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Encyclopedia > CS gas
CS gas
IUPAC name 2-Chlorobenzalmalononitrile
Other names Tear gas
Identifiers
CAS number [2698-41-1]
Properties
Molecular formula C10H5Cl N2[2]
Molar mass 188.6 g/mol[1]
Appearance White crystalline powder
Colourless gas when burned
Density 1.04 g/cm³
Melting point

93°C, (366.15 K), (199.4 °F) CS gas structure. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x869, 183 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): CS gas ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...

Boiling point

310 °C, (583.15 K), (590 °F)[3] Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Vapor pressure ([[1 × 10-3 m|mm]] Hg) 3.4 × 10-5 at 20°C
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
NFPA 704
1
2
0
 
Related compounds
Related compounds SDBS
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

CS gas is the common name for 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (also called o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile) (chemical formula: C10H5ClN2), a substance that is used as a riot control agent and is generally accepted as being non-lethal. CS was discovered by two Americans, Ben Corson and Roger Staughton, in 1928, and the chemical gets its name from the first letters of the scientists' surnames.[4] The compound is actually a solid at room temperature, though it is used as an aerosol. Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... This article is about the element. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Data on CS gas. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Data on CS gas. ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Data on CS gas. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Data on CS gas. ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Data on CS gas. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ...


CS was developed and tested secretly at Porton Down in Wiltshire, England, in the 1950s and 1960s. CS was used first on animals, then subsequently on British Army servicemen volunteers. Notably, CS has a limited effect on animals due to "under-developed tear-ducts and protection by fur".[5] Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, or often known more simply as Porton Down, is a United Kingdom government facility for military research, including CBRN defence. ... Not to be confused with Wilshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...

Contents

Production

CS is synthesized by the reaction of 2-chlorobenzaldehyde and malononitrile via the Knoevenagel condensation: In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Malononitrile, also propanedinitrile, is a nitrile, with formula CH2(CN)2. ... The Knoevenagel condensation reaction is a organic reaction named after Emil Knoevenagel. ...

CS-chemical-synthesis
ClC6H4CHO + H2C(CN)2 → ClC6H4CHC(CN)2 + H2

The reaction is catalysed with weak base like piperidine or pyridine. The production method has not changed since the substance was discovered by Carson and Staughton.[6] Other bases, solvent free methods and microwave promotion have been suggested to improve the production of the substance.[7] Image File history File links CS-chemical-synthesis. ... Malononitrile, also propanedinitrile, is a nitrile, with formula CH2(CN)2. ... R-phrases , , Related Compounds Related compounds pyridine pyrrolidine piperazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula C5H11N. It is a heterocyclic amine with a six-membered... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ...


The physiological properties have been discovered already by the chemists first synthesising the compound in 1928: "Physiological Properties – Certain of these dinitriles have the effect of sneeze and tear gases. They are harmless when wet but to handle the dry powder is disastrous. (sic)"[6] For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been...


Use as an aerosol

As 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile is a solid at room temperature, not a gas, a variety of techniques have been used to make this solid usable as an aerosol: Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ...

  • Melted and sprayed in the molten form.
  • Dissolved in organic solvent.
  • CS2 dry powder (CS2 is a siliconized, micro-pulverized form of CS).
  • CS from thermal grenades by generation of hot gases.[1]

In the Waco Siege, CS was dissolved in the organic solvent dichloromethane (also known as methylene chloride). When the volatile dichlormethane evaporated, the CS crystallized with the dichloromethane molecules as an aerosol.[1] Another method typically used for grenades is to combine CS with a pyrotechnic composition which burns to generate an aerosol of CS-laden smoke. As the smoke disperses, tiny CS crystals 'ride' the smoke molecules to their targets, where they affect the eyes, nose, throat and skin causing extreme irritation. Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Combatants ATF, FBI, U.S. Army Branch Davidians Commanders Assault: Phil Chojnacki Siege: Many David Koresh† Strength Assault: 75 ATF agents Siege: Hundreds of federal agents and soldiers 50+ men, 75+ women and children Casualties 4 dead, 21 wounded in assault 6 dead and 3+ wounded in assault, 79 dead... R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point None Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... The word pyrotechnic (literally meaning fire technology) refers to any chemical explosive device, but especially fireworks. ...


Effects

Many types of tear gas and other Riot Control Agents have been produced with effects ranging from mild tearing of the eyes to immediate vomiting and prostration. CN and CS are the most widely used and known, but around 15 different types of tear gas have been developed worldwide e.g. Adamsite or Bromoacetone, CNB, and CNC. CS has become the most popular due to its strong effect and lack of toxicity in comparison with other similar chemical agents. The effect of CS on a person will depend on whether it is packaged as a solution or used as an aerosol; the size of solution droplets and the size of the CS particulates after evaporation are factors determining its effect on the human body. Certain individuals, however, have been found to be particularly sensitive to CS and/or the organic solvents that are utilized. Studies on the use of CS on the public have noted that it may be ineffective against persons who are either mentally ill or who are under the effects of drugs and alcohol.[8] For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with hydrogen cyanide, HCN. CN, or chloroacetophenone, is a substance used as a riot control agent. ... Adamsite is an organic compound; technically, an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine. ... Bromoacetone, or bromo-2-propanone, is a lachrymatory agent. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ...


Persons who have had contact with CS sometimes develop allergic contact dermatitis,[9] even with blisters and crust.[10][11] Studies show that most of the effects are of a relative short term, but individuals notice some mild effects even after months.[12] Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. ...


The chemical reacts with moisture on the skin and in the eyes causing a burning sensation and the immediate forceful and uncontrollable shutting of the eyes. Reported effects can include tears streaming from the eyes, running nose full of mucus, burning in the nose and throat areas, disorientation, dizziness and restricted breathing. In highly concentrated doses it can also induce severe coughing and vomiting. Almost all of the immediate effects wear off in a matter of minutes.


Use

CS was used to flush the Viet Cong from their tunnels in Vietnam.
CS was used to flush the Viet Cong from their tunnels in Vietnam.

CS is used in spray form by many police forces as a temporary incapacitant and to subdue attackers or persons who are violently aggressive. Officers that are trained in the use and application of CS spray are routinely exposed to it as part of their training. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Recently, blank pistol cartridges carrying CS in powder form have been released to public. These, when fired in relatively close ranges, fully expose the target to the effects of CS, and are employed as a potent defensive weapon in regions where blank firing pistols are legally permitted for such use.


Although predominantly used by police it has also been used in criminal attacks in various countries.[13][14][15][16]


Use of CS in war is prohibited under the terms of the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (signed in 1993) because it could trigger retaliation with more toxic agents such as nerve gas. Domestic police use of CS, however, is legal in many countries. Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ... Also known as Nerve agents, it is the term used for a type of chemical warfare substance that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses. ...


Cyprus

CS was first tested in the field by the British army in Cyprus in 1958. At this time it was known by the code name T792.[17]


Vietnam

It has been reported that thousands of tons of CS gas were used by the U.S. forces in Vietnam to bring Viet Cong into the open, other estimates report 15 million pounds of CS being used.[18] It was also used by the North Vietnamese forces in some battles like Hue in 1968 or during the Easter Offensive in 1972.[19] A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...


Northern Ireland

A mural showing a boy in a gas mask during the Battle of the Bogside.
A mural showing a boy in a gas mask during the Battle of the Bogside.

CS gas was used extensively in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland during the "Battle of the Bogside", a two-day riot in August, 1969. A total of 1,091 canisters containing 12.5g of CS each, and 14 canisters containing 50g of CS each, were released in the densely populated residential area.[20] On 30 August the Himsworth Inquiry was set up to investigate the medical effects of its use in Derry. Its conclusions, viewed in the political context of the time, still pointed towards the necessity of further testing of CS gas before being used as a riot control agent. During the rioting in Belfast, the following year, known as the Falls Curfew, the Army fired up to 1,600 canisters into the densely populated Falls Road area. Not long after, the British Army and RUC ceased using CS in Northern Ireland. Up to this point, it had been used in crowd control scenarios in Derry and Belfast. Image:Mural - Battle of the bogside 2004 SMC.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image:Mural - Battle of the bogside 2004 SMC.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A mural by the Bogside Artists in Derry of a young boy in a gas mask holding a petrol bomb during the Battle of the Bogside, August 1969. ... The Bogside is a nationalist neighbourhood outside the city walls of Derry, Northern Ireland. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A mural by the Bogside Artists in Derry of a young boy in a gas mask holding a petrol bomb during the Battle of the Bogside, August 1969. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... The Falls Curfew, also known as the Lower Falls Curfew or sometimes as the Rape of the Lower Falls, was a British Army operation on the Falls Road in Belfast, Northern Ireland between 3 July and 5 July 1970. ... The Falls Road (Bóthar na bhFál in Irish, meaning road of the hedgerows) is the main road through West Belfast in Northern Ireland; from Divis Street and Castle Place in Belfast City Centre to Andersonstown in the suburbs. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ...


Iraq

Iraq successfully developed CS during the 1970s and during the 1980s produced tons of the substance firstly at Salman Pak and later at al-Muthanna.[21] Saddam Hussein used CS against the Kurds in his own country and against Iran during the Iran-Iraq War. Blackwater Worldwide, acting as an agent of the United States, deployed CS in the Iraq War from a helicopter hovering over a checkpoint in the Green Zone in Bagdhad.[22] Salman Pak (al-Salman) is a town approximately 15 miles south of Baghdad near a peninsula formed by a broad eastward bend of the Tigris River. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... Blackwater Worldwide, formerly Blackwater USA, is a self-described private military company founded in 1997 by Erik Prince and Al Clark. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Baghdad International Airport and the Green Zone. ... For other uses, see Baghdad (disambiguation). ...


Philippines

CS tear gas was used in submersion of the mutiny in Makati that was led by Sen. Antonio Trillanes. The tear gas was fired in the building and all the people in the building including reporters were affected.


England, Scotland & Wales

CS tear gas was first used in mainland Britain to quell rioting in the Toxteth area of Liverpool in 1981.[23] , Toxteth is an inner-city area of Liverpool, Merseyside. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...


Personal incapacitant spray (PIS) was sanctioned for use by police in England and Wales in 1995.[24] The CS preparation in this case is CS dissolved in the organic solvent MiBK, or methyl iso-butyl ketone, an industrial de-greasing agent. The aerosol propellant used in this preparation is nitrogen.[25] Officers in Scotland carry CS spray on their belt. A pollutant that the government wants added to ethanol alcohol to prevent it from being used as a beverage, but only as a vehicle fuel instead. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


It has been noted that the solvent MiBK is itself harmful, and can cause inflammation, dermatitis, burns to the skin and liver damage.[26]


A six month trial by 16 police forces in England began on the 1 March 1996. Only two weeks later, on 16 March 1996, a Gambian asylum seeker, Ibrahima Sey was taken to Ilford Police Station in East London. Whilst incapacitating the man, police sprayed him with CS and held him on the ground for over 15 minutes. The man died, the case was taken to court and although a verdict of "unlawful killing" was given by the jury at the end of the inquiry into his death, no charges were brought against any member of the police force.[27] is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Republic of The Gambia is a country in West Africa. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... For other uses, see Ilford (disambiguation). ... East London area East London is the name commonly given to the north eastern part of London, England on the north side of the River Thames. ... Unlawful killing is a verdict which can be returned by an inquest in the United Kingdom. ...


The forces that do use the PIS in the UK require that police constables should themselves be sprayed with a 3% dissolved CS, during self-defense training, in order for them to be able to be authorized to carry it as personal protection equipment. They are also trained in helping the incapacitated person recover quickly once successfully restrained. Most forces currently issue CS spray to its officers, but there has been a recent move for a few forces to issue PAVA Spray (pelargonic acid vanillylamide aka nonivamide). Protective clothing is clothing designed to protect either the wearers body or other items of clothing from hazards such as heat, chemicals and infection. ... Nonivamide Nonivamide, also known as pelargonic acid vanillylamide, PAVA, nonylic vanillylamide, N-[4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl]nonanamide, N-vanillylnonamide, nonylic acid vanillyl amide, vanillyl pelargonic amide, pelargonyl vanillyl amide, and pseudocapsaicin, an organic compound, is a capsaicinoid, an amide of pelargonic acid and vanillylamine. ...


The CS spray used by UK police has 5 times as much CS as the spray used by American police forces (5% dissolved CS and 1% CS respectively).[28]


In 1999 the UK mental health charity MIND called for a suspension in its use until it is fully tested and there is proof that CS is safe.[29] Mind (the National Association for Mental Health) is a mental health charity in England and Wales, founded in 1946. ...


More recently, in February 2006, there were calls to have CS spray banned in the UK after Dan Ford, from Wareham in Dorset, was permanently facially scarred after being sprayed in the face with a police CS canister. Mr Ford was subsequently advised by doctors to stay out of sunlight for at least 12 months. About the incident, his cousin, Donna Lewis, was quoted as saying, "To look at him, it was like looking at a melting man, with liquid oozing from his face."[30] Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ...


However, it is not yet confirmed that Mr Ford's injury is a reaction to having been exposed to police CS spray, or whether an unrelated chemical exposure has caused the injury. An investigation is ongoing.


The British Armed Forces use CS gas annually to test their CBRN equipment. During initial training they introduce recruits to CS gas by ordering them into a small enclosed space known as a Respirator Test Facility (RTF) and igniting chemical tablets to induce CS production. When recruits have carried out their CBRN drills (which include immediate actions for decontamination, an eating drill, a drinking drill and a gas mask canister change) the NCO in charge of the RTF will order them to remove their respirators and inhale the CS.[citation needed] This is apparently to inform the trainees of what CS effects feel like, so they can have trust in their equipment and procedures, thus proving to themselves that it works in the contaminated environment in training, and are then able to take this confidence to the battlefield environment. CBRN is an acronym used extensively by the UK security services and the UK emergency services. ... CBRN is an acronym used extensively by the UK security services and the UK emergency services. ... A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ...


In 2005, a student from Mayfield School in Essex, used CS Gas inside a school. Several students were taken to A&E, but all survived. The remaining students of the school were held in classrooms and halls, until it was confirmed by the local police and firefighters that the scene was safe. The event was reported only in a local newspaper, the Ilford Recorder. For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... Archant is a publishing company, based in Norwich, Norfolk, England. ...


United States

CS is used by many police forces within the United States. It was most infamously used as one of a number of techniques by FBI law enforcement officials in the 1993 Waco Siege.[31] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Combatants ATF, FBI, U.S. Army Branch Davidians Commanders Assault: Phil Chojnacki Siege: Many David Koresh† Strength Assault: 75 ATF agents Siege: Hundreds of federal agents and soldiers 50+ men, 75+ women and children Casualties 4 dead, 21 wounded in assault 6 dead and 3+ wounded in assault, 79 dead...


Members of the US armed forces are exposed to CS during initial training, and during training refresher courses or equipment maintenance exercises, using CS tablets that are melted on a hotplate. This is to demonstrate the importance of properly wearing a gas mask or a Protective mask, as the agent's presence quickly reveals an improper fit or seal of the mask's rubber gaskets against the face. These exercises also encourage confidence in the ability of the equipment to protect the wearer from such chemical attacks. Basic Combat Trainees in the United States Army are always exposed in a gas-chamber environment using the tablet form, and often the Drill Sergeants put them in formation near the end of their 9 week cycle and throw CS grenades at them. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask. ...


Elsewhere

Police fire tear gas at protesters in Quebec.
Police fire tear gas at protesters in Quebec.

CS was used in large quantities to quell a peaceful protest in Lusaka, Zambia in July 1997 and the 1999 WTO protest in Seattle. Amnesty International reported that it had been manufactured by the UK company Pains-Wessex. Subsequently, Amnesty called for an export ban when the receiving regime is either not fully trained in the use of CS, or had shown usage "contrary to the manufacturer’s instructions".[32] Image File history File links Ftaapolice. ... Image File history File links Ftaapolice. ... Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


In September 2000, the Guardian Newspaper revealed how a UK company, HPP, used legal loopholes to export CS to a private security company in Rwanda, in breach of United Nations sanctions.[33] The Guardian also reported that CS was used by the Hutu militia in Rwanda to flush Tutsis out of buildings before hacking them to death. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ...


CS has been used by the government in South Africa; by Israel against Palestinians and Israelis; by the South Korean government in Seoul, and during the Balkan conflicts by Serbia. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


CS tear gas was used at the G8 protests in Genoa, Italy[34] and Quebec, Canada[35] during the FTAA anti-globalization demonstrations during the Quebec City Summit of the Americas. For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Free Trade Area of the Americas or FTAA (in Spanish: Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, ALCA; in French: Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, ZLEA; in Portuguese: Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, ALCA) is a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce trade... The Summit of the Americas held in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on the weekend of April 20, 2001, was a round of negotiations regarding a proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas. ...


The Canadian, Norwegian and Australian Armies train their soldiers with CS gas in a manner similar to that of the USA, as it is a basic part of NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) or more recently within NATO, CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear) training. Gas is released by burning tablets, usually in a tent or a small building reserved for this purpose (a "gas hut"), and soldiers are exposed to it on three occasions. During the first two exposures the soldier enters the tent or gas hut wearing a gas mask. During the first exposure he removes his gas mask and leaves the tent or hut. During the second exposure he must remove the mask, receive facial exposure, then replace and clear the mask. In the third exposure he enters the tent unprotected, must fit and clear the gas mask before leaving. Other drills such as drinking and under-mask decontamination are usually also practised yearly. Symptoms are a burning sensation on any moist skin, whether due to perspiration or other fluids such as tears or in the nasal membranes.


Toxicity

Bogside Artists' mural of a boy running from CS gas in Derry.
Bogside Artists' mural of a boy running from CS gas in Derry.

Although described as a non-lethal weapon for crowd control, many studies have raised doubts about this classification. As well as creating severe pulmonary damage, CS can also significantly damage the heart and liver.[36] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2352 × 2892 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2352 × 2892 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Bogside Artists are a trio of mural painters, living and working in Northern Ireland. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ...


On September 28, 2000, Prof. Dr. Uwe Heinrich released a study commissioned by John C. Danforth, of 'The Office of Special Counsel', to investigate the use of CS by the FBI at the Branch Davidians' Mount Carmel compound. He concluded that the lethality of CS used would have been determined mainly by two factors: whether gas masks were used and whether the occupants were trapped in a room. He suggests that if no gas masks were used and the occupants were trapped, then, "...there is a distinct possibility that this kind of CS exposure can significantly contribute to or even cause lethal effects."[1] is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... John Claggett Danforth (born September 5, 1936), also referred to as Jack Danforth, is a former United States Ambassador to the United Nations and former United States Senator from Missouri. ... The Branch Davidians are a religious group originating from the Seventh_day Adventist church. ...


Many reports have associated CS exposure with miscarriages,[36] this is consistent with its reported clastogenic effect (abnormal chromosome change) on mammalian cells. Clastogenic (klăstə-jĕnĭk) effects are damages to chromosomes, such as breaks in or change in the of amount of proteins. ...


When CS is metabolized, cyanide can be detected in human tissue.[36] According to the United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, CS emits "very toxic fumes" when heated to decomposition, and at specified concentrations CS gas is an immediate danger to life and health. They also state that those exposed to CS gas should seek medical attention immediately.[2]


Decontamination

CS contamination can be removed by washing with an alkaline solution of water and 5% sodium bisulfite.[5] A quick way to decontaminate the eyes is to pour cow's milk into them. Vision will be restored although breathing difficulties and pain will persist.[citation needed] The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ...


See also

Polish tear gas grenade launcher.
Polish tear gas grenade launcher.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1827x793, 372 KB) Summary RWGŁ-3 - Ręczna Wyrzutnia Granatów Łzawiących - tear-gas grenade handy launcher (based on AK-47 assault rifle) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: CS gas User:SeanMack/CS ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1827x793, 372 KB) Summary RWGŁ-3 - Ręczna Wyrzutnia Granatów Łzawiących - tear-gas grenade handy launcher (based on AK-47 assault rifle) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: CS gas User:SeanMack/CS ... Not to be confused with hydrogen cyanide, HCN. CN, or chloroacetophenone, is a substance used as a riot control agent. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ... CR gas or dibenzoxazepine, chemically dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine, is an incapacitating agent and a lachrymatory agent. ... Grenade redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from Oleoresin Capsicum), OC gas, capsicum spray, or oleoresin capsicum) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness) that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Heinrich, U. "Possible lethal effects of CS tear gas on Branch Davidians during the FBI raid on the Mount Carmel compound near Waco, Texas." www.veritagiustizia.it.] September 2000. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  2. ^ a b Williams, Kenneth E. "Detailed Facts About Tear Agent O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS)." U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  3. ^ www.wombles.org.uk Article on pepper spray and tear gas.09 March 2006)
  4. ^ "definition." columbia.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  5. ^ a b "Orthochlorobenzylidenemalononitrile ClC6H4CHCCN(CN)2." Zarc International. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  6. ^ a b Corson BB, Stoughton RW (1928). "Reactions of Alpha, Betha-Unsaturated Dinitriles". J Am Chem Soc 50: 2825-2837. doi:10.1021/ja01397a037. 
  7. ^ Pande A, Ganesan K, Jain AK, Gupta PK, Malhotr RC (2005). "Novel Eco-Friendly Process for the Synthesis of 2-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and ITS Analogues Using Water As a Solvent". Org Proc Res Develop 9: 133-136. 
  8. ^ "Safer Restraint: A report of the conference held in April 2002 at Church House, Westminster." Police Complaints Authority. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  9. ^ Sommer S, Wilkinson SM (1999). "Exposure-pattern dermatitis due to CS gas". Contact Dermatitis 40: 46-47. 
  10. ^ Karalliedde L, Wheeler H, MacLehose R, Murray V (2000). "Possible immediate and long-term health effects following exposure to chemical warfare agents". Public Health 114: 238-248. doi:10.1038/sj.ph.1900659. PMID 10962584. 
  11. ^ Weir E (2001). "The health impact of crowd-control agents". J Am Med C 164: 1889-1890. PMID 11450291. 
  12. ^ Karagama YG , Newton JR, Newbegin C J R (2003). "Short-term and long-term physical effects of exposure to CS spray". J Royal Soc MedMed C 96A: 172-174. PMID 12668703. 
  13. ^ Kelso, Paul. "CS gas attack by former pupil injures 68 children." The Guardian. October 1, 1999. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  14. ^ Condon, Deborah. "Gas attack at Dublin hospital." www.irishhealth.com. May 14, 2004. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  15. ^ "Shopkeeper attacked with CS gas." BBC News. December 1, 2005. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  16. ^ "Car thieves spray gas at motorist." BBC News. January 4, 2006. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  17. ^ "Final Report of the Expert Panel to Review SAS Veterans’ Health Concerns (Appendix D)." Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  18. ^ "totse.com The Human Aversion to Killing and the Lie of "Non-Lethal" Weapons." Totse. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  19. ^ Bryce, Robert. "Lethal Weapon: FBI's Use of Tear Gas Questioned at Davidian Trial." The Austin Chronicle. July 7, 2000. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  20. ^ Dr Raymond McClean (1997). The Road To Bloody Sunday (revised edition). Guildhall: Printing Press. ISBN 0-946451-37-0.  (extracts available online)
  21. ^ "WMD Profiles: Chemical." Iraq Watch. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  22. ^ "[1]." [2]. Retrieved on January 10, 2008.
  23. ^ "1965: British police to be issued with tear gas." BBC News. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  24. ^ Euripidou E, MacLehose R, Fletcher A (2004). "An investigation into the short term and medium term health impacts of personal incapacitant sprays. A follow up of patients reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London)". Emerg Med J 21 (5): 548-52. PMID 15333526. 
  25. ^ "CS Spray: Increasing Public Safety." The Police Complaints Authority. March 2000. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  26. ^ "Safety data for methyl isobutyl ketone." [http://physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/ Material Safety Data Sheet hosted by The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory Oxford University]. Last Updated on June 16, 2005. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  27. ^ "Report on the death in police custody of Ibrahima Sey." Inquest. 1997.
  28. ^ Southward RD (2000). "CS incapacitant spray". J Accid Emerg Med 17 (1): 76. PMID 10659007. 
  29. ^ "Experts fear unknown CS spray risks." BBC News. September 24, 1999. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  30. ^ "CS spray man 'scarred for life'." BBC News. February 2, 2006. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  31. ^ "A Primer on CS Gas." Public Broadcasting Service. 1995. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  32. ^ "Stopping the Torture Trade: 3 - Chemical Control."Amnesty International. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  33. ^ Burke, Jason; Johnson-Thomas, Brian. "British firms trade in torture." The Guardian. September 10, 2000. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  34. ^ Tartarini, Laura. "Genova Update." italy.indymedia.org. April 13, 2003. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  35. ^ Di Matteo, Enzo. "Foggy Over Tear Gas Safety." NOW Online Edition. May 177–23, 2001. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  36. ^ a b c Howard Hu, MD, MPH; Jonathan Fine, MD; Paul Epstein, MD, MPH; Karl Kelsey, MD, MOH; Preston Reynolds, MD, PhD; Bailus Walker, PhD, MPH. "Tear Gas: Harassing Agent or Toxic Chemical Weapon?" Journal of the American Medical Association. August 4, 1989. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.

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BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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External links

  • Gas Chromatography NIST
  • U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine General Facts About Tear Agent O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS) {pdf}
  • PATTEN REPORT RECOMMENDATIONS 69 AND 70 RELATING TO PUBLIC ORDER EQUIPMENT A Paper prepared by the Steering Group led by the Northern Ireland Office - April 2001
  • COMMITTEES ON TOXICITY, MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF CHEMICALS IN FOOD, CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND THE ENVIRONMENTSTATEMENT ON 2-CHLOROBENZYLIDENE MALONONITRILE (CS) AND CS SPRAY, September 1999. (pdf)
  • Journal of Non-lethal Combatives, Jan 2003 Noxious Tear-Gas Bomb Mightier in Peace than in War.
  • "Crowd Control Technologies : An Assessment Of Crowd Control Technology Options For The European Union" - The Omega Foundation (pdf)
  • HEALTH AND SAFETY IN POLICING University of Nottingham paper on CS use in the UK.
  • Information and effects of CS and CN gas
  • BBC 'wiki' site - entry on CS gas
  • eMedicine Information on irritants: Cs, Cn, Cnc, Ca, Cr, Cnb, PS
As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... A blood agent (also called a cyanogen agent) is a compound that prevents the normal transfer of oxygen from the blood to the body tissues, resulting in chemical asphyxiation. ... Cyanogen chloride, also known as CK, is a highly toxic blood agent first proposed for use in warfare by the French. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... Blister agents are named for their ability to cause large, painful water blisters on the bodies of those affected. ... Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. ... The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. ... The nitrogen mustards are cytotoxic chemotherapy agents similar to mustard gas. ... This article is about the chemical. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous military weapons. ... For other uses, see Sarin (disambiguation). ... Boiling point 198 °C (388 °F) Freezing/melting point −42 °C (−44 °F) Vapor pressure 0. ... Cyclosarin or GF (Cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... Skeletal formula of GV Ball-and-stick model of GV GV (P-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N,N-dimethylphosphonamidic fluoride) is an organophosphate nerve agent. ... VE (S-(Diethylamino)ethyl O-ethyl ethylphosphonothioate) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve gas. ... VG (also called Amiton or Tetram) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve agent. ... VM (Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, S-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl) O-ethyl ester) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve agent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Novichok (Russian новичок: Newcomer) is a series of nerve agents that were developed by the Soviet Union in the 1980s and 1990s and allegedly the most deadly nerve agents ever made. ... Categories: Chemical weapons | Stub ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Chloropicrin is a slightly oily, colorless or faintly yellow liquid of the formula CCl3NO2. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Diphosgene (ClCO2CCl3) Diphosgene (Trichloromethyl chloroformate, ClCO2CCl3) is a chemical originally developed for chemical warfare, a few months after the first use of phosgene. ... The term incapacitating agent is defined by the U.S. Department of Defense as An agent that produces temporary physiological or mental effects, or both, which will render individuals incapable of concerted effort in the performance of their assigned duties. ... Diagram of a BZ molecule 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), empirical formula C21H23NO3, full chemical name 1-azabicyclo[2. ... KOLOKOL-1 is an opiate-derived incapacitating agent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from Oleoresin Capsicum), OC gas, capsicum spray, or oleoresin capsicum) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness) that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense... Not to be confused with hydrogen cyanide, HCN. CN, or chloroacetophenone, is a substance used as a riot control agent. ... CR gas or dibenzoxazepine, chemically dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine, is an incapacitating agent and a lachrymatory agent. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CS gas (193 words)
CS gas (commonly called tear gas), or chlorobenzylidene malonitrile, is a non-lethal riot control agent.
CS is often used in conjunction with OC spray, which is commonly called pepper spray.
CS gas and OC sprays are usually used by police to disperse riots and demonstrations.
frontline: waco - the inside story: Readings | PBS (391 words)
CS, which stands for 0-chlorobenzalmalononitrile, is actually a white solid powder usually mixed with a dispersal agent, like methylene chloride, which carries the particles through the air.
CS gas is not known to have caused any deaths or permanent injuries, however its use has been banned in some American military operations.
First, on the day tear gas was deployed there was a steady 17 to 24 mph wind, which, combined with gaping holes in the compound made by the tanks, created a situation where much of the tear gas was blown away.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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