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Encyclopedia > Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon grapes
Species: Vitis Vinifera
Also called: Bouchet, Bouche, Petit-Bouchet, Petit-Cabernet, Petit-Vidure, Vidure and Sauvignon Rouge
Origin: Bordeaux-from a crossing of Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc that most likely occurred in the 17th century
Notable regions: All over the world-notably Bordeaux, Tuscany, Napa Valley, Sonoma County, Australia
Notable wines: Classified Bordeaux estates, Californian cult wines.
Hazards: Under ripeness, Powdery mildew, eutypella scoparia and excoriose

Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized first through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is often blended with Merlot and Cabernet franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to the New World where it found new homes in places like California's Napa Valley, Australia's Coonawarra region and Chile's Maipo Valley. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s.[1] Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. ... This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted. ... Napa Valley is widely considered one of the top wine regions in California, and all of the United States with a history dating back to the nineteenth century. ... For the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for Frances best Bordeaux wines which were to be on display for visitors from around the world. ... Cult wines are those for which dedicated groups of committed enthusiasts will pay large sums of money. ... Powdery mildew Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... The following is a list of wine-producing countries and their volume of wine production for the year 2005 in metric tonnes. ... The regional districts that comprise the Okanagan are shown in red. ... Beqaa Valley Beqaa (Arabic: البقاع, valley; also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ‘ or Becaa) is a fertile valley in east Lebanon. ... Bordeaux with sub-wine regions A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... New World wines are those wines produced outside the traditional wine-growing areas of Europe and North Africa. ... California wine has a long and continuing history, and in recent decades has become recognized producing some of the worlds finest wine, matching the produce of the classic winemaking regions of France and, in some wine competitions, such as the historic Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, surpassing it. ... Napa Valley is widely considered one of the top wine regions in California, and all of the United States with a history dating back to the nineteenth century. ... For other uses, see Coonawarra (disambiguation). ...


Despite its prominence in the world of wine, the grape is a relatively new variety being the product of a chance crossing between Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc sometime during the 17th century in southwestern France. Its popularity is often attributed to the ease of cultivating, with the grape's thick skins and hardy vines being resistant to rot and frost, as well as the grape's consistency in presenting structure and flavors expressing the typical character ("typicity") of the variety. Familiarity and ease of pronunciation have aided Cabernet Sauvignon wines to be good sellers among consumers, even when from unfamiliar wine regions. Its widespread popularity has also contributed to criticism of the grape as a "colonizer" that takes over wine regions at the expense of native grape varieties.[2] Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... French typcite, Italian tipicita A term in wine tasting used to describe the degree that a wine reflects it varietal origins, demonstrating the signature characteristics of the grape from which it was produced-i. ...

Contents

History and origins

Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc

For many years, the origins of Cabernet Sauvignon were not clearly understood with many myths and conjunctures surrounding it. The origins of the word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derivative of the French sauvage meaning "wild" and refer to the grape being a wild Vitis vinifera vine native to France. Until recently the grape was rumored to have ancient origins, perhaps even being the Biturica grape used to make ancient Roman wine and referenced by Pliny the Elder. This belief was widely held in the 18th century, when the grape was also known as Petite Vidure or Bidure, apparently a corruption of Biturica. There was also belief that Vidure was a reference to the hard wood (French vigne dure) of the vine, with a possible relationship to Carménère which was once known as Grand Vidure.[2] Other theories included the possibility that the grapevine originated in the Rioja region of Spain.[3] Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Carménère grape is a wine grape variety originally planted in the Médoc region of Bordeaux, France, where it was used to produce deep red wines and occasionally used for blending purposes in the same manner as Petit Verdot. ... La Rioja is a province and autonomous community of northern Spain. ...


While the exact time period when the name Cabernet Sauvignon became more prevalent over Petite Vidure is not known, records indicate that the grape was a popular Bordeaux planting in the 18th century Médoc region. The first estates known to have actively grown the variety (and the likely source of Cabernet vines for other estates) were Château Mouton and Château d'Armailhac in the Pauillac.[2] The Médoc is one of the most famous of the French wine-growing regions, consisting of the region in the département of Gironde, on the left bank of the Gironde estuary, north of Bordeaux. ... Pauillac is a small village and port on the Gironde estuary, famed for producing some of the finest and longest-lasting red wine in the world. ...


The grape's true origins were discovered in the late 1990s with the use of DNA typing at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology, by a team lead by Dr. Carole Meredith. The DNA evidence determined that Cabernet Sauvignon was the offspring of Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc and was most likely a chance crossing that occurred sometime in the 17th century. Prior to this discovery, this possible origin had been suspected, from the similarity of the grapes' names as well as the fact that Cabernet Sauvignon shares similar aromas with both grapes--such as the black currant and pencil box aromas of Cabernet franc and the grassiness of Sauvignon blanc.[2] The University of California at Davis geneticist who pionered the use of DNA typing to differentiate between vinifera grape varities. ... Binomial name Ribes nigrum L. The blackcurrant is a temperate shrub which produces small edible berries with a high natural vitamin C content, which are very dark purple/blue in colour—almost black—hence the name. ... Pencil Box was a childrens television programme broadcast by CBC from 1976 to 1979. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ...

Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc

Offspring and White Cabernet

While not as prolific in mutating as Pinot noir or as widely used in production of offspring, Cabernet Sauvignon has been linked to other grape varieties. In 1961, a cross of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache produced the French wine grape Marselan.[4] In 1977 a vine producing 'bronze' grapes was found in the vineyards of Cleggett Wines in Australia. They propagated this mutant, registered it under the name of Malian and have sold pale red wines under that name. In 1991 one of the Bronze Cabernet vines started producing white grapes. Cleggett registered this "White Cabernet" under the name of Shalistin.[5] Compared to its Cabernet parent, Malian appears to lack anthocyanins in the subepidermal cells but retains them in the epidermis, whereas Shalistin has no anthocyanins in either layer. The team that went on to discover the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes that control grape colour have suggested that a gene involved in anthocyanin production has been deleted in the subepidermis of Malian, and then subepidermal cells invaded the epidermis to produce Shalistin.[6] It is not unusual to have these kinds of 'gris' ("gray") and 'blanc' mutants of 'black' grapes: the Pinot and Grenache families are examples, although the 'Malian' deletion is bigger than the mutation found in Pinot blanc. For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... // Grenache (pronounced gren-ash) (in Spanish, Garnacha) is probably the most widely planted variety of red wine grape in the world. ... Marselan is a French wine grape that is a cross between Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Cross-section of a flax plant stem: 1. ... Pinot Blanc is a white wine grape. ...


Viticulture

Cabernet Sauvignon leaf. In cooler climate conditions, vines will focus more energy in producing foliage, which is needed to capture sunlight for photosynthesis, rather than ripening grapes. This makes canopy management and aggressive pruning an important consideration for growers.[1]

While Cabernet Sauvignon has the potential to grow in a variety of climates, its suitability as a varietal wine or as a blend component is strongly influenced by the warmth of the climate. The vine is one of the last major grape varieties to bud and ripen (typically 1-2 weeks after Merlot and Cabernet franc[1]) and the growing-season climate plays a factor in how early the grapes will be harvested. Many wine regions in California give the vine access to an abundance of sunshine with few problems in ripening fully, which increases the likelihood of producing varietal Cabernet wines. In regions like Bordeaux, under the threat of incremental harvest season weather, Cabernet Sauvignon is often harvested a little earlier than ideal and is thusly blended with other grapes to fill in the gaps. As global warming has increased the number of warm vintage years, the possibility of creating varietal Cabernet in Bordeaux is often present, making the decision to blend more of an ideological and tradition-based decision. In some regions, the consideration of climate will be more important than soil. In regions that are too cool, there is a potential for more herbaceous and green bell pepper flavors from less than ideally ripened grapes. In regions where the grape is exposed to excess warmth and over-ripening, there is a propensity for the wine to develop flavors of cooked or stewed black currants.[2] assimilation. ... Varietal describes wines made from a single named grape variety. ... Flower buds have not yet bloomed into a full-size flower. ... Medieval grape harvesting. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ...


The Cabernet grape variety has thrived in a variety of vineyard soil types, making the consideration of soil less of concern particularly for New World winemakers. In Bordeaux, the soil aspect of aspect of terroir was historically an important consideration in determining which of the major Bordeaux grape varieties where planted. While Merlot seemed to thrive in clay and limestone based soils (such as those of the Right Bank regions of the Gironde estuary), Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to perform better in the gravel based soil of the Médoc region on the Left Bank. The gravel soils offered the benefit of being well drained while absorbing and radiating heat to the vines, aiding ripening. Clay and limestone based soils are often cooler, allowing less heat to reach the vines, delaying ripening. In regions where the climate is warmer, there is more emphasis on soil that is less fertile, which promotes less vigor in the vine which can keep yields low.[2] In the Napa Valley wine regions of Oakville and Rutherford, the soil is more alluvial and dusty. Rutherford Cabernet Sauvignon has been often quoted as giving a sense of terroir with a taste of "Rutherford dust".[7] In the South Australian wine region of Coonawarra, Cabernet Sauvignon has produced vastly different results from grapes vines planted in the region's terra rosa soil-so much so that the red soil is considered the "boundary" of the wine region, with some controversy from wine growers with Cabernet Sauvignon planted on red soil.[8] Terroir was originally a French term in wine and coffee appreciation used to denote the special characteristics of geography that bestowed individuality upon the food product. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Gironde is a navigable estuary, but often referred to as a river, in southwest France. ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... South Australia The South Australian wine industry is responsible for more than half the production of all Australian wine. ... For other uses, see Coonawarra (disambiguation). ...


In addition to ripeness levels, the harvest yields can also have a strong influence in the resulting quality and flavors of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The vine itself is prone to vigorous yields, particularly when planted on the vigorous SO4 rootstock. Excessive yields can result in less concentrated and flavorful wine with flavors more on the green or herbaceous side. In the 1970s, a particular clone of Cabernet Sauvignon that was engineered to be virus free was noted for its very high yields-causing many quality conscious producers to replant their vineyards in the late 20th century with different clonal varieties. To reduce yields, producers can plant the vines on less vigorous rootstock and also practice green harvesting with aggressive pruning of grape clusters soon after veraison.[2] Grafting is a method of plant propagation by which one woody plant is mechanically attached to another so that the two eventually fuse together. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... A green harvest is the removal of immature grape bunches, typically for the purpose of decreasing yield. ... In microeconomics, pruning taken as a metaphor from gardening, refers to the removal of excess items from a budget. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


In general, Cabernet Sauvignon has good resistance to most grape diseases, powdery mildew being the most noted exception. It is, however, susceptible to the vine diseases Eutypella scoparia and excoriose.[1] Powdery mildew Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants. ...


The "green bell pepper" flavor

There are a couple of noted Cabernet Sauvignon flavors that are intimately tied to viticultural and climate influences. The most widely recognized is the herbaceous or green bell pepper flavor caused by pyrazines, which are more prevalent in under-ripened grapes. Pyrazine compounds are present in all Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and are gradually destroyed by sunlight as the grape continues to ripen. To the human palate this compound is detectable in wines with pyrazine levels as low as 2 nanograms (ng) per liter. At the time of veraison, when the grapes first start to fully ripen, there is the equivalent pyrazine level of 30 ng/l. In cooler climates, it is difficult to get Cabernet Sauvignon grapes to ripen fully to the point where pyrazine is not detected. The green bell flavor is not considered a wine fault but it may not be desirable to all consumers' tastes. The California wine region of Monterey was noted in the late 20th century for its very vegetal Cabernet Sauvignon with pronounced green pepper flavor, earning the nickname of "Monterey veggies". In addition to its cool climate, Monterey is also prone to being very windy, which can have the effect of shutting down the grape vines and further inhibiting ripeness.[2] wine grapes Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. ... Pyrazine is a symmetrical molecule. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. ... The nanogram is an SI unit of mass (symbol ng) defined as: 1 ng = 1 × 10-12 kilogram (1 × 10-9 gram) A nanogram is one billionth (1/1,000,000,000) of a gram. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... A wine fault or defect is an unpleasant characteristic of a wine often resulting from poor wine making practices or storage conditions, and leading to wine spoilage. ...


Two other well known Cabernet Sauvignon flavors are mint and eucalyptus. Mint flavors are often associated with wine regions that are warm enough to have low pyrazine levels but are still generally cool, such as Australia's Coonawarra region and some areas of Washington State. There is some belief that soil could also be a contributor to the minty notes, since the flavor also appears in some wines from the Pauillac region but not from similar climate of Margaux. Resinous Eucalyptus flavors tend to appear in regions that are habitats for the eucalyptus tree, such as California's Napa and Sonoma valleys and parts of Australia, but there has been no evidence to conclusively prove a direct link between proximity of eucalyptus trees and the presence of that flavor in the wine.[2] “Mint” redirects here. ... This article is about the plant genus. ... Washington wine has a long and continuing history. ... Margaux is a village and commune in the Gironde département of south-west France, that produces red wine. ... The Sonoma Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within the Sonoma County AVA and centered around the Sonoma Valley (also known as The Valley of the Moon). ...


Winemaking

During the maceration period, color, flavor and tannins are extracted from the skins. The addition of stems and seeds will increase the tannic content of the wine.
During the maceration period, color, flavor and tannins are extracted from the skins. The addition of stems and seeds will increase the tannic content of the wine.

In many aspects, Cabernet Sauvignon can reflect the desires and personality of the winemaker while still presenting familiar flavors that express the typical character of the variety. The most pronounced effects are from the use of oak during production. Typically the first winemaking decision is whether or not to produce a varietal or blended wine. The "Bordeaux blend" of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet franc, with potentially some Malbec, Petit Verdot or Carménère, is the classic example of blended Cabernet Sauvignon, emulated in the United States with wines produced under the "Meritage" designation. But Cabernet Sauvignon can be blended with a variety of grapes such as Shiraz, Tempranillo and Sangiovese.[2] The decision to blend is then followed by the decision of when to do the blending— before, during or after fermentation. Due to the different fermentation styles of the grapes, many producers will ferment and age each grape variety separately and blend the wine shortly before bottling.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 248 pixelsFull resolution (1202 × 372 pixels, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 248 pixelsFull resolution (1202 × 372 pixels, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Cabernet Sauvignon must interacting with the skins during fermentation to add color, tannins and flavor to the wine. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Malbec is a black, mellow grape variety originally grown in France, in the Loire Valley and Cahors. ... Petit verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally in classic Bordeaux blends. ... Meritage is a word used to distinguish wines that are made in the style of Bordeaux but without infringing on that regions legally protected appellation. ... Shiraz grapes have a characteristically deep purple color that is reflected in their wine. ... Tempranillo is a variety of vitis vinifera, the red grape used commonly in winemaking. ... // Sangiovese is a red wine grape variety originating in Italy whose name derives from sanguis Jovis, the blood of Jove. It is most famous as the main component of the Chianti blend in Tuscany, but winemakers outside Italy are starting to experiment with it. ... Fermenting must. ...


The Cabernet Sauvignon grape itself is very small, with a thick skin, creating a high 1:12 ratio of seed (pip) to fruit (pulp).[10] From these elements the high proportions of phenols and tannins can have a stark influence on the structure and flavor of the wine— especially if the must is subjected to long periods of maceration (skin contact) before fermentation. In Bordeaux, the maceration period was traditionally three weeks, which gave the winemaking staff enough time to close down the estate after harvest to take a hunting holiday. The results of these long maceration periods are very tannic and flavorful wines that require years of aging. Wine producers that wish to make a wine more approachable within a couple of years will drastically reduce the maceration time to as a little as a few days. Following maceration, the Cabernet must can be fermented at high temperatures up to 30 (86°F). The temperature of fermentation will play a role in the result, with deeper colors and more flavor components being extracted at higher temperatures while more fruit flavors are maintained at lower temperature. In Australia there has been experimentation with carbonic maceration to make softer, fruity Cabernet Sauvignon wines.[2] A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... For must meaning compulsion, see wikt:must. ... Cabernet Sauvignon must interacting with the skins during fermentation to add color, tannins and flavor to the wine. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In winemaking, the process often used in Beaujolais, in which whole grapes are fermented without crushing. ...


The tannic nature of Cabernet Sauvignon is an important winemaking consideration. As the must is exposed to prolonged periods of maceration, more tannins are extracted from the skin and will be present in the resulting wine. If winemakers choose not to shorten the period of maceration, in favor of maximizing color and flavor concentrations, there are some methods that they can use to soften tannin levels. A common methods is oak aging, which exposes the wine to gradual levels of oxidation that can mellow the harsh grape tannins as well as introduce softer "wood tannins". The choice of fining agents can also reduce tannins with gelatin and egg whites being positively-charged proteins that are naturally attracted to the negatively-charged tannin molecules. These fining agents will bond with some of the tannins and be removed from the wine during filtration. One additional method is micro-oxygenation which mimics some of the gradual aeration that occurs with barrel aging, with the limited exposure to oxygen aiding in the polymerization of the tannins into larger molecules, which are perceived on the palate as being softer.[3] The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Finings (the term is a mass noun rather than a plural) is a substance used to aid the clearing of beer, particularly cask ale. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... Albumen redirects here. ... This box:      Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about operation of solid-fluid separation. ... Microoxygenation is a process increasingly used in winemaking to smooth out wine and make it more palatable or more marketable (or both). ... Aeration is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid (usually water) or substance (such as soil). ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. ...


Affinity for oak

Large oak barrels, like these used in Tuscany bring less wine in contact with the wood and therefore leave the resulting wine with less oak influence.

One of the most noted traits of Cabernet Sauvignon is its affinity for oak, either during fermentation or in barrel aging. In addition to having a softening effect on the grape's naturally high tannins, the unique wood flavors of vanilla and spice complement the natural grape flavors of black currant and tobacco. The particular success of Cabernet-based Bordeaux blends in the 225 liter (59 gallon) barrique were a significant influence in making that barrel size one of the most popular worldwide. In winemaking, the decision for the degree of oak influence (as well as which type of oak) will have a strong impact on the resulting wine. American oak, particularly from new barrels, will impart stronger oak flavors that are less subtle than those imparted by French oak. Even within the American oak family, the location of the oak source will also play a role with oak from the state of Oregon having more pronounced influence on Cabernet Sauvignon than oak from Missouri, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Winemakers will often use a variety of oak barrels from different locations and of different ages and blend the wine as if they were blending different grape varieties.[2] Whiskey barrels at the Jack Daniels distillery Barrels for aging wine in Napa Valley An aging barrel is a barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Winemakers can also control the influence of oak by using alternatives to the standard barrique barrels. Larger barrels will have a smaller wine-to-wood ratio and therefore less pronounced oak flavors. Winemakers in Italy and Portugal will sometimes use barrels made from other wood types such as chestnut and redwood. Another method that winemakers will consider tea bagging with oak chips or adding oak planks to the wines while fermenting or aging it in stainless steel tanks. While these methods are less costly than oak barrels, they create more pronounced oak flavors, which tend not to mellow or integrate with the rest of the wine's components; nor do they provide the gradual oxidation benefit of barrel aging.[3] Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... Redwood generally refers to one of several species of tree with red or reddish colored wood: Family Cupressaceae (conifers) Sequoia sempervirens - Coast Redwood Sequoiadendron giganteum - Giant Sequoia or Sierra Redwood Metasequoia glyptostroboides - Dawn Redwood Cryptomeria japonica - Sugi Family Pinaceae (conifers) The wood of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) is sometimes called... Oak chips can be used in the brewing process of beer, wine, cider and mead. ...


Wine regions

Bordeaux

Armand d'Armailhacq of Château d'Armailhacq (bottle picture) and Baron Hector de Brane of Château Mouton were important figures in the establishment of Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux.
Armand d'Armailhacq of Château d'Armailhacq (bottle picture) and Baron Hector de Brane of Château Mouton were important figures in the establishment of Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux.

The Bordeaux wine region is intimately connected with Cabernet Sauvignon, even though wine is rarely made without the blended component of other grape varieties. It is the likely "birthplace" of the vine, and producers across the globe have invested heavily in trying to reproduce the structure and complexity of Bordeaux wines. While the "Bordeaux blend" of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot created the earliest examples of acclaimed Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Cabernet Sauvignon was first blended in Bordeaux with Syrah, a pairing that is widely seen in Australia and some vin de pays wines from the Languedoc. The decision to first start blending Cabernet Sauvignon was partly derived from financial necessity. The sometime temperamental and unpredictable climate of Bordeaux during the "Little Ice Age" did not guarantee a successful harvest every year; producers had to insure themselves against the risk of losing an entire vintage by planting a variety of grapes. Over time it was discovered that the unique characteristics of each grape variety can complement each other and enhance the overall quality of wine. As a base, or backbone of the wine, Cabernet Sauvignon added structure, acidity, tannins and aging potential. By itself, particularly when harvested at less than ideal ripeness, its can lack a sense of fruit or "fleshiness" on the palate which can be compensated from by adding the rounder flavors of Merlot. Cabernet franc can add additional aromas to the bouquet as well as more fruitiness. In the lighter soils of the Margaux region, Cabernet-based wines can lack color, which can be achieved by blending in Petit Verdot. Malbec, used today mostly in Fronsac, can add additional fruit and floral aromas.[2] Shiraz is one name, equivalent to Syrah, for a noble grape variety widely used to make dry red table wine. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ...


DNA evidence has shown Cabernet Sauvignon is the result of the crossing of two other Bordeaux grape varieties— Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc— which has led grapevine historians, or ampelographers, to believe that the grape originated in Bordeaux. Early records indicate that the grape was a popular planting in the Médoc region during the 18th century. The loose berry clusters and thick skins of the grape provided a good resistance to rot in the sometimes wet maritime climate of Bordeaux. The grape continued to grow in popularity till the oidium epidemic of 1852 exposed Cabernet Sauvignon's sensitivity to that grape disease. With vineyards severely ravaged or lost, many Bordeaux wine growers turned to Merlot, increasing its plantings to where it soon became the most widely-planted grape in Bordeaux. As the region's winemakers started to better understand the area's terroir and how the different grape varieties performed in different region, Cabernet Sauvignon increased in plantings all along the Left Bank region of the Gironde river in the Médoc as well as Graves region, where it became the dominant variety in the wine blends. In the Right bank regions of Saint-Émilion and Pomerol, Cabernet is a distant third in plantings behind Merlot & Cabernet franc.[2] Ampelography (Αμπελος, vine + γραφος, writing) is the field of botany concerned with the identification and classification of grapevines, Vitis spp. ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ... This article is about a type of fungal spore. ... This article is about the wine region of Bordeaux. ... Saint Emilion Saint-Émilion is a small town near Bordeaux, France that is famous for the eponymous wine region that surrounds it. ... Pomerol is a village and wine growing region (AOC) in France. ...

Today Cabernet Sauvignon dominates the blend of estates in the Haut-Médoc on the Left Bank.
Today Cabernet Sauvignon dominates the blend of estates in the Haut-Médoc on the Left Bank.

In the wine regions of the Left Bank, the Cabernet influence of the wine has shown unique characteristics in the different regions.


In Saint-Estèphe and Pessac-Léognan, the grape develops more mineral flavors. Aromas or violets are a characteristic of Margaux. Pauillac is noted by a strong lead pencil scent and Saint-Julien by cedar and cigar boxes. The Cabernet wines of the Moulis are characterized by their soft tannins and rich fruit flavors while the southern Graves region is characterized by strong black currant flavors, though in less intense wines over all.[2] The percentage of Cabernet Sauvignon used in the blend will depend on terroir and the winemakers styles as well as the vintage. The First Growth estates of Château Mouton Rothschild and Château Latour are noted for regularly producing wines with some of the highest percentage of Cabernet— often around 75%.[1] Saint-Estèphe is a village and commune on the left bank of the Garonne estuary in the Gironde département of south-west France, famed for its production of red wine. ... Pessac-Léognan is one of the most important of the French wine appellations, and consists of many of the finest of the vineyards of the Bordeaux region. ... St-Julien is a village on the left bank of the Garonne estuary in the Gironde département of south-west France, famed for its production of red wine. ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... Cigar boxes are a kind of popular juggling prop, popularised by W C Fields, which can be used for various tricks, including high-speed box exchanging midair, balancing tricks, and more. ... Moulis is a village a few kilometres inland from the Garonne estuary in the Gironde département of south-west France, famed for its production of red wine. ... First Growth (French Premier Cru) status refers to the greatest wines of the Bordeaux region. ... Château Latour label Tower at Château Latour In most appraisals of the wine-growing world, the five First Growth Châteaux of the famous 1855 Bordeaux Classification are placed among the very best in the world. ...


A common factor affecting the flavors of Bordeaux wines is the harvest yields of Cabernet Sauvignon. Throughout Bordeaux there is a legal maximum permitted yield of 50 hectoliters (hl) per hectare (ha). With the aid of global warming and vigorous rootstocks, many Bordeaux vineyards can easily surpass 60 hl/ha, with some estates taking advantage of the legal loophole of plafond limite de classement ("ceiling limit classification") that permits higher yields during "exceptional" years. This has had an adverse affect on the quality of production from some producers who regularly use grapes harvested at excessive yields. In recent years there has been more of an emphasis on keeping yields low, particularly for an estates Grand vin.[2] Category: ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ...


Other French regions

The Bordeaux wine region accounts for more than 60% of the Cabernet Sauvignon grown in France. Outside of Bordeaux, Cabernet Sauvignon is found in varying quantities throughout Le Midi and in the Loire Valley. In general, Cabernet Sauvignon wines are lighter and less structured, drinkable much earlier than Bordeaux wine. In the southwest French appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOCs) of Bergerac and Buzet it is used to make rosé wine. In some regions it is used to add flavor and structure to Carignan while it is blended with Négrette in Gaillac and Fronton as well as Tannat in Madiran. In Provence, the grape had some presence in the region in the mid 19th century, when viticulturist Jules Guyot recommended it as a blending partner with Syrah. In recent years, several Midi wine estates, such as Mas de Daumas Gassac have received international acclaim for their Cabernet Sauvignon blended in Hérault, with Rhône grapes like Syrah. It is often made as a single varietal in the vin de pays of the Languedoc. The influence of Australian flying winemakers has been considerable in how Cabernet Sauvignon is treated by some Languedoc wine estates, with some producers making wines that can seem like they are from the New World. Overall, the grape has not exerted it dominance of the region, generally considered less ideally situated to the dry climate than Syrah. The Languedoc producers who give serious consideration to Cabernet Sauvignon, generally rely on irrigation to compensate for the climate.[1] Le Midi is a colloquial name for southern France. ... The Loire Valley wine region includes the French wine regions situated along the Loire River from the Muscadet region near the city of Nantes on the Atlantic coast to the region of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé just southeast of the city of Orléans in north central France. ... Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as term of controlled origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ... For the song by The Feeling, see Rosé (song). ... Carignan (in French; Spanish Cariñena, Italian Carignano, Spanish variety of grape that originated in Cariñena, Aragon and was later transplanted to Italy, Algeria, and much of the New World. ... Négrette is a red wine grape grown primarily in southwestern France in the region between Albi and Toulouse. ... Tannat grapes before ripening Tannat vines in August Tannat is a red wine grape, predominantly grown in southern France. ... Madiran is a small region in the Hautes-Pyrénées department of southwestern France. ... Jules Guyot (1807 - March 31, 1872) was a French physician and agronomist who was born in the commune of Gyé-sur-Seine in the department of Aube. ... For other uses, see Hérault (disambiguation). ... The Rhône wine region is first divided into north and south. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


Italy

In the 1970s, Italian winemakers started to blend Cabernet Sauvignon with Sangiovese (pictured) to create wines known as "Super Tuscans".
In the 1970s, Italian winemakers started to blend Cabernet Sauvignon with Sangiovese (pictured) to create wines known as "Super Tuscans".

Cabernet Sauvignon has a long history in Italian wines, being first introduced to the Piedmont region in 1820. In the mid-1970s, the grape earned notoriety and controversy as a component in the so-called "Super Tuscan" wines of Tuscany. Today the grape is permitted in several Denominazioni di origine controllata (DOCs) and is used in many Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) wines that are made outside DOC perimeters in certain regions. For most of its history the grape has been viewed with suspicion as a "foreign influence" that distracts from the native grape varieties. After decades of experimentation, the general view of Cabernet Sauvignon has improved as more winemakers find ways to compliment their native grape varieties with Cabernet as a blending component.[2] Italian wines are those produced in Italy, the oldest wine producing region, and are considered to be among the most prestigious wines in the world. ... Super Tuscan describes any Tuscan red wine that does not adhere to traditional blending laws and usually implies a richer more full-bodied wine than the more typical Chianti Classico or Brunello di Montalcino. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Indicazione Geografica Tipica is the second of four classifications of wine recognized by the government of Italy. ...


In Piedmont, the grape was sometimes used as an "illegal" blending partner with Nebbiolo for DOC classified Barolo with the intention of adding color and more fruit flavors. In the DOCs of Langhe and Monferrato, Cabernet is a permitted blending grape with Nebbiolo as well as Barbera. Wines that are composed of all three grape varieties are often subjected to consider oak treatment to add a sense of sweet spiciness to compensate for the high tannins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Nebbiolo as well as the high acidity of Barbera. There are varietal styles of Cabernet Sauvignon produce in Piedmont with qualities varying depending on the location. In other regions of northern Italy, such as Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, the grape is often blended with Merlot to produce Bordeaux style blends. In the Veneto region, Cabernet Sauvignon is sometimes blended with the main grapes of Valpolicella-Corvina, Molinara and Rondinella. In southern Italy, the grape is mostly used as a blending component with local varieties-such as Carignan in Sardinia, Nero d'Avola in Sicily, Aglianico in Campania and Gaglioppo in Calabria.[2] Nebbiolo is the most important wine grape variety of Italys Piedmont region. ... Castle and Village of Barolo. ... The Langhe is the an hilly area in southern Piedmont, Italy. ... Montferrat (in Italian, Monferrato) is part of the province of Asti in Italy. ... Barbera is a wine grape variety from Monferrato in Piemonte, Italy. ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Valpolicella is a zone of the province of Verona, Italy, east of Lake Garda. ... Corvina is a wine grape variety used to make red wines that is sometimes also referred to as Corvina Veronese or Cruina. ... Rondinella is a red wine grape mainly grown in the Veneto region of Italy and used in blends such as Valpolicella and Bardolino. It is the main grape used for these blends is the Corvina. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... A red grape variety from the island of Sicily, with potential to make wines of rather high quality and ageability. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Aglianico is a red wine grape grown in the Campania and Basilicata regions of Italy. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ...


Cabernet Sauvignon has had a controversial history in Tuscan wine, particularly for its role in the arrivals of "Super Tuscan" in the mid 1970s. The origin of Super Tuscans is rooted in the restrictive DOC practices of the Chianti zone prior to the 1990s. During this time Chianti could be composed of no more than 70% Sangiovese and had to include at least 10% of one of the local white wine grapes. Many Tuscan wine producers thought they could produce a better quality wine if they were not hindered by the DOC regulations, particularly if they had the freedom to use Cabernet Sauvignon in the blend and not require to use white grape varieties. The marchese Piero Antinori was one of the first to create a "Chianti-style" wine that ignored the DOC regulations, releasing a 1971 Sangiovese-Cabernet Sauvignon blend known as Tignanello in 1978. Other producers followed suit and soon the prices for these Super Tuscans were consistently beating the prices of some of most well known Chianti.[11] Other Tuscan wine region followed suit, blending Cabernet Sauvignon with Sangiovese and even making varietal versions of the grape. Gradually the DOC system caught on and began allowing more regions to use the grape in their DOC designated wines. Cabernet Sauvignon in Tuscany is characterized by ripe black cherry flavors that can give a perception of sweetness as well as strong notes of black currant. The wines typically reach an alcohol level around 14% but can still maintain notable levels of acidity. When blended with Sangiovese in significant quantities, Cabernet Sauvignon can dominant the blend with most Tuscan producers aiming to find a particular balance that suits their desired style.[2] Valdelsa (part of Chianti Colli Fiorentini sub-area). ... // Sangiovese is a red wine grape variety originating in Italy whose name derives from sanguis Jovis, the blood of Jove. It is most famous as the main component of the Chianti blend in Tuscany, but winemakers outside Italy are starting to experiment with it. ... Binomial name Prunus serotina Ehrh. ...


Other Old World producers

In Spain, Cabernet Sauvignon is often blended with Tempranillo.(pictured)

The introduction of Cabernet Sauvignon in Spanish wine occurred in the Rioja region when the Marqués de Riscal planted cuttings from Bordeaux. By 2004, it was the sixth most widely planted red wine grape in Spain.[1] Today it is found in some quantities in every Spanish wine region, though it is not permitted in every Denominación de Origen (DO) designated region. In those areas, wines with Cabernet Sauvignon are relegated to less distinguished designations such as Vino de la Tierra or Vino de Mesa.[2] The grape is most prominent in the Catalan wine region of Penedès, where its use was revived by the estates of Bodegas Torres and Jean León. There the grape is often blended with Tempranillo. It is also primarily a blending grape in the Ribera del Duero, but producers in Navarra have found some international acclaim for their varietal wines.[3] The Spanish red wine grape Tintilla Spain is the third largest producer of wine in the world, the largest being France and the second Italy [1]. Historically, Spain has been known from the production of fortified wines and the best known Spanish wine is considered by some to be the... Rioja Wine Rioja is a wine from a region named after the Rio Oja in Spain, a tributary of the Ebro. ... Plant cuttings are a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. ... Denominación de Origen (Designation of Origin - DO) is part of a regulatory classification system primarily for Spanish wines (similar to the French appellations) but also for other foodstuffs like honey, meats and condiments. ... Catalonia Catalan wine is wine made in the Spanish wine region of Catalonia. ... The Penedès wine-making region of Catalonia in Northeast Spain lies to the south-west of the city of Barcelona. ... Official seal of the Ribera del Duero Denominación de Origen (DO) Ribera del Duero is a Spanish wine-making region on the countrys northern plateau and is one of five wine regions within the autonomous community of Castile and León. ...


In the United Kingdom, English wine producers have experimented with growing the variety in plastic tunnels which can create a greenhouse effect and protect the grapes from the less than ideal climate of the wine region. While the grape is permitted to be planted in some German wine region (such as the Mosel, the vineyard sites best suited for ripening Cabernet are generally already occupied with Riesling; many producers are ill-inclined to uproot the popular German variety in favor of Cabernet Sauvignon. In the 1980s, inexpensive Bulgarian Cabernet Sauvignon was highly touted for its value and helped to establish that country's wine industry and garner it more international presence in the wine market. The grape is performing a similar function for many countries in Eastern Europe, including Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, and Ukraine. It can be in the eastern Mediterranean wine regions of Cyprus, Greece, Israel and Lebanon.[2] In Russia there is the similarly named, but otherwise unrelated hybrid grape, Cabernet Severny that has begun to supplant Cabernet Sauvignon plantings due to its more consistent performance in that region's cooler climate.[1] The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... German wine from Franken in the characteristic round bottles (Bocksbeutel) German wine is produced in many parts of Germany, and due to the northerly location have produced wines quite unlike any others in Europe, many of outstanding quality. ... Riesling is a white grape variety and varietal appellation of wines grown historically in Germany (see German wine), Alsace (France), Austria, and northern Italy. ... Wine producing regions in Bulgaria:  Danubian Plain  Black Sea  Rose Valley  Thracian Lowland  Struma River Valley  not an established region Wine cellar in Melnik Vine growing and wine production have a long history in Bulgaria, dating back to the times of the Thracians. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


California

A bottle of Stag's Leap Cask 23 Californian Cabernet Sauvignon.
A bottle of Stag's Leap Cask 23 Californian Cabernet Sauvignon.

In California, Cabernet Sauvignon has developed its characteristic style and reputation, recognizable in the world's market. Production and plantings of the grape in California are similar in quantity to those of Bordeaux.[1] The 1976 Judgment of Paris wine tasting event help to catapult Californian Cabernet Sauvignons onto the international stage when Stag's Leap Wine Cellars' 1973 Stags Leap District Cabernet Sauvignon beat out classified Bordeaux estates like Château Mouton Rothschild, Château Montrose, Château Haut-Brion and Château Léoville-Las Cases in a blind tasting conducted by French wine experts.[3] In the 1980s, a new epidemic of phylloxera hit California, devastating many vineyards, which needed replanting. There was some speculation that ravaged Cabernet vineyards would be replanted with other varietals (such as those emerging from the Rhone Rangers movement) but in fact California plantings of Cabernet Sauvignon doubled between 1988 and 1998; many wine regions— such as Napa Valley north of Yountville and Sonoma's Alexander Valley— were almost completely dominated by the grape varieties. It also started to gain a foothold in Dry Creek Valley, Sonoma Mountain and Mendocino County.[2] Cabernet from Sonoma County has shown a tendency to feature anise and black olive notes while Napa County Cabernets are characterized by their strong black fruit flavors.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (681x1024, 220 KB) Bottle of Stags Leap Cabernet Photo by Tutanium22 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (681x1024, 220 KB) Bottle of Stags Leap Cabernet Photo by Tutanium22 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Until 1976, France was generally regarded as having an unchallenged reputation as the foremost producer of the worlds best wines. ... Stags Leap Wine Cellars, not to be confused with Stags Leap Winery, is a Napa Valley winery established by Warren Winiarski in 1972. ... For the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for Frances best Bordeaux wines which were to be on display for visitors from around the world. ... Château Mouton Rothschild, located 50 km (30 mi) north-west of the city of Bordeaux, France in an area known as the Médoc, specifically the village of Pauillac. ... Château Montrose is a Second Growth in the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 and is one of the most prestigious wine producers in France. ... Château Haut-Brion is a First Growth in the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. ... Château Léoville-Las Cases is a Second Growth in the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. ... Blind tasting of wine involves tasting and evaluating wines without any knowledge of their identities. ... Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... The black olive is a green olive that has become fully ripe on the tree. ...


In California, the main stylistic difference in Cabernet Sauvignon is between hillside/mountain vineyards and those on flatter terrain like valley floors or some areas of the Central Valley. In Napa, the hillside vineyards of Diamond Mountain District, Howell Mountain, Mt. Veeder, Spring Mountain District have thinner, less fertile soils which produces smaller berries with more intense flavors, reminiscent of Bordeaux wines that require years of aging to mature. The yields are also much lower, typically in the range of 1-2 tons per acre in contrast to the 4-8 acres that can be produced in the more fertile valley floors.[2] Wines produced from mountainside vineyards tend to be characterized by deep inky colors and strong berry aromas. Throughout California there are many wine regions that have the potential to grow Cabernet Sauvignon to full ripeness and produce fruity, full-bodied wines with alcohol levels regularly above the Bordeaux average of 12-13% — often in excess of 14%.[3] This article is about Californias Central Valley. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... This article is about the fruit. ... The use of Wine tasting descriptors allow the taster an opportunity to put into words the aromas and flavors that they experience and can be used in assessing the overall quality of wine. ...

Old vine Cabernet Sauvignon at Chateau Montelena in Napa Valley. As the grapes mature they will darken to a bluish purple hue.

The use of oak in California Cabernet has a long history, with many producers favoring the use of new oak barrels heavily composed of American oak. After the early 1980s' unsuccessful trend to create more "food friendly" wines, with less ripeness and less oak influence, winemakers' focus shifted back to oak influence, but producers were more inclined to limit and lighten the use of oak barrels, with many turning to French oak or a combination of new and older oak barrels.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 573 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 734 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Old Vine cabernet from Chateau Montelena, Napa Valley Photo by Jurvetson File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 573 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 734 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Old Vine cabernet from Chateau Montelena, Napa Valley Photo by Jurvetson File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Chateau Montelena is a Napa Valley winery most famous for winning the white wine section of the Judgement of Paris tasting competition. ... Wine is very often consumed with food, and there is a long history of suggestions about which wines go best with which foods. ...


Other American wine regions

After Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon is the second most widely planted grape variety in Washington State. It is generally found in the warmer sites of the Columbia Valley. The vines are choice plantings for growers due to their hardy vine stalks and resistance to the cold winter frost that is commonplace in Eastern Washington. Washington Cabernet Sauvignon is characterized by its fruitiness and easy drinking styles that are not overly tannic.[2] Recent Washington American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) that have seen some success with their Cabernet Sauvignons include Red Mountain, Walla Walla Valley and parts of the Yakima Valley AVA near the Tri-Cities region.[3] For the university, see Eastern Washington University. ... An American Viticultural Area (AVA) is a delimited grape-growing region distinguishable by geographic features, with boundaries defined by the United States governments Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). ... Rattlesnake Mountain beyond the Yakima River in Washington state. ... Central Richland as seen from the Badger Mountain Centennial Preserve. ...


In Oregon there are are small quantities of Cabernet Sauvignon planted in the warmer southern regions of the Umpqua and Rogue Valleys.[2] It has also started to develop a presence in the Arizona, New York, Texas and Virginia wine industries-particularly in the Texas Hill Country and North Fork of Long Island AVAs. Throughout the United States, Cabernet Sauvignon is made in both varietal and blended styles. Under the American system, varietal Cabernet Sauvignon can include up to 25% other grapes.[3] The Southern Oregon American Viticultural Area, or Southern Oregon AVA, is an American Viticultural Area which lies in the Southern Oregon. ... Virginia wine refers to wine made from grapes grown in the U.S. state of Virginia. ...


South America

Cabernet Sauvignon is grown in nearly every South American country including Chile, Argentina, Peru and Uruguay. In Chile, the wines were historically limited by the excessively high yields that were commonplace throughout the country. As producers begun to concentrate on limiting yields, regional differences began to emerge that distinguished Chilean Cabernets. For vineyard plantings along flat river valleys, the climate of the region is the most important consideration; as plantings move to higher elevations and along hillsides, soil type is a greater concern. The wines of the Aconcagua region are noted for their ripe fruit but closed, tight structure that needs some time in the bottle to develop. In the Maipo Valley, Cabernet Sauvignon wines are characterized by their pervasive black currant fruit and an earthy, dusty note. In warmer regions, such as the Colchagua province and around Curicó, the grapes ripen more fully; they produce wines with rich fruit flavors that can be perceived as sweet due to the ripeness of the fruit. The acidity levels of these wines will be lower and the tannins will also be softer, making the wines more approachable at a younger age.[2] soil types In terms of soil texture, soil type usually refers to the different sizes of mineral particles in a particular sample. ... The Aconcagua river rises on the southern slope of the volcano Aconcagua, flows eastward through a broad valley, or bay in the mountains, and enters the Pacific 12 m. ... City motto: Noble y Leal Villa de San José de Buena Vista de Curicó Also called City of the cakes Founded October 9, 1743, Original Name San José de Buena Vista de Curicó Region Maule Region Area  - City Proper  1,328 km² Population  - City (2005)  - Density (city proper) 120. ...


In Argentina, Cabernet Sauvignon lags behind Malbec as the country's main red grape but its numbers are growing. The varietal versions often have lighter fruit flavors and are meant to be consumed young. Premium examples are often blended with Malbec and produce full, tannic wines with leather and tobacco notes.[2] In recent years, there have been increased plantings of Cabernet Sauvignon in the Uco Valley of the Mendoza Province; the wines coming from vineyards planted at higher altitudes garner some international attention.[3] Malbec is a black, mellow grape variety originally grown in France, in the Loire Valley and Cahors. ... For people named Leather, see Leather (surname). ... Mendoza is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. ...


Australia

Unlike other clay-based soils, the free-draining terra rosa of Australia's Coonawarra region contributes to a unique style of Cabernet Sauvignon.

In the 1970s, the Coonawarra region first brought international attention to Australian Cabernet Sauvignons with intense fruit flavors and subtle minty notes. The Margaret River region soon followed with wines that were tightly structured with pronounced black fruit notes. In the 1980s, Australia followed California's contemporary trend in producing lighter, more "food friendly" wines with alcohol levels around 11-12% percent; by the early 1990s, the styles changed again to focus on balance and riper fruit flavors. Today Cabernet Sauvignon is the second most widely planted red wine grape in Australia, following Shiraz which it is often blended. It can be found in several wine regions with many large producers using grapes from several states. Notable regional differences characterize Australian Cabernet Sauvignon: in addition to the wine styles of Coonawarra and Margaret River, the Barossa Valley produces big, full bodied wines while the nearby, cooler Clare Valley produces wines with more concentrated fruit, and wines of the Victorian wine region of the Yarra Valley are noted for their balance in acidity, tannins and fruit flavors.[2] For other uses, see Coonawarra (disambiguation). ... Rivermouth, Margaret River Location of Margaret River // Geography Margaret River is a town and river in Western Australia. ... It has been suggested that Barossa Shiraz be merged into this article or section. ... The Clare township The Clare Valley is one of Australias oldest and most famous wine regions, and also one of the most scenic, presenting visitors with a series of small intimate valleys and magnificent views Settlers from England, Ireland and Poland first moved into the region during the 1840... The Yarra Valley of the Yarra River, originating in the Yarra Ranges approximately 60 kilometres east of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ...


Other New World producers

Since the end of apartheid, the South African wine industry has been working to reestablish itself in the world's wine markets with many regions actively promoting their Cabernet Sauvignon. Today it is the most widely planted red wine grape in South Africa. It is produced in both varietal and blended styles; some producers favor a Bordeaux blend, while others follow the Australian example of blending with Syrah.[1] Early examples of South African Cabernet Sauvignon were produced by grapes planted in vineyard locations that were cooler than ideal, creating very herbaceous wines with the distinctive "green bell pepper" notes. In the mid 1990s, there was more emphasis on harvesting at fuller ripeness, and new clones were introduced that produced riper, sweeter fruit. As the vines age, and better vineyards locations are identified, regional styles are starting to emerge among South African Cabernet Sauvignons: the Stellenbosch region is noted for heavy, full bodied wines while Constantia's wines are characterized by their herbal and minty flavors.[2] A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... South African wine has been produced since 1659, when the first wine was produced by the Commander of the Cape, Jan van Riebeeck. ... Stellenbosch from Botmaskop mountain looking towards Cape Town Stellenbosch (IPA: ) is the second oldest European settlement in the Western Cape Province, South Africa after Cape Town, and is situated about 50 kilometers (30 mi) away along the banks of the Eerste River. ... Constantia is a district in Cape Town, South Africa. ...


In New Zealand, climate has been a challenge in finding wine regions suitable for producing Cabernet Sauvignon. Most of the industry focus has centered on the North Island. The Hawke's Bay region was the first to make a significant effort in producing Cabernet Sauvignon but the cool climate of the region, coupled with the high yields and fertile alluvial soils, produced wines that were still marked with aggressive green and vegetal flavors. Added focus on canopy management, which gives the grapes more sunlight to ripen by removing excess foliage, and low vigor rootstock and pruning combine to achieve lower yields and have started to produce betterresults. The grape is sometimes blended with Merlot to help compensate for climate and terroir. North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... For other uses, see Hawkes Bay (disambiguation). ... “Foliage” redirects here. ...


Other regions in New Zealand have sprung up with a renewed focus on producing distinctive New Zealand Cabernet Sauvignon:[2] The Gimblett Road and Havelock North regions of Hawke's Bay, with their warm gravel soils, have started to achieve notice as well as Waiheke Island near Auckland.[3] Overall the grape lags far behind Pinot noir in New Zealand's red wine grape plantings.[1] Havelock North is a town in New Zealand, in the North Islands Hawkes Bay region. ... An image of Waiheke Island using satellite data. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ...


Popularity and criticism

In the past century, Cabernet Sauvignon has enjoyed a swell of popularity as one of the noble grapes in the world of wine. Built partially on its historical success in Bordeaux as well as New World wine regions like California and Australia, planting the grape is considered a solid choice in any wine region that is warm enough to cultivate it. Among consumers Cabernet has become a familiar wine which has aided in its accessibility and appeal even from obscure wine regions and producers. In the 1980s, the Bulgarian wine industry was largely driven and introduced to the international wine market by the success of its Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The widespread popularity of Bordeaux has contributed to criticism of the grape variety for its role as a "colonizer" grape, being planted in new and emerging wine regions at the expense of focus on the unique local grape varieties. Some regions, such as Portugal with its abundance of native grape varieties, have largely ignored Cabernet Sauvignon as its seeks to rejuvenate its wine industry beyond Port production.[2] A glass of tawny port. ...


Wine styles

New World Cabernet Sauvignons, such as this one from California's Alexander Valley, often have more pronounced, ripe fruit flavors than Old World wines from regions like Bordeaux.

The style of Cabernet Sauvignon is strongly influenced by the ripeness of the grapes at harvest. When more on the unripe side, the grapes are high in pyrazines and will exhibit pronounced green bell peppers and vegetal flavors. When harvested overripe the wines can taste jammy and may have aromas of stewed black currants. Some winemakers choose to harvest their grapes at different ripeness levels in order to incorporate these different elements and potentially add some layer of complexity to the wine. When Cabernet Sauvignon is young, the wines typically exhibit strong fruit flavors of black cherries and plum. The aroma of black currants is one of the most distinctive and characteristic element of Cabernet Sauvignon that is present in virtually every style of the wine across the globe. Styles from various regions and producers may also have aromas of eucalyptus, mint and tobacco. As the wines age they can sometimes develop aromas associated with cedar, cigar boxes and pencil shavings. In general New World examples have more pronounced fruity notes while Old World wines can be more austere with heighten earthy notes.[2] Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... Species See text. ...


Ability to age

In the 19th and 20th centuries, a large part of Cabernet Sauvignon's reputation was built on its ability to age and develop in the bottle. In addition to softening some of their austere tannins, as Cabernet wines age new flavors and aromas can emerge and add to the wines' complexity. Historically this was a trait characterized by Bordeaux with some premium examples in favorable vintages having the potential to last for over a century, but producers across the globe have developed styles that could age and develop for several decades. Even with the ability to age, some Cabernet Sauvignon wines can still be approachable a few years after vintage. In Bordeaux, the tannins of the wines tend to soften after ten years and can typically last for at least another decade-sometimes longer depending on the producer and vintage. Some Spanish and Italian Cabernet Sauvignons will need similar time as Bordeaux to develop but most examples are typically made to be drunk earlier.[2]


While New World Cabernets are characterized as being drinkable earlier than Bordeaux, premium producers such as the Californian cult wines will produce wines that need time to age and could potentially develop for two to three decades. Overall, the majority of Californian Cabernets are meant to be approachable after only a couple of years in the bottle but can still have the potential to improve further over time. Similarly many premium Australian Cabernet will also need at least ten years to develop though many are approachable after two to five years. New Zealand wines are typically meant to be consumed young and will often maintain their green herbal flavors even with extended bottle aging. South American Cabernets have very pronounced fruit flavors when they are young and the best made examples will maintain some of those flavors as they age. South African wines tend to favor more Old World styles and typically require six to eight years' aging before they start to develop further flavors.[2] Cult wines are those for which dedicated groups of committed enthusiasts will pay large sums of money. ...


Pairing with food

Fatty red meats, such as lamb, pair well with Cabernet Sauvignon due to the ability of proteins and fats to negate some of the tannic qualities of the wine.

Cabernet Sauvignon is a very bold and assertive wine that has potential to overwhelm light and delicate dishes. The wine's high tannin content as well as the oak influences and high alcohol levels associated with many regional styles play important roles in influencing how well the wine matches with different foods. When Cabernet Sauvignon is young, all those elements are at their peak, a but as the wine ages it mellows; possibilities for different food pairings open up. In most circumstances, matching the weight (alcohol level and body) of the wine to the heaviness of the food is an important consideration. Cabernet Sauvignons with high alcohol levels do not pair well with spicy foods due to hotness levels of the capsaicins present in spices like chili peppers being enhanced by the alcohol with the heat accentuating the bitterness of the tannins. Milder spices, such as black pepper, pair better due to their ability to minimize the perception of tannins--such as in the classic pairings of Cabernet Sauvignon with steak au poivre and pepper-crusted ahi tuna.[3] Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Steak au Poivre is a French dish that consists of a steak, traditionally a strip steak, coated on one side in loosely cracked peppercorns and then cooked. ...


Fats and proteins reduce the perception of tannins on the palate. When Cabernet Sauvignon is paired with steak or dishes with a heavy butter cream sauce, the tannins are neutralized, allowing the fruits of the wine to be more noticeable. In contrast, starches such as pastas and rice will have little affect on tannins. The bitterness of the tannins can also be counterbalanced by the use of bitter foods, such as radicchio and endive, or with cooking methods that involve charring like grilling. As the wine ages and the tannins lessen, more subtle and less bitter dishes will pair better with Cabernet Sauvignon. The oak influences of the wine can be matched with cooking methods that have similar influences on the food-such as grilling, smoking and plank roasting. Dishes that include oak-influenced flavors and aromas normally found in Cabernet Sauvignon-such as dill weed, brown sugar, nutmeg and vanilla-can also pair well.[3] For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A steak (from Old Norse steik, roast) is a slice from a larger piece of meat, typically from red meat like beef, or fish. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Radicchio is a Leaf Chicory, sometimes known as Italian Chicory. ... Belgian endive Endive (Chichorium intibus) is a leaf vegetable used especially in salads. ... Charring is a process of incomplete combustion that often occurs when biological tissue (living or dead) is subjected to heat. ... Food cooking on a charcoal grill Grilling is a form of cooking that involves direct heat. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Smoking Smoking is the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Binomial name Anethum graveolens L. Dried Dill-umbel Dill (Anethum graveolens) is a short-lived annual herb, native to southwest and central Asia. ... Brown sugar typical of that bought in Western supermarkets Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ...


The different styles of Cabernet Sauvignon from different regions can also influence how well the wine matches up with certain foods. Old World wines, such as Bordeaux, have earthier influences and will pair better with mushrooms. Wines from cooler climates that have noticeable vegetal notes can be balanced with vegetables and greens. New World wines, with bolder fruit flavors that may even be perceived as sweet, will pair well with bolder dishes that have lots of different flavor influences. While Cabernet Sauvignon has the potential to pair well with bitter dark chocolate, it will not pair well with sweeter styles such as milk chocolate. The wine can typically pair well with a variety of cheeses, such as cheddar, mozzarella and brie, full flavored or blue cheeses will typically compete too much with the flavors of Cabernet Sauvignon to be a complimentary pairing.[3] For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Chocolate block in melted chocolate Chocolate is a common ingredient in many kinds of sweets—one of the most popular in the world. ... Chocolate block in melted chocolate Chocolate is a common ingredient in many kinds of sweets—one of the most popular in the world. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Country of origin England Region, town Somerset, Cheddar Source of milk Cows, rarely Goats Pasteurised Frequently Texture hard/semi-hard Aging time 3-30 months depending on variety Certification West Country farmhouse Cheddar Only: PDO Cheddar cheese is a hard, pale yellow to orange, sharp-tasting cheese originally (and still... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Country of origin France Region, town Seine-et-Marne Source of milk Cows Pasteurised By law in the US and Australia, not in most of Europe Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 4 weeks Certification AOC, 1980, for both Brie de Meaux and Brie de Melun Brie is a... Cabrales bleu Cheese Blue cheese, known in French as bleu (blue), is a general classification of cows milk, sheeps milk, or goats milk cheeses that has had Penicillium cultures added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue or blue-green mold. ...


Health implications

In late 2006, the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology published the result of studies conducted at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine that showed the beneficial relationship of resveratrol, a compound found in all red wine, in reducing the risk factors associated with Alzheimer's disease. The study showed that resveratrol found in Cabernet Sauvignon can reduce levels of amyloid beta peptides, which attack brain cells and are part of the etiology of Alzheimer's.[12] Resveratrol has also been shown to promote the clearance of amyloid-beta peptides.[13] It has also been shown that non-alcoholic extracts of Cabernet Sauvignon protect hypertensive rats during ischaemia and reperfusion. [14] This page is about a medical school in New York. ... The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39–43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... Reperfusion injury refers to damage to tissue caused when blood supply returns to the tissue after a period of ischemia. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 119-121 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Oz Clarke Encyclopedia of Grapes pg 47-56 Harcourt Books 2001 ISBN 0151007144
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n E. Goldstein "Perfect Pairings" pg 134-139 University of California Press 2006 ISBN 9780520243774
  4. ^ L. Alley. "New French Wine Grape Arrives in US Market, The Wine Spectator, September 30, 2007, p. 17
  5. ^ Cleggett wines: history and pictures of the gris and white mutants; Transcript of ABC show about bronze and white mutants
  6. ^ Walker AR, Lee E, Robinson SP (2006), "Two new grape cultivars, bud sports of Cabernet Sauvignon bearing pale-coloured berries, are the result of deletion of two regulatory genes of the berry colour locus." Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Nov;62(4-5):623-35.
  7. ^ Rutherford Dust Society "About us" Accessed: February 22nd, 2008
  8. ^ T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia" pg 578-581 Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0756613248
  9. ^ D. Mouer "Meritage: What's in a Name" Wine Maker Magazine, August 2004
  10. ^ For contrast, Sémillon has a 1:25 pip to pulp ratio.
  11. ^ M. Ewing-Mulligan & E. McCarthy Italian Wines for Dummies pg 155 & 167-169 Hungry Minds 2001 ISBN 0764553550
  12. ^ J. Gaffney "Drinking Cabernet May Cut Risk of Alzheimer's, Study Finds", Wine Spectator Magazine, December 31 2006, pg 17
  13. ^ Marambaud P, Zhao H, Davies P. (2005 Nov 11). Resveratrol promotes clearance of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides. National Institute of Health.
  14. ^ Fantinelli JC, Mosca SM. "Cardioprotective effects of a non-alcoholic extract of red wine during ischaemia and reperfusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats." Clin Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 34(3) (March 2007:166-69)

Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, most notably in France and Australia. ...

External links

  • Cabernet Sauvignon Grape - Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Information Page.
  • Cabernet Sauvignon on Vinismo
For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For the song by The Feeling, see Rosé (song). ... A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ... Dessert wines (or pudding wines) are sweet wines typically served with dessert, such as Sauternes and Tokaji Aszú. Despite the name, they are often best appreciated alone, or with fruit or bakery sweets. ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... Fruit wines are wine-like beverages made from fruits other than grapes. ... Grapes for ice wine, still frozen on the vine. ... Albariño (ahl-bar-EEN-yoh – Galician) or Alvarinho (ahl-vah-REE-nyoh – Portuguese) is a variety of white wine grape grown in Galicia (northwest Spain) and northern Portugal, where it is used to make varietal white wines. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Chenin Blanc (or often simply Chenin) is a widely grown wine grape variety, also known as Steen in South Africa, Pineau de la Loire in the Loire region of France. ... Gewürztraminer grapes on the vine Gewürztraminer (IPA: , sounds like guh-VERTS-truh-MEE-ner; IPA: in German; Croatian: ; Hungarian: ), sometimes referred to as Gewürz or Traminer, is a white wine grape variety that performs best in cooler climates. ... Grüner Veltliner, also known as (Green) Veltliner, is a grape variety widely grown in Austria. ... For other uses, see Muscat (disambiguation). ... Pinot Blanc is a white wine grape. ... Pinot Gris (or Tokay Pinot Gris) is a white wine grape of species Vitis vinifera related to Pinot noir which goes by a lot of other names: Pinot Grigio (Italy) Pinot Beurot (Loire Valley, France) Ruländer (Austria and Germany, Romania, sweet) Grauburgunder or Grauer burgunder (Austria and Germany, dry... Riesling is a white grape variety and varietal appellation of wines grown historically in Germany (see German wine), Alsace (France), Austria, and northern Italy. ... Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. ... Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, most notably in France and Australia. ... Silvaner is a white wine grape variety. ... Viognier (pronounced vee-own-YAY[1]) is a white wine grape. ... Barbera is a wine grape variety from Monferrato in Piemonte, Italy. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Dolcetto is a well-known wine grape variety widely grown in Piedmont region of Italy. ... A California Gamay Gamay is a purple-colored grape variety used to make red wines, most notably grown in Beaujolais. ... // Grenache (pronounced gren-ash) (in Spanish, Garnacha) is probably the most widely planted variety of red wine grape in the world. ... Malbec is a black, mellow grape variety originally grown in France, in the Loire Valley and Cahors. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Mourvèdre is a variety of wine grape grown around the world, and is Spains second-most important red wine grape after Garnacha, and was once Provences most popular grape. ... Nebbiolo is the most important wine grape variety of Italys Piedmont region. ... Durif (or Duriff) is a minor variety of red wine grape grown in France, California and Australia. ... Petit verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally in classic Bordeaux blends. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Pinotage is a wine grape that is a cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsault (called Hermitage in South Africa and parts of Europe, hence the portmanteau name of this grape variety). ... // Sangiovese is a red wine grape variety originating in Italy whose name derives from sanguis Jovis, the blood of Jove. It is most famous as the main component of the Chianti blend in Tuscany, but winemakers outside Italy are starting to experiment with it. ... Shiraz is one name, equivalent to Syrah, for a noble grape variety widely used to make dry red table wine. ... Tempranillo is a variety of vitis vinifera, the red grape used commonly in winemaking. ... Zinfandel, also known as Zin, is a red-skinned wine grape popular in California for its intense fruitiness and lush texture. ... Amarone della Valpolicella is an often powerful Italian wine made from dried grapes of the Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara varieties. ... Spumante is a type of Italian wine similar to French Champagne. ... A classic northern Italian wine, Barbaresco is a powerful wine that is made purely from the Nebbiolo grape. ... Barbera dAsti Superiore DOC Tre Vescovi 2003 Vinchio e Vaglio Barbera dAsti is a red wine variety. ... Castle and Village of Barolo. ... It has been suggested that Barossa Shiraz be merged into this article or section. ... A Beaujolais label Beaujolais is a historical province and a wine-producing region in France. ... Bordeaux with sub-wine regions A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. ... Burgundy wine (in French, Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy AOC region of France. ... The Chablis wine region is the northernmost sector of Burgundy, France, and also the name of a town located there. ... This article is about Champagne, the alcoholic beverage. ... Valdelsa (part of Chianti Colli Fiorentini sub-area). ... Commandaria is an amber-colored dessert wine made from the indigenous Mavro and Xynistery varieties of red grapes in the Commandaria region of Cyprus (centered near the city of Kolossi). ... Dão Wine (or Vinho do Dão) is from the Região Demarcada do Dão, a region demarcated in 1908, but already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. ... Egri Bikavér (Bulls Blood) is one of the most reputed and traditional Hungarian wines besides the Tokaji wines. ... Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Madeira Islands of Portugal, which is prized equally for drinking and cooking; the latter use including the dessert plum in Madeira. ... Marsala is the name for a wine produced in the region surrounding the Italian city of Marsala in Sicily. ... Mosel is a German wine-growing region (Anbaugebiet) that takes its name from the river Mosel (or Moselle). ... Muscadet is a type of dry French white wine. ... A glass of tawny port. ... Retsina is a Greek resinated white (or rosé) wine dating back at least 2700 years. ... Rheingau valley with the River Rhein The Rheingau (in English: Rhine District) is the hill country on the north side of the Rhine River between Wiesbaden and Rüdesheim near Frankfurt, reaching from the western Taunus to the Rhine. ... Rhenish Hesse (dark red), shown within Rhineland-Palatinate (pale red) Rheinhessen (in English: Rhenish Hesse) refers to the part of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine river and now part of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Rhône wine region is first divided into north and south. ... Rioja Wine Rioja is a wine from a region named after the Rio Oja in Spain, a tributary of the Ebro. ... Sancerre is one of the most famous white wines in France named from the town Sancerre. ... A half bottle of Sauternes from Château dYquem Sauternes is a type of dessert wine made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. ... A glass of amontillado Sherry For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... Tokaj cellar Tokaji, meaning of Tokaj in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. ... Valpolicella is a zone of the province of Verona, Italy, east of Lake Garda. ... A bottle of vermouth Vermouth is a fortified wine flavored with aromatic herbs and spices (aromatized in the trade) using closely-guarded recipes (trade secrets). ... Vinho Verde is Portuguese and literally means Green Wine. There are red, white and, more rarely, rosé varieties of the appellation Vinho Verde, but only the white wines are exported. ... Vouvray, from the region of the same name is made through the vinification of the Chenin Blanc grape. ... The Glossary of wine terms lists the definitions of many terms used within the wine industry. ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted. ... The following is a list of wine-producing countries and their volume of wine production for the year 2005 in metric tonnes. ... Natural wine is wine made with as little chemical and technological intervention as possible, either in the way the grapes are grown or the way they are made into wine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into wine. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Varietal describes wines made from a single named grape variety. ... A Wine accessory is generally any equipment that may be used in the storing or serving of wine. ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cabernet Sauvignon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (750 words)
Cabernet Sauvignon is a variety of red grape mainly used for wine production, and is, along with Chardonnay, one of the most widely-planted of the world's noble grape varieties.
Cabernet Franc is often used in blends with Cabernet Sauvignon to add aromatics.
Cabernet Sauvignon, like all noble wine grape varieties, is of the species Vitis vinifera, and genetic studies in the 1990s indicated it is the result of a cross between Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc.
Cabernet Franc - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (247 words)
Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon.
Cabernet Franc tends to be softer and has less tannins than Cabernet Sauvignon, although the two can be difficult to distinguish.
Cabernet Franc forms part of the Bordeaux blend, usually taking a minor role to Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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