is of the greatest importance for sustaining life.


Most cacti have very shallow roots that can spread out widely close to the surface of the ground to collect water, an adaptation to infrequent rains; in one examination, a young Saguaro only 12 cm. tall had a root system covering an area 2 meters in diameter, but with no roots more than 10 cm. deep.[6] The larger columnar cacti also develop a taproot, primarily for anchoring but also to reach deeper water supplies and mineral nutrients.[6] For the Palm OS program, see Saguaro(Palm OS). ... This article is about the plant root system. ...


One feature distinguishes the cacti from all other plants: cacti possess areoles, as they are known. The areole appears like a cushion with a diameter of up to 15 mm. and is formed by two opposing buds in the angles of a leaf. From the upper bud develops either a blossom or a side shoot, from the lower bud develop thorns. The two buds of the areoles can lie very close together, but they can also sometimes be separated by several centimeters. Areoles are the distinctive feature of cacti, and identify them as a separate family from other succulent plants. ...


Like other succulents in the families of the Crassulaceae, Agavaceae (agaves), Euphorbiaceae (euphorbias), Liliaceae (lilies), Orchidaceae (orchids) and Vitaceae (vines), cacti reduce water loss through transpiration by Crassulacean acid metabolism.[6] Here, transpiration does not take place during the day at the same time as photosynthesis, but at night. The plant stores the carbon dioxide chemically linked to malic acid until the daytime. During the day the stomata are closed and the plant releases the stored CO2 and uses it for photosynthesis. Because transpiration takes place during the cool humid night hours, water loss through transpiration is significantly reduced. Genera many, see text The Crassulaceae, or orpine family, is a family of dicotyledons. ... Type genus Agave L. Genera See text. ... Genera See text Ref: Euphorbiaceae in The Families of Flowering Plants, as of 2002-07-13 The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 280 genera and around 6000 species. ... Genera Calochortus Cardiocrinum Clintonia Erythronium Fritillaria Gagea Korolkowia Lilium Lloydia Nomocharis Notholirion Scoliopus Streptopus Tricyrtis Tulipa The Liliaceae, or the Lily Family, is an important family of monocotyledons that includes a great number of ornamental flowers as well as several important agricultural crops; the onion has traditionally been classified here... Orchid redirects here. ... Genera Acareosperma Ampelocissus Ampelopsis (peppervine) Cayratia Cissus (treebind, treebine) Clematicissus Cyphostemma Nothocissus Parthenocissus (creeper) Pterisanthes Pterocissus Rhoicissus Tetrastigma Vitis (grape) Vua The Vitaceae (or Vitidaceae) are a family of dicots including the grape and Virginia creeper. ... Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic plants. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Malate redirects here. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ...


Reproductive ecology

Blooming Echinopsis. The sweet-smelling flower opens towards evening and dies the following morning.

Some cactus flowers form long tubes (up to 30 centimetres) so that only moths can reach the nectar and thus pollinate the blossoms. There are also specialisations for bats, humming birds and particular species of bees. The duration of flowering is very variable. Many flowers, for example those of Selenicereus grandiflorus (Queen of the Night) are only fully open for two hours at night. Other cacti flower for a whole week. Most cacti are self-incompatible, and thus require a pollinator. A few are autogamous and are able to pollinate themselves. Fraileas only opens their flowers completely in exceptional circumstances; they mostly pollinate themselves or others with their flowers closed ("cleistogamy"). The flower itself has also undergone a further development: the ovary tends to become a completely protected area, protected by thorns, hairs and scales. Seed formation is very prolific, and the fruits are mostly fleshy, pleasant tasting and conspicuously coloured. Goats, birds, ants, mice and bats contribute significantly to the spreading of the seeds. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1788x954, 347 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cactus ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1788x954, 347 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cactus ... Species about 128, see text Echinopsis (Zuccarini 1837) is a large genus of cacti native to South America, sometimes refered to as sea-urchin cactus or Easter lily cactus. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... For the Australian jangle pop band, see The Hummingbirds. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Selenicereus grandiflorus (L.) Britton & Rose, 1909 Synonyms Selenicereus kunthianus (Otto) Britton & Rose Cereus grandiflorus (L.) Mill. ... Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most important means to prevent selfing and promote the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it is considered as one of the causes for the spread and success of the angiosperms, on our planet. ... Self-fertilization (also known as autogamy) occurs in hermaphroditic organisms where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual. ... Species Frailea castanea Frailea cataphracta Frailea pygmaea Frailea is a genus of globular to short cylindrical cacti native to Brazil. ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ...


Because of the plants' high water-retention ability, detached parts of the plant can survive for long periods and are able to grow new roots anywhere on the plant body.

Carl Spitzweg: The Cactus Lover, c. 1856
Moche Cactus. 200 B.C. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

Among the remains of the Aztec civilization, cacti can be found repeatedly in pictorial representations, sculpture and drawings, principally Echinocactus grusonii. This cactus, also known as "Mother-in-law's Cushion," has great ritual significance - human sacrifices were carried out on these cacti.[citation needed] Tenochtitlan (the earlier name of Mexico City) means "place of the sacred cactus." The coat of arms of Mexico to this day shows an eagle, snake, and cactus. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1256x2014, 312 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cactus User:Rl/Images ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1256x2014, 312 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cactus User:Rl/Images ... The Poor Poet, 1839. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... Binomial name Echinocactus grusonii Hildm. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Coat of Arms of Mexico has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries. ...


Economic exploitation of the cactus can also be traced back to the Aztecs. The North American Indians exploit the alkaloid content of many cacti for ritual purposes. Today, besides their use as foodstuffs (jam, fruit, vegetables), their principal use is as a host for the cochineal insect, from which a red dye (carmine) is obtained which is used in Campari or high-quality lipsticks. Particularly in South America dead pillar cacti yield valuable wood for construction. Some cacti are also of pharmaceutical significance. A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Binomial name Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... Carmine Carminic acid Carmine (IPA: []), also called Crimson Lake, Cochineal, Natural Red 4, C.I. 75470 or E120, is a pigment of a bright red color obtained from the carminic acid produced by some scale insects, such as the cochineal and the Polish cochineal, and is used as a general... A bottle of Campari Campari is an alcoholic aperitif obtained from the infusion of bitter herbs, aromatic plants and fruit in alcohol and water. ... Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color and texture to the lips. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


From the moment of their discovery by early European explorers cacti have aroused much interest: Christopher Columbus brought the first melocactuses to Europe. Scientific interest in them began in the 17th century. By 1737, twenty-four species were known, which Linnaeus grouped together as the genus "Cactus". With the passage of time cacti enjoyed increasing popularity: sometimes they were of scientific interest only; at other times as fashionable plants they enjoyed a real boom. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Species Melocactus albicephalus Melocactus andinus Melocactus bellavistensis Melocactus conoideus Melocactus oreas Melocactus pachyacanthus Melocactus salvadorensis Melocactus violaceus Melocactus zehntneri etc. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ...


From the beginning of the 20th century interest in cacti has increased steadily, interrupted only by the two world wars. This was accompanied by a rising commercial interest, the negative consequences of which culminated in raids on the cacti' native habitats, resulting in the extermination of many species. Through the great number of cactus admirers, whether their interest is scientific or hobby-oriented, new species and varieties are even today discovered every year.


All cacti are covered by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, and many species by virtue of their inclusion in Appendix 1 are fully protected. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


Some countries have a rather contradictory attitude to species protection. In Mexico for example to be caught in the act of digging up cacti carries a prison sentence, but cactus habitats are destroyed for the construction of new roads and electricity lines. To be borne in mind here is that some cactus habitats have a total area of no more than 1,000 square meters.[citation needed][dubious ] If this habitat is destroyed, either by construction or by plundering, the species growing there is lost for posterity if it is endemic (ie, growing in that one spot and nowhere else).


The Moche people of ancient Peru worshiped agriculture and often depicted the cactus in their art. [7] The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


Uses

Cacti, cultivated by people worldwide, are a familiar sight as potted plants, houseplants or in ornamental gardens in warmer climates. They often form part of xeriphytic (dry) gardens in arid regions, or raised rockeries. Some countries, such as Australia, have water restrictions in many cities, so drought-resistant plants are increasing in popularity. Numerous species have entered widespread cultivation, including members of Echinopsis, Mammillaria and Cereus among others. Some, such as the Golden Barrel Cactus, Echinocactus grusonii, are prominent in garden design. Cacti are commonly used for fencing material where there is a lack of either natural resources or financial means to construct a permanent fence. This is often seen in arid and warm climates, such as the Masai Mara in Kenya. This is known as a cactus fence. Cacti fences are often used by homeowners and landscape architects for home security purposes. The sharp thorns of the cactus deter unauthorized persons from entering private properties, and may prevent break-ins if planted under windows and near drainpipes. The aesthetic characteristics of some species, in conjunction with their home security qualities, makes them a considerable alternative to artificial fences and walls.[8] A houseplant is usually a tropical or semi-tropical plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices. ... Xeriscape symbol Xeriscaping refers to landscaping in ways that do not require supplemental irrigation. ... Species about 128, see text Echinopsis (Zuccarini 1837) is a large genus of cacti native to South America, sometimes refered to as sea-urchin cactus or Easter lily cactus. ... Species 171 known species: see Species list. ... Species Cereus adelmarii Cereus bicolor Cereus comarapanus Cereus fricii Cereus horrispinus Cereus jamacaru Cereus pachyrhizus Cereus peruvianus Cereus spegazzinii Cereus trigonodendron Cereus vargasianus Cereus is a genus of cactus. ... Binomial name Echinocactus grusonii Hildm. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A cactus fence in Bonaire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Landscape architecture. ... Burglar (or intrusion), fire and safety alarms are commonly found in electronic form today. ... A fence in Westtown Township, Pennsylvania. ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ...


As well as garden plants, many cacti have important commercial uses; some cacti bear edible fruit, such as the prickly pear and Hylocereus, which produces Dragon fruit or Pitaya. Opuntia are also used as host plants for cochineal bugs in the cochineal dye industry in Central America. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Species Some 250, see also Example species. ... Species Hylocereus costaricensis Hylocereus megalanthus Hylocereus monacanthus Hylocereus minutiflorus Hylocereus undatus - dragonfruit, pitaya, pitahaya, strawberry pear etc. ... Pitaya fruits Pitaya fruit Pitaya inside The pitaya, also known as dragonfruit or dragon pearl is the fruit of a pitaya cactus. ... Pitaya fruit Examples of pitaya bonsai The pitaya (also known as pitahaya, dragon fruit, huǒ lóng guǒ (火龍果/火龙果), strawberry pear, nanettikafruit, or thanh long) is the fruit of several cactus species, especially of the genus Hylocereus, but also see Stenocereus. ... Species Some 250, see also Example species. ... Binomial name Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


The Peyote, Lophophora williamsii, is a well-known psychoactive agent used by Native Americans in the Southwest of the United States of America. Some species of Echinopsis (previously Trichocereus) also have psychoactive properties. For example, the San Pedro cactus, a common specimen found in many garden centers, is known to contain mescaline. Binomial name (Lem. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Species about 128, see text Echinopsis (Zuccarini 1837) is a large genus of cacti native to South America, sometimes refered to as sea-urchin cactus or Easter lily cactus. ... Species about 128, see text Echinopsis (Zuccarini 1837) is a large genus of cacti native to South America. ...


Etymology

Prickly Pear is among the most common cacti found in North America.

The word cactus is ultimately derived from Greek Κακτος kaktos, used in classical Greek for a species of spiny thistle, possibly the cardoon, and used as a generic name, Cactus, by Linnaeus in 1753 (now rejected in favor of Mammillaria). There is some dispute as to the proper plural form of the word; as a Greek loan into English, the correct plural in English would be "cactoi" or "cactuses". However, as a word in Botanical Latin (as distinct from Classical Latin), "cactus" would follow standard Latin rules for pluralization and become "cacti", which has become the prevalent usage in English. Regardless, cactus is popularly used as both singular and plural, and is cited as both singular and plural by the Random House Unabridged Dictionary (2006). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 719 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (842 × 702 pixel, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cactus Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 719 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (842 × 702 pixel, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cactus Metadata This file contains additional... Species Some 250, see also Example species. ... Milk thistle flowerhead Thistledown a method of seed dispersal by wind. ... Binomial name Cynara cardunculus L. The cardoon (Cynara cardunculus), also called the artichoke thistle, is a member of the thistle family related to the Globe artichoke. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Species 171 known species: see Species list. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cactaceae
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
The Cactaceae
  1. ^ Salak, M. (2000). In search of the tallest cactus. Cactus and Succulent Journal 72 (3).
  2. ^ Mauseth Cactus research: Blossfeldia liliputiana
  3. ^ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=10141 Description of the Family in the Flora of North America.
  4. ^ Mexico: Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve..
  5. ^ How did cactuses evolve?
  6. ^ a b c Dalhousie University: Biology of Cacti
  7. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  8. ^ Cactus, an article from Home Security Guru
  • Anderson, E. F. (2001). The Cactus Family. Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-498-9 - Comprehensive and lavishly illustrated.
  • Benson, L. (1981). The Cacti of Arizona. University of Arizona Press ISBN 0-8165-0509-8 - Thorough treatment of the Arizona, U.S.A., species
  • Kiesling, R., Mauseth, J. D., & Ostolaza, C. N. (2002). A Cactus Odyssey. Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-526-8

The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ...

External links


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A cactus plant is conspicuous for its fleshy green stem, which performs the functions of leaves (commonly insignificant or absent), and for the spines (not always present) of various colors, shapes, and arrangements.
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