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Encyclopedia > Cacao
Cacao
Cacao tree with fruit pods
Cacao tree with fruit pods
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malvales
Family: Sterculiaceae
Genus: Theobroma
Species: T. cacao
Binomial name
Theobroma cacao
L.

Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall (15-26 ft)) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to the deep tropical region of the Americas. There are two prominent competing theories about the origins of the original wild Theobroma cacao tree. One group of proponents believe wild examples were originally distributed from southeastern Mexico to the Amazon basin, with domestication taking place both in the Lacandon area of Mesoamerica and in lowland South America. Recent studies of Theobroma cacao genetics seem to show that the plant originated in the Amazon and was distributed by man throughout Central America and Mesoamerica. Its seeds are used to make cocoa and chocolate. Cacao is a town in French Guiana, lying on the Comté river to the south of Cayenne. ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Malvaceae (mallows,...) Dipterocarpaceae Sarcolaenaceae Cistaceae Muntingiaceae Bixaceae Diegodendraceae Cochlospermaceae Sphaerosepalaceae Thymelaeaceae Neuradaceae The Malvales are an order of flowering plants, mostly comprised of shrubs and trees. ... Genera Abelmoschus - Okra Abutilon - Abutilon Adansonia – Baobab Alcea - Hollyhock Althaea - Marsh mallow Bombax – Silk-cotton tree Callirhoe - Poppy mallow Ceiba – Kapok Chiranthodendron – Mexican Hand Tree Cola - Kola nut Corchorus - Jute Durio – Durian Fremontodendron – Flannelbush Gaya – Gaya Gossypium - Cotton plant Hibiscus - Hibiscus Hoheria &#8211... Species See text Theobroma is a genus in the Malvaceae (formerly Sterculiaceae) family of understory trees in the tropical forests of Central and South America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Genera Abelmoschus - Okra Abutilon - Abutilon Adansonia – Baobab Alcea - Hollyhock Althaea - Marsh mallow Bombax – Silk-cotton tree Callirhoe - Poppy mallow Ceiba – Kapok Chiranthodendron – Mexican Hand Tree Cola - Kola nut Corchorus - Jute Durio – Durian Fremontodendron – Flannelbush Gaya – Gaya Gossypium - Cotton plant Hibiscus - Hibiscus Hoheria &#8211... Subfamilies Bombacoideae Brownlowioideae Byttnerioideae Dombeyoideae Grewioideae Helicteroideae Malvoideae Sterculioideae Tilioideae Malvaceae is family of flowering plants containing Malva, the mallow genus, and its relatives. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ...


The bush is today found growing wild in the low foothills of the Andes at elevations of around 200–400 m (650-1300 ft) in the Amazon and Orinoco river basins. It requires a humid climate with regular rainfall and good soil. It is an understory tree, growing best with some overhead shade. The leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (4-16 in) long and 5–20 cm (2-8 in) broad. This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... This article is about the river. ... The Orinoco is one of the longest rivers in South America at 2,410 km, (1,497. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... Understory (or understorey) is the term for the area of a forest which grows in the shade of the overstory or canopy. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Cacao flowers
Cacao flowers

The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; they are small, 1–2 cm (1/2-1 in) diameter, with pink calyx. While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, midges in the order Diptera. The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (6-12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3-4 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighs about 500 g (1 lb) when ripe. The pod contains 20 to 60 seeds, usually called "beans", embedded in a white pulp. Each seed contains a significant amount of fat (40–50% as cocoa butter). Their most noted active constituent is theobromine, a compound similar to caffeine. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Trunk may be: Look up trunk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... For other uses of the term butterfly, see butterfly (disambiguation). ... Lepidopteran on a flower. ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... For other uses, see Midge (disambiguation). ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, edible natural vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ...


The scientific name Theobroma means "food of the gods". The word cacao itself derives from the Nahuatl (Aztec language) word cacahuatl, learned at the time of the conquest when it was first encountered by the Spanish. Similar words for the plant and its by-products are attested in a number of other indigenous Mesoamerican languages. Species See text Theobroma is a genus in the Malvaceae (formerly Sterculiaceae) family of understory trees in the tropical forests of Central and South America. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico. ... Genealogy Areal Uto-Aztecan —5000 BP* Soshonean (N Uto-Aztecan) —3500 BP Numic (Plateau group) —2000 BP C Plateau Soshoni [SHH] Comanche [COM] Paramint [PAR] S Plateau Ute-Chemehuevi (S Paiute) [UTE] Kawaiisu [KAW] W Plateau Mono [MON] Paiute (Northern Paiute) [PAO] Takic ( Southern Californian) —2400...

Contents

History of cultivation

Cultivation, cultural elaboration and use of cacao were extensive in Mesoamerica. Studies of the Theobroma cacao tree genetics suggests a domestication and spread from lowland Amazonia, contesting an earlier hypothesis that the tree was domesticated independently in both the Lacandon area of Mexico, and in Amazonia. The cacao tree belongs to the Theobroma genus, in the Sterculiaceae family, that contains 22 species. Today, the most common of the cultivated species is Theobroma cacao, with two subspecies and three forms. Wild cacaos falling into two groups. The South American subspecies spaerocarpum has a fairly smooth melon-like fruit. In contrast, the Mesoamerican cacao subspecies has ridged, elongated fruits. At some unknown early date, the subspecies T. cacao cacao reached the southern lowlands of Mesoamerica and came into wide usage. Location of Mesoamerica in the Americas. ...

Aztec statuary of a male figure holding a cacao pod
Aztec statuary of a male figure holding a cacao pod

The Maya believed that the kakaw (cacao) was discovered by the gods in a mountain that also contained other delectable foods to be used by the Maya. According to Maya mythology, the Plumed Serpent gave cacao to the Maya after humans were created from maize by divine grandmother goddess Xmucane (Bogin 1997, Coe 1996, Montejo 1999, Tedlock 1985). The Maya celebrated an annual festival in April to honor their cacao god, Ek Chuah, an event that included the sacrifice of a dog with cacao colored markings; additional animal sacrifices; offerings of cacao, feathers and incense; and an exchange of gifts. In a similar creation story, the Mexica (Aztec) god Quetzalcoatl discovered cacao (cacahuatl: "'bitter water"'), in a mountain filled with other plant foods (Coe 1996, Townsend 1992). Cacao was offered regularly to a pantheon of Mexica deities and the Madrid Codex depicts priests lancing their ear lobes (autosacrifice) and covering the cacao with blood as a suitable sacrifice to the gods. The cacao beverage as ritual were used only by men, as it was believed to be toxic for women and children. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Quetzalcoatl (feathered snake) is the Aztec name for the Feathered-Serpent deity of ancient Mesoamerica, one of the main gods of many Mexican and northern Central American civilizations. ... Maya mythology refers to the pre-Columbian Maya civilizations extensive polytheistic religious beliefs. ... Maya mythology refers to the pre-Columbian Maya civilizations extensive polytheistic religious beliefs. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Maya codices (singular codex) are books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, using the Maya hieroglyphic script. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are several mixtures of cacao described in ancient texts, for ceremonial, medicinal uses as well as culinary purposes. Some mixtures included maize, chili, vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), peanut butter and honey. Archaeological evidence for use of cacao, while relatively sparse, has come from the recovery of whole cacao beans at Uaxactun, Guatemala (Kidder 1947) and from the preservation of wood fragments of the cacao tree at Belize sites including Cuello and Pulltrouser Swamp (Hammond and Miksicek 1981; Turner and Miksicek 1984). In addition, analysis of residues from ceramic vessels has found traces of theobromine and caffeine in early formative vesssels from Puerto Escondido, Honduras (1100 - 900 B.C.) and in middle formative vessels from Colha, Belize (600-400 B.C.) using similar techniques to those used to extract chocolate residues from four classic period (ca. 400 A.D.) vessels from a tomb at the archaeological site of Rio Azul. As cacao is the only known commodity from Mesoamerica containing both of these alkaloid compounds, it seems likely that these vessels were used as containers for cacao drinks. In addition, cacao is named in a hieroglyphic text on one of the Rio Azul vessels. This article is about the maize plant. ... Chile Powder for sale in Bolivia Chile powder is the ground, dried fruit of one or more varieties of chile pepper, most commonly red pepper or cayenne pepper, both of the species Capsicum Annuum. ... Vanilla pods Vanilla is a flavouring derived from orchids in the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Uaxactun (pronounced Wash-ak-toon) is an ancient ruin of the Maya civilization, located in the Peten department of Guatemala, some 40 km (25 miles) north of Tikal. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Rio Azul is a site of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization in what is now Guatemala. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... A hieroglyph is one part of an ideographic writing system that is often found carved in stone. ... Rio Azul is a site of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization in what is now Guatemala. ...



The first Europeans to encounter cacao were Christopher Columbus and his crew in 1502, when they captured a canoe at Guanaja that contained a quantity of mysterious-looking “almonds,” which they at first mistook for rabbit droppings. The first real European knowledge about chocolate came in the form of a beverage which was first introduced to the Spanish at their meeting with Montezuma in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan in 1519. Cortez and others noted the vast quantities of this beverage that the Aztec emperor consumed, and how it was carefully whipped by his attendants beforehand. Examples of cacao beans along with other agricultural products were brought back to Spain at that time, but it seems that the beverage made from cacao was introduced to the Spanish court in 1544 by Kekchi Maya nobles brought from the New World to Spain by Dominican friars to meet Prince Philip (Coe and Coe 1996). Within a century, the culinary and medical uses of chocolate had spread to France, England and elsewhere in Western Europe. Demand for this beverage led the French to establish cacao plantations in the Caribbean, while Spain subsequently developed their cacao plantations in their Philippine colony (Bloom 1998, Coe 1996). The Nahuatl-derived Spanish word cacao entered scientific nomenclature in 1753 after the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus published his taxonomic binomial system and coined the genus and species Theobroma ("food of the gods") cacao. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... Guanaja is one of the Bay Islands of Honduras, and is in the Caribbean. ... Montezuma is the name of a mythological deity, as well as the common English spelling of the name of two Aztec emperors. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... This article covers the history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ...


Currency system

Cacao beans constituted both a ritual beverage and a major currency system in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations. At one point the Aztec empire received a yearly tribute of 980 loads (xiquipil in nahuatl) of cacao, in addition to other goods. Each load represented exactly 8000 beans.[1] The buying power of quality beans were such that 80-100 beans could buy a new cloth mantle. The use of cacao beans as currency is also known to have spawned counterfeiters during the Aztec empire. [2] The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Location of Mesoamerica in the Americas. ...


In some areas, such as Yucatán, cacao beans were still used in place of small coins as late as the 1840s. Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ...


Cultivation

Cacao is cultivated on over 70,000 km² (27,000 mi²) worldwide. Côte d'Ivoire produces 40% of world cacao, Ghana and Indonesia each produce about 15%, and Brazil, Nigeria, Cameroon, Guatemala, Honduras, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela (Chuao) produce smaller amounts. Chuao is a small village located in the northern coastal range of Venezuela. ...


A tree begins to bear when it is four or five years old. In one year, when mature, it may have 6,000 flowers, but only about 20 pods. About 300-600 seeds (10 pods) are required to produce around 1 kg (2.2 lb) of cocoa paste. Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ...

Cacao seed in the fruit or Pocha
Cacao seed in the fruit or Pocha

There are three main cultivar groups of cacao beans used to make cocoa and chocolate.[3] The most prized, rare, and expensive is the Criollo Group, the cocoa bean used by the Maya. Only 10% of chocolate is made from Criollo, which is less bitter and more aromatic than any other bean. The cacao bean in 80% of chocolate is made using beans of the Forastero Group. Forastero trees are significantly hardier than Criollo trees, resulting in cheaper cacao beans. Trinitario, a hybrid of Criollo and Forastero, is used in about 10% of chocolate. For details of processing, chocolate is also used for sex cocoa. Description: Cocoa beans in a cacao pod. ... Description: Cocoa beans in a cacao pod. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ...

Young Cacao plantation
Young Cacao plantation

Image File history File links Cacao. ... Image File history File links Cacao. ...

Pests

Main article: List of cacao diseases

Various plant pests and diseases can cause serious problems for cacao production. This article is a list of diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao). ...

Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Binomial name (Cif. ... Crinipellis perniciosa mushroom Crinipellis perniciosa is a fungus that causes Witches Broom Disease (WBD), which damages cocoa production in the Americas, and is consequently a major bane for makers of chocolate products. ... A Witches broom (or Witch broom) is a minor deformity in a plant or tree where the natural structure of the plant is changed. ... Binomial name Ellis & Halst. ... Binomial name Kleb. ... Binomial name P.H.B. Talbot & Keane, (1971) Synonyms Thanatephorus theobromae (P.H.B. Talbot & Keane) P. Roberts, (1999) Oncobasidium theobromae is a plant pathogen. ... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Bolidophyceae Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes containing about 10,500... Species Phytophthora arecae Phytophthora botryosa Phytoohthora cactorum Phytophthora cajani Phytophthora cambivora Phytophthora capsici Phytophthora cinnamomi Phytophthora citricola Phytophthora citrophthora Phytophthora clandestina Phytophthora colocasiae Phytophthora cryptogea Phytophthora drechslera Phytophthora erythroseptica Phytophthora fragariae Phytophthora gonapodyides Phytophthora heveae Phytophthora humicola Phytophthora idaei Phytophthora ilicis Phytophthora infestans Phytophthora inflata Phytophthora iranica Phytophthora katsurae Phytophthora... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Synonyms theobroma virus 1 cacao swollen shoot virus cacao mottle leaf virus Cacao swollen-shoot virus (CSSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Caulimoviridae. ...

Notes

  1. ^ J. Bergmann (1969).
  2. ^ S. Coe (1994).
  3. ^ http://www.xocoatl.org/variety.htm All about Chocolate -- Varieties

References

  • Coe, Sophie D. (1994). America's First Cuisines. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71155-7. 
  • Coe, Sophie D.; and Michael D. Coe (1996). The True History of Chocolate. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01693-3. 
  • Dienhart, John M. (1997). The Mayan Languages- A Comparative Vocabulary (electronic version (PDF)). Odense University. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  • McNeil, Cameron (editor) (2006). Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. ISBN 0-8130-2953-8. 
  • Bergmann, John (1969). "The Distribution of Cacao Cultivation in Pre-Columbian America". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 59: 85-96. 
  • Motamayor, J. C. et. al. (2002). "Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas". Heredity 89: 380-386. 

I dont know anything! ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Odense University, now Syddansk Universitet Odense or SDU Odense in abbreviated form, is part of the University of Southern Denmark since 1998. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Theobroma cacao (2360 words)
Cacao seeds are the source of commercial cocoa, chocolate, and cocoa butter.
Reported to be antiseptic, diuretic, ecbolic, emmenagogue, and parasiticide, cacao is a folk remedy for alopecia, burns, cough, dry lips, eyes, fever, listlessness, malaria, nephrosis, parturition, pregnancy, rheumatism, snakebite, and wounds (Duke and Wain, 1981).
Cacao is of ten intercropped with other trees of economic value, as bananas, rubber, oil palm, or coconut.
Cacao (735 words)
Cacao, a small evergreen tree native to the lower eastern slope of the Andes in South America, is the source of cocoa and chocolate.
Cacao grows in partial shade at very low elevations between 20 degrees north and south latitude, where the average temperature is 25.5 degrees C (this species tolerates 15 to 35 degrees C), and the plants receive one to more than three meters of annual precipitation.
Cacao was cultivated eventually in western Africa, and in 1878-79 introduced on the mainland by free Portuguese laborers.
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