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Encyclopedia > CYANOBACTERIA
Cyanobacteria

Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Cyanobacteria
Orders

The taxonomy is currently under revision.[1] Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, found as plankton. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós) = blue). They are a significant component of the marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary producer in many areas of the ocean, but are also found on land. Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy...


Stromatolites of fossilized oxygen-producing cyanobacteria have been found from 2.8 billion years ago.[2] The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is thought to have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which dramatically changed the life forms on Earth and provoked an explosion of biodiversity. Chloroplasts in plants and eukaryotic algae have evolved from cyanobacteria. Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... The Oxygen Catastrophe was a massive environmental change believed to have happened during the Siderian period at the beginning of the Paleoproterozoic era. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ...

Contents

Forms

Cyanobacteria are found in almost every conceivable habitat, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil. Most are found in fresh water, while others are marine, occur in damp soil, or even temporarily moistened rocks in deserts. A few are endosymbionts in lichens, plants, various protists, or sponges and provide energy for the host. Some live in the fur of sloths, providing a form of camouflage while they are safe. This article is about arid terrain. ... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... This article is about the South American mammal. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ...

Colonies of Nostoc pruniforme.
Colonies of Nostoc pruniforme.

Cyanobacteria include unicellular and colonial species. Colonies may form filaments, sheets or even hollow balls. Some filamentous colonies show the ability to differentiate into several different cell types: vegetative cells, the normal, photosynthetic cells that are formed under favorable growing conditions; akinetes, the climate-resistant spores that may form when environmental conditions become harsh; and thick-walled heterocysts, which contain the enzyme nitrogenase, vital for nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts may also form under the appropriate environmental conditions (anoxic) wherever nitrogen is necessary. Heterocyst-forming species are specialized for nitrogen fixation and are able to fix nitrogen gas, which cannot be used by plants, into ammonia (NH3), nitrites (NO2) or nitrates (NO3), which can be absorbed by plants and converted to protein and nucleic acids. The rice paddies of Asia, which produce about 75% of the world's rice[3], could not do so were it not for healthy populations of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the rice paddy fertilizer too. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1375x984, 192 KB) Description: Nostoc pruniforme - these jelly balls are special colonies of cyanobacteria in freshwater. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1375x984, 192 KB) Description: Nostoc pruniforme - these jelly balls are special colonies of cyanobacteria in freshwater. ... This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into E. coli. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Heterocysts are specialized nitrogen-fixing cells formed by some filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc punctiforme, Cylindrospermum stagnale and Anabaena sperica, during nitrogen starvation. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... In inorganic chemistry nitrites are salts of nitrous acid HNO2. ... Nitrates are the salts of nitric acid. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Many cyanobacteria also form motile filaments, called hormogonia, that travel away from the main biomass to bud and form new colonies elsewhere. The cells in a hormogonium are often thinner than in the vegetative state, and the cells on either end of the motile chain may be tapered. In order to break away from the parent colony, a hormogonium often must tear apart a weaker cell in a filament, called a necridium. Hormogonia are small, motile filaments formed by some cyanobacteria in the family Nostoceae. ...


Each individual cell of a cyanobacterium typically has a thick, gelatinous cell wall. They differ from other gram-negative bacteria in that the quorum sensing molecules autoinducer-2[4] and acyl-homoserine lactones[5] are absent. They lack flagella, but hormogonia and some unicellular species may move about by gliding along surfaces. In water columns some cyanobacteria float by forming gas vesicles, like in archaea. Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Quorum sensing is the process by which many bacteria coordinate gene expression according to the local density of bacteria producing signaling molecules. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... Bacterial gliding is a process whereby a bacterium can move under its own power. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ...


Photosynthesis

Cyanobacteria have an elaborate and highly organized system of internal membranes which function in photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in cyanobacteria generally uses water as an electron donor and produces oxygen as a by-product, though some may also use hydrogen sulfide as occurs among other photosynthetic bacteria. Carbon dioxide is reduced to form carbohydrates via the Calvin cycle. In most forms the photosynthetic machinery is embedded into folds of the cell membrane, called thylakoids. The large amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere are considered to have been first created by the activities of ancient cyanobacteria. Due to their ability to fix nitrogen in aerobic conditions they are often found as symbionts with a number of other groups of organisms such as fungi (lichens), corals, pteridophytes (Azolla), angiosperms (Gunnera) etc. Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation The Calvin cycle (or Calvin-Benson cycle or carbon fixation) is a series of biochemical reactions that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. ... Thylakoids (green) inside a chloroplast Thylakoids (green) inside a cyanobacterium (Synechocystis) A Thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. ... Look up Aerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... The pteridophytes are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that neither flower nor produce seeds. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Species See text Gunnera is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants, some of them gigantic. ...


Cyanobacteria are the only group of organisms that are able to reduce nitrogen and carbon in aerobic conditions, a fact that may be responsible for their evolutionary and ecological success. The water-oxidizing photosynthesis is accomplished by coupling the activity of photosystem (PS) II and I (Z-scheme). In anaerobic conditions, they are also able to use only PS I — cyclic photophosphorylation — with electron donors other than water (hydrogen sulfide, thiosulphate, or even molecular hydrogen) just like purple photosynthetic bacteria. Furthermore, they share an archaeal property, the ability to reduce elemental sulfur by anaerobic respiration in the dark. Their photosynthetic electron transport shares the same compartment as the components of respiratory electron transport. Actually, their plasma membrane contains only components of the respiratory chain, while the thylakoid membrane hosts both respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport. Look up Aerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... REDIRECT [[In the process of photosynthesis, light is absorbed by a photosystem (ancient Greek: phos = light and systema = assembly) to begin an energy-producing reaction. ... The first stage of the photosynthetic system is the light-dependent reaction, which converts solar energy into chemical energy. ... Anaerobic is a technical word which literally means without air (where air is generally used to mean oxygen), as opposed to aerobic. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, i. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Thylakoids (green) inside a chloroplast Thylakoids (green) inside a cyanobacterium (Synechocystis) A Thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. ...


Attached to thylakoid membrane, phycobilisomes act as light harvesting antennae for the photosystems . The phycobilisome components (phycobiliproteins) are responsible for the blue-green pigmentation of most cyanobacteria. The variations to this theme is mainly due to carotenoids and phycoerythrins which give the cells the red-brownish coloration. In some cyanobacteria, the color of light influences the composition of phycobilisomes. In green light, the cells accumulate more phycoerythrin, whereas in red light they produce more phycocyanin. Thus the bacteria appear green in red light and red in green light. This process is known as complementary chromatic adaptation and is a way for the cells to maximize the use of available light for photosynthesis. A computer generated 3D view of a phycobilisome showing Phycoerythrin subunits in red, Phycocyanin subunits in dark blue and Allophycocyanin subunits in light blue. ... Phycobiliproteins are water-soluble proteins present in cyanobacteria and certain algae (rhodophytes, cryptomonads, glaucocystophytes) that capture light energy which is then passed on to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Phycoerythrin is a red protein from the light-harvesting phycobiliproteins family, isolated from red, blue-green, and crytomonad algae. ...


A few genera, however, lack phycobilisomes and have chlorophyll b instead (Prochloron, Prochlorococcus, Prochlorothrix). These were originally grouped together as the prochlorophytes or chloroxybacteria, but appear to have developed in several different lines of cyanobacteria. For this reason they are now considered as part of cyanobacterial group. Prochlorococcus is a genus of marine cyanobacteria that now includes some three dozen species, differentiated on the basis of their ribosomal DNA. Sallie W. Chisholm of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Robert J. Olson of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and other collaborators (according to the Scientific American article listed...


Relationship to chloroplasts



Gloeobacter





Prochlorococcus Prochlorococcus is a genus of marine cyanobacteria that now includes some three dozen species, differentiated on the basis of their ribosomal DNA. Sallie W. Chisholm of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Robert J. Olson of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and other collaborators (according to the Scientific American article listed...



Synechococcus Species Skuja Fjerdingstad Skuja Rabenhorst Okada A. E. Bailey-Watts & J. Komárek Norris (Nägeli) Nägeli F. Hindák F. Hindák Wawrik Gardner Yoneda Copeland Jao Negoro Skuja (Pringsheim) Komárek Dor Komárek & Anagnostidis Grunow G.S. West Komárek Frémy Skuja (Moore & Carter) Kom...





plastids Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ...



all other cyanobacteria





Cladogram showing plastids (chloroplasts
and similar) and basal cyanobacteria.[6]

Chloroplasts found in eukaryotes (algae and plants) likely evolved from an endosymbiotic relation with cyanobacteria. This endosymbiotic theory is supported by various structural and genetic similarities. Primary chloroplasts are found among the green plants, where they contain chlorophyll b, and among the red algae and glaucophytes, where they contain phycobilins. It now appears that these chloroplasts probably had a single origin, in an ancestor of the clade called Primoplantae. Other algae likely took their chloroplasts from these forms by secondary endosymbiosis or ingestion. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae Red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... The glaucophytes, also referred to as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a tiny group of freshwater algae. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... subgroups Glaucophyta Rhodophyta (Red algae) Viridiplantae (green plants) (= Chlorobionta) Green algae (grade group) Embryophyta (Land plants) Primoplantae is a group of organisms that includes green plants (green algae and land plants), red algae, and an obscure group of single-celled algae called the glaucophytes. ...


It was once thought that the mitochondria in eukaryotes also developed from an endosymbiotic relationship with cyanobacteria; however, it is now suspected that this evolutionary event occurred when aerobic bacteria were engulfed by anaerobic host cells. Mitochondria are believed to have originated not from cyanobacteria but from an ancestor of Rickettsia. Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Species Rickettsia felis Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia typhi Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia africae etc. ...


Cyanobacteria and Earth history

The biochemical capacity to use water as the source for electrons in photosynthesis evolved once, in a common ancestor of extant cyanobacteria. The geological record indicates that this transforming event took place early in our planet's history, at least 2450-2320 million years ago (Ma), and possibly much earlier. Geobiological interpretation of Archean (>2500 Ma) sedimentary rocks remains a challenge; available evidence indicates that life existed 3500 Ma, but the question of when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved continues to engender debate and research. A clear paleontological window on cyanobacterial evolution opened about 2000 Ma, revealing an already diverse biota of blue-greens. Cyanobacteria remained principal primary producers throughout the Proterozoic Eon (2500-543 Ma), in part because the redox structure of the oceans favored photautotrophs capable of nitrogen fixation. Green algae joined blue-greens as major primary producers on continental shelves near the end of the Proterozoic, but only with the Mesozoic (251-65 Ma) radiations of dinoflagellates, coccolithophorids, and diatoms did primary production in marine shelf waters take modern form. Cyanobacteria remain critical to marine ecosystems as primary producers in oceanic gyres, as agents of biological nitrogen fixation, and, in modified form, as the plastids of marine algae.[7] Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Biota can refer to several things: The plant and animal life of a region; see biota (ecology) A municipality in Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain; see Biota (municipality) A superdomain in taxonomy; see Biota (taxonomy) Biota Holdings, the Australian biotech company This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ...


Cyanobacterial evolution from comparative genomics

Recent high-throughput sequencing has provided DNA sequences at an unprecedented rate, posing considerable analytical challenges, but also offering insight into the genetic mechanisms of adaptation. Here we present a comparative genomics-based approach towards understanding the evolution of these mechanisms in cyanobacteria. Historically, systematic methods of defining morphological traits in cyanobacteria have posed a major barrier in reconstructing their true evolutionary history. The advent of protein, then DNA, sequencing - most notably the use of 16S rRNA as a molecular marker - helped circumvent this barrier and now forms the basis of our understanding of the history of life on Earth. However, these tools have proved insufficient for resolving relationships between closely related cyanobacterial species. The 24 cyanobacteria whose genomes have been compared occupy a wide variety of environmental niches and play major roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. By integrating phylogenetic data inferred for hundreds to nearly 1000 protein coding genes common to all or most cyanobacteria, we are able to reconstruct an evolutionary history of the entire phylum, establishing a framework for resolving how their metabolic and phenotypic diversity came about.[7] In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... For other uses, see phyla. ...


Classification

The cyanobacteria were traditionally classified by morphology into five sections, referred to by the numerals I-V. The first three - Chroococcales, Pleurocapsales, and Oscillatoriales - are not supported by phylogenetic studies. However, the latter two - Nostocales and Stigonematales - are monophyletic, and make up the heterocystous cyanobacteria. The members of Chroococales are unicellular and usually aggregated in colonies. The classic taxonomic criterion has been the cell morphology and the plane of cell division. In Pleurocapsales, the cells have the ability to form internal spores (baeocytes). The rest of the sections include filamentous species. In Oscillatorialles, the cells are uniseriately arranged and do not form specialized cells (akinets and heterocysts). In Nostocalles and Stigonematalles the cells have the ability to develop heterocysts in certain conditions. Stigonematales, unlike Nostocalles include species with truly branched trichome. Most taxa included in the phylum or division Cyanobacteria have not yet been validly published under the Bacteriological Code. Except: Stigonematales is the order of cyanobacteria that includes filamentous strains that produce hormogonia and exhibit true branching. ... The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria governs the scientific names for bacteria. ...

  • The classes Chroobacteria, Hormogoneae and Gloeobacteria
  • The orders Chroococcales, Gloeobacterales, Nostocales, Oscillatoriales, Pleurocapsales and Stigonematales
  • The families Prochloraceae and Prochlorotrichaceae
  • The genera Halospirulina, Planktothricoides, Prochlorococcus, Prochloron, Prochlorothrix.

Stigonematales is the order of cyanobacteria that includes filamentous strains that produce hormogonia and exhibit true branching. ... Prochlorococcus is a genus of marine cyanobacteria that now includes some three dozen species, differentiated on the basis of their ribosomal DNA. Sallie W. Chisholm of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Robert J. Olson of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and other collaborators (according to the Scientific American article listed...

Biotechnology and applications

Certain cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins like anatoxin-a, anatoxin-as, aplysiatoxin, cylindrospermopsin, domoic acid, microcystin LR, nodularin R (from Nodularia), or saxitoxin. Sometimes a mass-reproduction of cyanobacteria results in algal blooms. A Cyanotoxin is a toxin secreted by certain cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). ... Chemical structure of Anatoxin-a Anatoxin-a is a secondary, bicyclic amine alkaloid with acute neurotoxicity. ... Chemical structure of Cylindrospermopsin Cylindrospermopsin is a toxin of the cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsin raciborskii or Microcystis aeruginosa. ... Chemical structure of Domoic acid Domoic acid, which causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), is an amino acid phycotoxin (algal toxin) found associated with certain algal blooms [1]. In 1958, domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga called doumoi or hanayanagi (Chondria armata[2]) in Japan. ... Nodularia is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae. ... Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin found in marine dinoflagellates (algae). ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom or marine bloom or water bloom is a rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system. ...


The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 was the third prokaryote and first photosynthetic organism whose genome was completely sequenced.[8] It continues to be an important model organism.[9] The smallest genomes have been found in Prochlorococcus spp. (1.7 Mb)[10][11] and the largest in Nostoc punctiforme (9 Mb)[12]. Those of Calothrix spp. are estimated at 12-15 Mb,[13] as large as yeast. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... Prochlorococcus is a genus of marine cyanobacteria that now includes some three dozen species, differentiated on the basis of their ribosomal DNA. Sallie W. Chisholm of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Robert J. Olson of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and other collaborators (according to the Scientific American article listed... Species See text. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ...


At least one secondary metabolite, cyanovirin, has shown to possess anti-HIV activity. Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


See hypolith for an example of cyanobacteria living in extreme conditions. In Arctic and Antarctic ecology, a hypolith is a photosynthetic organism that lives underneath rocks in climatically extreme deserts such as Cornwallis Island and Devon Island in the Canadian high Arctic. ...


Some cyanobacteria are sold as food, notably Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina). It has been suggested that they could be a much more substantial part of human food supplies, as a kind of superfood. Species About 35. ... A superfood is a type of food that is believed to have more significant health benefits than any other type of food due to their specific phytonutrient content. ...


Along with algae, some hydrogen producing cyanobacteria are being considered as an alternative energy source, notably at Oregon State University, in research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Princeton University, Colorado School of Mines, Ohio University as well as at Uppsala University, Sweden. For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Alternative energy is energy derived from sources that do not harm the environment or deplete the Earths natural resources. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a coeducational, public research university located in Corvallis, Oregon, United States. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The Colorado School of Mines is a public research university devoted to engineering and applied science located in the town of Golden, Colorado. ... Ohio University (OHIO) is a public university located in Athens, Ohio that is situated on a 1,800 acre (7. ... The Neo-Renaissance main University building in the University Park, Uppsala (designed by Herman Teodor Holmgren and completed in 1887). ...


Health risks

Some species of cyanobacteria produce neurotoxins, hepatotoxins, cytotoxins, and endotoxins, making them dangerous to animals and humans. Several cases of human poisoning have been documented but a lack of knowledge prevents an accurate assessment of the risks.[14][15] A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells, or neurons, usually by interacting with membrane proteins and ion channels. ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) is chemical-driven liver damage. ... Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. ... Endotoxin is part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. ...


See also

The Oxygen Catastrophe was a massive environmental change believed to have happened during the Siderian period at the beginning of the Paleoproterozoic era. ... The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ...

References

  1. ^ Ahoren Oren (2004). "A proposal for further integration of the cyanobacteria under the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 1895-1902. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.03008-0. 
  2. ^ Olson JM (2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res. 88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID 16453059. 
  3. ^ United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
  4. ^ J. Sun, et al. (2004). "Is autoinducer-2 a universal signal for interspecies communication? A comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the synthesis and signal transduction pathways". BMC Evol. Biol. 4: 36. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-36. 
  5. ^ E. Dittmann, et al. (2001). "Altered expression of two light-dependent genes in a microcystin-lacking mutant of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806". Microbiology 147: 3113-3119. 
  6. ^ Enrique Flores AH (2008). The Cyanobacteria: Molecular Biology, Genomics and Evolution. Horizon, 3. ISBN 1904455158. 
  7. ^ a b Herrero A and Flores E (editor). (2008). The Cyanobacteria: Molecular Biology, Genomics and Evolution, 1st ed., Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-15-8 . 
  8. ^ T. Kaneko, et al. (1996). "Kaneko, T. et al. (1996) Sequence analysis of the genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. II. Sequence determination of the entire genome and assignment of potential protein-coding regions". DNA Res. 3: 109-136. 
  9. ^ Tabei Y, Okada K, Tsuzuki M (2007). "Sll1330 controls the expression of glycolytic genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 355 (4): 1045–50. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.02.065. PMID 17331473. 
  10. ^ G. Rocap, et al. (2003). "Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation". Nature 424: 1042-1047. 
  11. ^ A. Dufresne, et al. (2003). "Genome sequence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus SS120, a nearly minimal oxyphototrophic genome.". Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100: 10020-10025. 
  12. ^ J.C. Meeks, et al. (2001). "An overview of the genome of Nostoc punctiforme, a multicellular, symbiotic cyanobacterium". Photosynth. Res. 70: 85-106 A number of important advances have occurred in cyanobacterial biotechnology in the recent years. World wide attention is drawn towards cyanobacteria for their possible use in mariculture, food, feed, fuel, fertilizer, colourant, production of various secondary metabolites including vitamins, toxins, enzymes, pharmaceuticals, pharmacological probes and pollution abatement. Only a few cyanobacterial strains (including Spirulina) have been well-characterized or exploited commercially (Thajuddin and Subramanian. Cyanobacterial biodiversity and potential applications in biotechnology. CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 89, NO. 1, 10 JULY 2005). doi:10.1023/A:1013840025518. 
  13. ^ M. Herdman, et al. (1979). "Genome size of cyanobacteria". J. Gen. Microbiol. 111: 73-85. 
  14. ^ Cyanobacteria, their toxins and health risks
  15. ^ Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) and their Toxins

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algae removal-filamentous algae-cyanobacteria blue green pond, lake, cylindrospermopsis, lyngbya (2458 words)
Cyanobacteria is often mistakenly classified as algae (Blue-green algae) because of the chloroplasts contained within the cells.
Cyanobacteria can also successfully compete against other groups of such as green algae and diatoms because they can store phosphorus for later use, and are not preferred as food by zooplankton (microscopic animals), larval fish and other animals that graze on many kinds of algae.
Lyngbya, is one of the cyanobacteria that is known to release toxins into the water.
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Cyanobacteria is an organism that is very important in the formation of biological soil crusts.
Cyanobacteria enables plants to photosynthesize and are responsible for the plants green color.
Cyanobacteria live in the roots of some plants such as legumes as well, and provide nitrogen directly for plants to use.
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