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Encyclopedia > CRYPTREC

CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. It is comparable in many respects to the European Union's NESSIE project and to the Advanced Encryption Standard process run by NIST in the U.S.. Cryptography (from Greek kryptós, hidden, and gráphein, to write) is, traditionally, the study of means of converting information from its normal, comprehensible form into an incomprehensible format, rendering it unreadable without secret knowledge — the art of encryption. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), was chosen using a process markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the ageing Data Encryption Standard (DES). ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ...

Contents

Comparison with NESSIE

There is some overlap, and some conflict, between the NESSIE selections and the CRYPTREC draft recommendations. Both efforts include some of the best cryptographers in the world, and actual (or apparent) conflicts in their selections and recommendations should be examined very carefully. For instance, CRYPTREC recommends several 64 bit block cyphers while NESSIE selected none, but CRYPTREC was obliged by its terms of reference to take into account existing standards and practices, while NESSIE was not. Similar differences in terms of reference account for CRYPTREC recommending at least one stream cypher, RC4, while the NESSIE report specifically said that it was notable that they had not selected any of those considered. RC4 is widely used in the SSL/TLS protocols; nevertheless, CRYPTREC recommended that it only be used with 128-bit keys. Essentially the same consideration led to CRYPTREC's inclusion of 160-bit message digest algorithms, despite their suggestion that they be avoided in new system designs. Also, CRYPTREC was unusually careful to examine variants and modifications of the techniques, or at least to discuss their care in doing so; this resulted in particularly detailed recommendations regarding them. The operation of A5/1, a LFSR-based stream cipher used to encrypt mobile phone conversations. ... Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS), its successor, are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as e-mail, Internet faxing, and other data transfers. ...


Background and sponsors

CRYPTREC includes members from Japanese academia, industry, and government. It was started in May 2000 by combining efforts from several agencies who were investigating methods and techniques for implementing 'e-Government' in Japan. Presently, it is sponsored by Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...

  • the Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry,
  • the Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs and Post and Telecommunications,
  • the Telecommunications Advancement Organization, and
  • the Information-Technology Promotion Agency.

Responsibilities

It is also the organization providing technical evaluation and recommendations in regard to regulations implementing Japanese laws: examples include that on Electronic Signatures and Certification Services (Law 102 of FY2000, taking effect as from April 2001), the Basic Law on the Formulation of an Advanced Information and Telecommunications Network Society of 2000 (Law 144 of FY2000), and the Public Individual Certification Law of December 2002. Furthermore, CRYPTEC has responsibilities with regard to the Japanese contribution to the ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC27 standardization effort. ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The initials IEC can stand for: Independent Electoral Commission Industrial Emergency Council Inertial electrostatic confinement (in fusion energy) Institut des Experts-comptables et des Conseils fiscaux Institut dEstudis Catalans, Catalan Studies Institute Interactive Evolutionary Computation International Education Centre International Electrical Congress International Electrotechnical Commission See also IEC connector for...


Techniques evaluated

The Committee issued public calls for submissions in June 2000 and in August 2001, and received a total of 63 submissions. In addition it compiled a list of techniques which were not directly submitted but which have been adopted as recommended techniques elsewhere and judged important (called indispensable cryptographic techniques), or whose evaluation was requested by other organizations or which had special legal significance in Japan (called specific evaluation target techniques).


The Committee has issued reports on its progress in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and produced a draft report and recommendation in August of 2003. The draft report recommends many cryptographic algorithms, protocols, and techniques, but some of them are recommended only conditionally. The list below includes the conditions noted (in italics).


Evaluated techniques (as of 2002)

NB: there is overlap between the two 'not submitted' groups. This arose from the history and has no other meaning.


indispensable cryptographic techniques (not submitted to CRYPTREC):

Public Key Algorithms (aka asymmetric key w/ public/private key property algorithms)
authentication
signature
DSA (NIST Digital Signature Algorithm from the Digital Signature Standard FIPS Pub 186-2; ANSI X9.30, part 1)
ECDSA (ANSI X9.62) (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm; ANSI X9.62, SEC1 by Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group - 2000)
RSASSA-PKCS1 v1.5
confidentiality
key agreement
Diffie-Hellman (Diffie-Hellman -- ANSI X9.42-2001 specification only)
Symmetric Key Cypher Algorithms
64-bit block cyphers
DES (NBS(NIST)/NSA, FIPS Pub, and other, std)
Triple DES (Tuchman et al, FIPS Pub, and other, std)
128-bit block cyphers
AES (NIST Advanced Encryption Standard, FIPS Pub std)
Cryptographic Hash Algorithms
MD5 (Message Digest algorithm 5 (Rivest))
RIPEMD-160 RIPE project Message Digest at 160-bit length
SHA-1 (NIST/NSA Secure Hash Algorithm -- 160 bit digest)
SHA-256 (... 256 bit digest)
SHA-384 (... 384 bit digest)
SHA-512 (... 512 bit digest)
Cryptographic Pseudo-Random Number Generators
PRNG for DSA in FIPS Pub 186-2 Appendix 3
PRNG in ANSI X9.42-2001 Annex C.1/C.2
PRNG in ANSI X9.62-1998 Annex A.4
PRNG in ANSI X9.63-2001 Annex A.4
PRNG for general purpose FIPS Pub 186-2 (inc change notice 1) Appendix 3.1
PRNG in FIPS Pub 186-2 (inc change notice 1) revised Appendix 3.1/3.2

specific evaluation targets (not submitted to CRYPTREC): DSA may stand for: Driving Standards Agency, an Executive Agency of the British Department for Transport Das Schwarze Auge (German adventure role-playing game) Democratic Socialists of America Direct Selling Association Digital Signature Algorithm Directory System Agent, part of X.500 Directory Service Agent, part of Microsoft Exchange Distributed Systems... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... Elliptic Curve DSA (EC-DSA) is a variant of the Digital Signature Algorithm which operates on elliptic curve groups. ... Diffie-Hellman key exchange is a cryptographic protocol which allows two parties to agree on a secret key over an insecure communication channel. ... General Designer(s) IBM First published 1975 (January 1977 as the standard) Derived from Lucifer (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Triple DES, G-DES, DES-X, LOKI89, ICE Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 56 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best... NBS can stand for: Nash Bargaining Solution in Economics National Banking System in Economics National Bureau of Standards which is, today, called NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In cryptography, Triple DES (also 3DES) is a block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... In cryptography, MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely-used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. ... RIPEMD-160 (RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest) is a 160-bit message digest algorithm (and cryptographic hash function) developed in Europe by Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers and Bart Preneel, and first published in 1996. ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... DSA may stand for: Driving Standards Agency, an Executive Agency of the British Department for Transport Das Schwarze Auge (German adventure role-playing game) Democratic Socialists of America Direct Selling Association Digital Signature Algorithm Directory System Agent, part of X.500 Directory Service Agent, part of Microsoft Exchange Distributed Systems... FIPS could mean Federal Information Processing Standard, publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government. ... The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... FIPS could mean Federal Information Processing Standard, publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government. ... FIPS could mean Federal Information Processing Standard, publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government. ...

Public Key Algorithms (aka asymmetric key w/ public/private key property algorithms)
authentication
signature
DSA
ECDSA (in ANSI X9.62)
ESIGN (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone)
RSASSA-PKCS1 v1.5 (RSA Labs, 2002)
TSA-ESIGN (Trisection Size Hash ESIGN -- NTT)
confidentiality
RSAES-PKCS1 v1.5 (RSA Labs)
key agreement -- none in this group
Symmetric Key Cypher Algorithms
DES/Triple DES (40, 56 & 168 bit keys)
RC2 (40 & 128 bit keys)
SEED (S Korean Government standard block cypher, 128 bit key)
stream cyphers
RC4 (40 & 128 bit keys)
Cryptographic Hash Algorithms -- none in this group
Cryptographic Pseudo-Random Number Generators -- none in this group

submitted techniques: General Designer(s) IBM First published 1975 (January 1977 as the standard) Derived from Lucifer (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Triple DES, G-DES, DES-X, LOKI89, ICE Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 56 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best... In cryptography, Triple DES (also 3DES) is a block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher. ... General Designer(s) Ron Rivest First published source code leaked 1996 (designed 1987) Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 8–128 bits, in steps of eight bits; default 64 bits Structure Source-heavy Feistel network Number of rounds... A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For the Vietnam road named RC4, see Route Coloniale 4. ...

Public Key Algorithms (aka asymmetric key w/ public/private key property algorithms)
authentication
signature
ECDSA(SEC1)
ESIGN
RSA-PSS
confidentiality
ECIES(SEC1) (formerly ECAES, SECG 2000)
HIME(R) (Hitachi)
key agreement
ECDH(SEC1) (SECG 2000)
PSEC-KEM
RSA-OAEP
Symmetric Key Cypher Algorithms
64-bit block cyphers
Hierocrypt-L1
MISTY1
CIPHERUNICORN-E
128-bit block cyphers
Camellia
CIPHERUNICORN-A
Hierocrypt-3
RC6 (by Rivest; withdrawn by submitter and not further evaluated)
SC2000
stream cyphers
MUGI
MULTI-S01
Cryptographic Hash Algorithms -- none submitted
Cryptographic Pseudo-Random Number Generators -- none submitted

RSA-PSS is a new signature scheme that is based on the RSA cryptosystem and provides increased security assurance. ... In cryptography, MISTY1 (or MISTY-1) is a block cipher designed in 1995 by Mitsuru Matsui and others for Mitsubishi Electric. ... In cryptography, Camellia is a block cipher that has been evaluated favorably by several organisations, including the European Unions NESSIE project (a selected algorithm), and the Japanese CRYPTREC project (a recommended algorithm). ... In cryptography, RC6 is a symmetric key block cipher derived from RC5. ... In cryptography, MUGI is a pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) designed for use as a stream cipher. ... In cryptography, MULTI-S01 (pronounced multi-ess-zero-one), is an encryption algorithm based on a pseudorandom number generator (PRNG). ...

Recommended techniques (as of Nov 2002, pub in Aug 2003 draft report)

NB: italics denote contingent recommendation condition(s)
Public Key Algorithms (aka asymmetric key algorithms w/ public/private key property)

authentication -- none recommended
signature
DSA
ECDSA (ANSI X9.62, SEC 1) (empirically secure)
---ESIGN (forgeable factor discovered does not have provable security)
---TSH-ESIGN (does not have provable security)
RSA-PSS (provably secure)
RSASSA-PKCS1 v1.5 (empirically secure)
confidentiality
---ECIES (vulnerable to chosen plaintext attacks)
---HIME(R) (no provable security, specification errors)
RSA-OAEP (provably secure)
RSAES-PKCS1 v1.5 (Permitted 'for the time being' (as empirically secure), due to use in SSL3.0/TSL1.0 -- use only with maximum caution)
key agreement
DH (empirically secure)
ECDH (empirically secure)
PSEC-KEM (recommended only in Data Encapsulation Mechanism construction w/ elliptic curve parameters as defined by SEC 1)


Symmetric Key Cypher Algorithms

64-bit block cyphers (128 bit block cyphers are preferable if possible)
CIPHERUNICORN-E
Hierocrypto-L1
MISTY1
3-key Triple DES (Permitted 'for the time being' if used as specified in FIPS Pub 46-3, and if specified as a de facto standard)
128-bit block cyphers -- only 128-bit block cyphers are recommended
AES
Camellia
CIPHERUNICORN-A
Hierocrypt-3
SC2000
stream cyphers
MUG1
MULTI-S01
RC4 (128-bit keys only)


Cryptographic Hash Algorithms (256-bit or larger digests are to be preferred in new designs. The two 160-bit digest algorithms listed are acceptable if already included in a current public key specification)

RIPEMD-160 (160 bit digest)
SHA-1 (160 bit digest)
SHA-256
SHA-384
SHA-512


Cryptographic Pseudo-Random Number Generators -- those listed are examples only, none are recommended

RPNG based on SHA-1 in ANSI X9.42-2001 Annex C.1
PRNG based on SHA-1 for general purposes in FIPS Pub 186-2 (inc change notice 1) Appendix 3.1
PRNG based on SHA-1 for general purposes in FIPS Pub 186-2 (inc change notice 1) revised Appendix 3.1

External links

  • Main CRYPTREC Web page
edit
Block ciphers
Algorithms: 3-Way | AES | Akelarre | Anubis | Blowfish | C2 | Camellia | CAST-128 | CAST-256 | Cobra| CMEA | CS-Cipher | DEAL | DES | DES-X | FEAL | FROG | G-DES | GOST | Hasty Pudding Cipher | ICE | IDEA | IDEA NXT | Iraqi | KASUMI | KHAZAD | Khufu and Khafre | Libelle | LOKI89/91 | LOKI97 | Lucifer | MacGuffin | Madryga | MAGENTA | MARS | MISTY1 | MMB | NewDES | Noekeon | RC2 | RC5 | RC6 | REDOC | Red Pike | S-1 | SAFER | SEED | Serpent | SHACAL | SHARK | Skipjack | SMS4 | Square | TEA | Triple DES | Twofish | XTEA
Design: Feistel network | Key schedule | Product cipher | S-box | SPN   Attacks: Brute force | Linear / Differential cryptanalysis | Mod n | Related key | XSL
Standardization: AES process | CRYPTREC | NESSIE   Misc: Avalanche effect | Block size | IV | Key size | Modes of operation | Piling-up lemma | Weak key
edit
Cryptography
History of cryptography | Cryptanalysis | Cryptography portal | Topics in cryptography
Symmetric-key algorithm | Block cipher | Stream cipher | Public-key cryptography | Cryptographic hash function | Message authentication code | Random numbers

  Results from FactBites:
 
CRYPTREC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (871 words)
CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use.
Also, CRYPTREC was unusually careful to examine variants and modifications of the techniques, or at least to discuss their care in doing so; this resulted in particularly detailed recommendations regarding them.
CRYPTREC includes members from Japanese academia, industry, and government.
Article about "CRYPTREC" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (878 words)
It is comparable in many respects to the European Union's NESSIE project and to the Advanced Encryption Standard process run by NIST in the US.
For instance, CRYPTREC recommends several 64 bit block cyphers while NESSIE selected none, but CRYPTREC was obliged to take into account existing standards and practices.
Similar differences in terms of reference account for CRYPTREC recommending at least one stream cypher, RC4, while the NESSIE report specifically noted that it was notable that they had not selected any of those considered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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