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Encyclopedia > CN gas
CN gas
IUPAC name chloroacetophenone
Identifiers
CAS number 532-27-4
Properties
Molecular formula C8H7ClO
Molar mass 154.59 g/mol
Melting point

26.8 °C Image File history File links CN_gas_structure. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references
Not to be confused with hydrogen cyanide, HCN.

CN, or chloroacetophenone, is a substance used as a riot control agent. It has the molecular formula C8H7ClO. It was investigated, but not used, during the First and Second World Wars, and was used by United States forces in Vietnam. Because of its greater toxicity, it has largely been supplanted by CS gas. The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


CN is still supplied to paramilitary and police forces in a small pressurized aerosol can known as “Mace” or tear gas. Its use has fallen by the wayside as pepper spray works faster and disperses quicker than CN. Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from Oleoresin Capsicum), OC gas, capsicum spray, or oleoresin capsicum) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness) that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense...


Like CS gas, this compound irritates the mucous membranes (oral, nasal, conjunctival and tracheobronchial). Sometimes it can give rise to more generalized reactions such as syncope, temporary loss of balance and orientation. More rarely, cutaneous irritating outbreaks have been observed and allergic contact permanent dermatitis. The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... Relating to or located in both the Trachea and the Bronchi. ... It has been suggested that Central Ischaemic Response be merged into this article or section. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ...

This article forms part of the series
Chemical warfare
Blood agents: Cyanogen chloride (CK) – Hydrogen cyanide (AC)
Blister agents: Lewisite (L) – Sulfur mustard gas (HD, H, HT, HL, HQ) – Nitrogen mustard gas (HN1, HN2, HN3)
Nerve agents: G-Agents: Tabun (GA) – Sarin (GB) – Soman (GD) – Cyclosarin (GF) – GV | V-Agents: VEVGVMVX | Novichok agents
Pulmonary agents: ChlorineChloropicrin (PS) – Phosgene (CG) – Diphosgene (DP)
Incapacitating agents: Agent 15 (BZ) – KOLOKOL-1
Riot control agents: Pepper spray (OC) – CS gasCN gas (mace) – CR gas
v  d  e

  Results from FactBites:
 
CN, CS, Tear Gas, Information, Effects, Reports (655 words)
Unfortunately, reports on the toxic ocular effects of CN from this type of exposure were usually confounded by traumatic injuries from the blast effect of the delivery device, and this makes it difficult to determine with certainty the exact extent of ocular damage resulting from CN exposure.
A possible problem associated with the use of CN for personal defense is that it has been reported to have limited effectiveness against some individuals, notably those under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or those with certain mental disturbances.
Exposure to CN at concentrations that might be produced by a defense spray usually results in extreme irritation of the eyes, burning pain, conjunctival hyperemia, lacrimation, and possibly blepharospasm.
Chloroacetophenone (1427 words)
CN, the active ingredient in Chemical Mace, when applied directly to the skin produces extreme irritation with erythema and vesicles (a small sac or cyst filled with fluid such as a blister).
In subjects exposed to CN sprays, lesions develop in two stages: first, redness and burning sensation on the face, which characteristically is only affected on one side, owing to the lateral projection of the tear gas.
Five of the eyes were removed shortly after injury, revealing necrosis (death of a cell) of the anterior segment, an intense necrotizing keratitis (death of the tissue of the cornea) of varying degree, and an associated suppurative iridocyclitis (inflammation of the iris).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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