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The CIA Seal
The CIA Seal

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. The CIA Seal This work is copyrighted. ... The CIA Seal This work is copyrighted. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization devoted to gathering of information by means of espionage (spying), communication interception, cryptoanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... A corporation is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name AS (anonymous society) or something similar, depending on language (see below). ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...


Its headquarters are in the community of Langley in the McLean CDP of Fairfax County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C.. The CIA is part of the American Intelligence Community, which is now led by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The roles and functions of the CIA are roughly equivalent to those of the British Secret Intelligence Service or the Australian Secret Intelligence Service or the Israeli Mossad. Langley is a community in the census-designated place of McLean in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... McLean is an unincorporated community located in Fairfax County, Virginia. ... A census-designated place (CDP) is an area identified by the United States Census Bureau for statistical reporting. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1742 Seat Fairfax Area  - Total  - Water 1,053 km² (407 mi²) 30 km² (12 mi²) 2. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... Upper part of the Potomac River The Potomac River flows into Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Washington, D.C., short for the District of Columbia (locals know the city as the District, DC,—or, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United States of America. ... The Intelligence Community of the United States is an organization of several executive branch agencies within the federal government that are responsible for foreign and domestic intelligence, military planning, and espionage. ... Seal of the United States Director of National Intelligence The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is a United States cabinet-level official coordinating all 15 components of the Intelligence Community, and is the principal intelligence adviser to the president and the statutory intelligence advisor to the National Security Council. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service or simply Six, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) is Australias foreign intelligence service, roughly equivalent to the British Secret Intelligence Service or the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Official seal of the Mossad Ha-Mossad le-Modiin ule-Tafkidim Meyuhadim (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations) is an Israeli intelligence agency, commonly referred to as Mossad. ...

Contents


Organization

History

Original sign with seal from the CIA's first building on E Street in Washington, DC
Original sign with seal from the CIA's first building on E Street in Washington, DC

The Agency, created in 1947 by President Harry S. Truman, is a descendant of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) of World War II. The OSS was dissolved in October 1945 but William J. Donovan, the creator of the OSS, had submitted a proposal to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944 calling for a new organization having direct Presidential supervision, "which will procure intelligence both by overt and covert methods and will at the same time provide intelligence guidance, determine national intelligence objectives, and correlate the intelligence material collected by all government agencies." Despite strong opposition from the military, the State Department, and the FBI, Truman established the Central Intelligence Group in January 1946. Later under the National Security Act of 1947 (which became effective on September 18, 1947) the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency were established. Original sign with seal from the CIAs first building - 2430 E Street, Washington, DC. Reformatted from http://www. ... Original sign with seal from the CIAs first building - 2430 E Street, Washington, DC. Reformatted from http://www. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-fourth Vice President (1945) and the thirty-third President of the United States (1945 – 1953), succeeding to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime (but not direct) precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was by far the bloodiest, most expensive, and most significant war in... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... William Donovan William Joseph Donovan (January 1, 1883 – February 8, 1959) was born in Buffalo, New York on New Years Day, 1883, and is best remembered today as wartime head of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945), the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Secrecy is the condition of hiding information from others. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... -1... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ...


In 1949, the Central Intelligence Agency Act (also called "Public Law 110") was passed, permitting the agency to use confidential fiscal and administrative procedures and exempting it from many of the usual limitations on the use of federal funds. The act also exempted the CIA from having to disclose its "organization, functions, officials, titles, salaries, or numbers of personnel employed." It also created a program called "PL-110" to handle defectors and other "essential aliens" outside normal immigration procedures, as well as give those persons cover stories and economic support. [1] 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...


During the first years of its existence, other branches of government did not exercise much control over the Agency. This was often justified by a desire to defeat and match the activities of the KGB across the globe, a task that many believed could only be accomplished through an equally ungentlemanly approach. As a result, few in government inquired too closely into CIA activity. The rapid expansion of the Agency and a developing sense of independence under DCI Allen Dulles added to this trend. Cheka-KGB emblem: sword and shield The Committee for State Security, or KGB, (Russian:   listen?), was the name of the main Soviet Security Agency and intelligence agency, as well as the main secret police agency from March 13, 1954 to November 6, 1991. ... Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ...


Things came to a head in the early 1970s, around the time of the Watergate affair. One dominant feature of political life during this period were the attempts of the Democratic Congress to extend its powers and oversight over other branches of government. Revelations about past CIA activities provided both the opportunity and the motive to carry out this process in the sphere of intelligence operations. The involvement of ex-CIA agents in the Watergate break-ins and the fact Nixon tried get the CIA to block Watergate investigations by appointing James R. Schlesinger as DCI hastened the Agency's fall from grace. The Watergate building. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ...


Schlesinger had commissioned a series of reports on past CIA wrongdoing produced while he was DCI. These reports, known euphemistically as "the Family Jewels", were kept close to the Agency's chest until an article by Seymour Hersh in the New York Times broke the news that the CIA had been involved in the assassination of foreign leaders and kept files on some seven thousand American citizens involved in the peace movement (Operation CHAOS). Commissions were ordered and the CIA fiercly investigated. Around the christmas of 1974/5, another blow was struck by Congress when they blocked covert intervention in Angola. Seymour Hersh Seymour Myron (Sy) Hersh (born April 8, 1937) is an American investigative journalist and author who contributes regularly to The New Yorker on military and security matters. ...


The CIA was subsequently somewhat emasculated. While collection of foreign intelligence on U.S. citizenry has always been prohibited by its charter, the restrictions and oversight of the 1970s cut into the CIA's intelligence-gathering powers at home. Any such operation against a U.S. citizen must fall within its counterespionage or antiterrorist purview and requires senior approval, up to and including the Director of National Intelligence or the Attorney General for certain operations. Espionage operations intended to identify enemy spies. ... The post of National Intelligence Director was created in the wake of the September 11th attacks to be in charge of 12-plus intelligence agencies. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ...


Today, the Central Intelligence Agency reports to U.S. Congressional committees but also answers to the President directly. The National Security Advisor is a permanent cabinet member responsible for briefing the President on pertinent information collected from all U.S. intelligence agencies including the National Security Agency, the Drug Enforcement Agency, and others. Seal of the Congress. ... The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state of the United States. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The National Security Agency / Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is a United States government agency responsible for both the collection and analysis of message communications, and for the security of government communications against similar agencies elsewhere. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ...


Some critics have charged that this violates the requirement in the U.S. Constitution that the federal budget be openly published. Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


In 1988, President George H. W. Bush became the first former head of the CIA to become President of the United States. 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ...


On January 25, 1993, Mir Amir Kansi murdered 2 people and injured 3 others in their cars in front of CIA headquarters in Langley. Kansi was later captured and was executed in 2002. January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Mir Amir Kansi (also known as Mir Amir Kasi) (February 10, 1964 -- November 14, 2002) was a Pakistani citizen who shot five people in their cars as they were turning towards the entrance to US CIA headquarters on January 25, 1993. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Structure

CIA activities fall into four categories. The Directorate of Intelligence (DI) deals with the collection and processing of information on foreign targets. The Directorate of Operations is responsible for the clandestine collection of foreign intelligence and covert action. The Directorate of Science and Technology creates and applies innovative technology in support of the intelligence collection mission. Finally the Directorate of Support ensures the smooth running of the Agency as a whole. Bold textCovert action is a practice that generally falls into the human intelligence area, that varies in purpose which may include gathering intelligence, kidnapping, sabotage, assasination, and other health altering practices. ...


Relationship with other agencies

The CIA has strong links with other intelligence organisations, namely its Canadia counterpart, CSIS, which is headed by Gen. Luke Swenson. The CIA acts as the primary American provider of central intelligence estimates. It makes use of the surveillance satellites of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and the signal interception capabilities of the NSA, including the Echelon system, the surveillance aircraft of the various branches of the U.S. armed forces and the analysts of the State Department and Department of Energy. At one stage, the CIA even operated its own fleet of U-2 surveillance aircraft. The agency has also operated alongside regular military forces, and also employs a group of clandestine officers with paramilitary skills in its Special Activities Division. Micheal Spann, a CIA officer killed in November 2001 during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, was one such individual. A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a department of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) which designs, builds and operates the reconnaissance satellites of the United States government. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Antenna 4 (through the wire) in former Echelon intelligence gathering station at Silvermine, Cape Peninsula, South Africa. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The U-2 is a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude Surveillance aircraft flown by the United States Air Force. ... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... The Special Activities Staff is a division of the Central Intelligence Agencys Directorate of Operations responsible for covert paramilitary actions effected when the U.S. government does not wish to be associated with an operation. ... Johnny Micheal Spann Johnny Micheal Spann (March 1, 1969 - November 25, 2001) was the first American killed in combat after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The United States invasion of Afghanistan (codenamed Operation Enduring Freedom)occurred in October 2001, in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S., marking the beginning of its War on Terrorism campaign. ...


Director of the Central Intelligence Agency

The head of the CIA is given the title Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (DCIA). In the United States, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (DCIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency which is part of the U.S. Intelligence Community. ...


Before April 21, 2005, the DCIA was known as the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) and was not only the head of the CIA but also the leader of the entire U.S. Intelligence Community. In this role, he was the President's principal advisor on intelligence matters until introduction of the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI) was created in response to the 9/11 Commission's recommendations. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The Intelligence Community of the United States is an organization of several executive branch agencies within the federal government that are responsible for foreign and domestic intelligence, military planning, and espionage. ... Seal of the United States Director of National Intelligence The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is a United States cabinet-level official coordinating all 15 components of the Intelligence Community, and is the principal intelligence adviser to the president and the statutory intelligence advisor to the National Security Council. ... The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks. ...


The current Director of the CIA is Porter Goss, who was nominated by President George W. Bush on 10 August 2004 and was confirmed by the Senate on 21 September. Goss inherits the post previously held by John E. McLaughlin, who served as interim director after longtime director George Tenet resigned on 3 June 2004 and left the post on 11 July. Goss previously served as head of the House Intelligence Committee as a representative from Florida. Porter Goss Porter Johnston Goss (born November 26, 1938) is an American politician and the current Director of the Central Intelligence Agency . ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the current President of the United States and former Governor of the State of Texas. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... John Edward McLaughlin (born June 15, 1942) is the former Deputy Director of Central Intelligence and former Acting Director of Central Intelligence. ... George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is a former United States Director of Central Intelligence. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... The U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Peter Hoekstra. ... State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ...


Historical operations

Eastern Europe

In its earliest years the CIA and its predecessor, the OSS, attempted to rollback Communism in Eastern Europe by supporting local anti-communist groups; none of these attempts met with much success. In Poland the CIA spent several years sending money and equipment to an organisation invented and run by Polish intelligence. It was more successful in its efforts to limit Communist influence in France and Italy, notably in the 1948 Italian election. OSS may refer to any of the following: Office of Strategic Services, forerunner of the CIA Open Sound System Open-source software Operations Support System Operations Support Squadron Out of School Suspension Optimized Systems Software The Old Syriac Sinaiticus OSS was the name of an ITC Entertainment TV series which... See rollback (data management) for the operation that returns a database to some previous state or Wikipedia:Rollback for the specific rollback function of Wikipedia. ...


It has now been firmly established (see references below) that the OSS actively recruited and protected many high ranking Nazi officers immediately following World War II, a policy that was carried on by the CIA. These included, the CIA now admits, the notorious "butcher of Lyon" Klaus Barbie, Hitler's Chief of Soviet Intelligence General Reinhard Gehlen, and numerous less-renowned Gestapo officers. General Gehlen, due to his extensive (if dubious) intelligence assets within the Soviet Union, was allowed to keep his spy-network intact after the war in the service of the United States. The Gehlen organization soon became one of America's chief sources of Intelligence on the Soviet Union during the cold war, and formed the basis for what would later become the German intelligence agency the BND. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime (but not direct) precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Look up Nazi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term Nazi typically refers to someone who affiliates oneself with or is percieved to be affiliated with the ideology of the former National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, commonly called NSDAP or the Nazi Party). ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was by far the bloodiest, most expensive, and most significant war in... Klaus Barbie Klaus Barbie (October 25, 1913 – September 25, 1991) was a Hauptsturmführer in the German SS and the Gestapo (secret police) during the Nazi regime. ... Reinhard Gehlen (April 3, 1902 – June 8, 1979) was a Major General in Nazi Germanys Wehrmacht during World War II with the position of chief of intelligence-gathering on the Eastern Front, and was subsequently recruited by the U.S. military to set up a spy ring directed against... The Gestapo was the official secret police force of Nazi Germany. ... Intelligence has two different common meanings : Intelligence (trait) Animal intelligence Artificial intelligence Intelligence (information gathering) Business intelligence Military espionage This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the generic term for a high-tension rivalry between countries, see cold war (war). ... The Bundesnachrichtendienst (abbreviated as BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, with roles roughly equivalent to the CIA, the NSA, and to the counterintelligence branch of the FBI. It is headquartered in Pullach near Munich. ...


Third World

With Europe stabilizing along the line of the Iron Curtain, the CIA then moved in the 1950s to try and limit the spread of Soviet influence elsewhere around the globe, especially in the Third World. With the encouragement of DCI Allen Dulles, clandestine operations quickly came to dominate the organisation. Initially they proved very successful: in Iran in 1953 and in Guatemala in 1954, CIA operations, with little funding, played a major role in ensuring pro-American governments ruled those states. Often, as in these two cases, success in these operations came at the expense of democratically elected governments. In the summer of 1989, the foreign ministers of Austria and Hungary, Alois Mock and Gyula Horn, ceremonially cut through the border defences separating their countries. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ...


In 1965, the President of Indonesia, Sukarno was ousted in a coup de etat supported by the CIA, led by Suharto. The overthrow of Sukarno by the CIA and Suharto, resulted in a nation-wide killing of some 500,000 suspected Communists, most of whom were peasants. The CIA secretly supplied Suharto's troops with a field communications network. Flown in at night by US Air Force planes from the Philippines, this was state-of-the-art equipment, whose high frequencies were known to the CIA and the National Security Agency. Not only did this technology allow Suharto's generals to coordinate the killings, it also meant that the highest echelons of the US administration were listening in. Suharto was able to seal off large areas of the country. Sukarno Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... General Soeharto (commonly known as Suharto in the English-speaking world) (born June 8, 1921) was an Indonesian leader and military strongman. ...


Ralph McGehee, a senior CIA operations officer at the time, described the ousting of Sukarno in Indonesia as a "model operation" for the US-run coup that got rid of Salvador Allende in Chile seven years later. [2]



The limitations of covert action became readily apparent during the CIA organized Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961. The failure embarrassed the CIA and the United States on the world stage, as Cuban leader Fidel Castro used the botched invasion to consolidate power and strengthen ties with the Soviet Union. Cuban poster warning before invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion (also known in Cuba as La Playa Girón after a beach in the Bay of Pigs where the landing took place) was a United States-planned and funded landing by armed Cuban exiles in Central Cuba in an attempt... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cuban President Fidel Castro Fidel Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) has been the leader of Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he overthrew the government of Fulgencio Batista, and transformed Cuba into the first Communist state in the Western Hemisphere. ...


CIA operations became less ambitious after the Bay of Pigs, and shifted to being closely linked to aiding the U.S. military operation in Vietnam. Between 1962 and 1975, the CIA organized a Laotian group known as the Secret Army and ran a fleet of aircraft known as Air America to take part in the Secret War in Laos, part of the Vietnam War. 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... National motto: Peace, Independence, Democracy, Unity and Prosperity Official language Lao Capital Vientiane President Khamtai Siphandon Prime minister Boungnang Vorachith Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 80th 236,800 km² 2% Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked 101st 6,217,141 24/km² Independence  - Date From France July 19, 1949 Currency Kip Time... For other uses, see Secret Army (disambiguation) The Secret Army was an army of an estimated 30,000 Hmong tribesmen, trained by the United States CIA and commanded by General Vang Pao, that fought for the Royal Lao Government against Communist Pathet Lao forces in the Secret War. ... Air America pilot cap Air America was an airline secretly controlled by the CIA that supplied covert operations in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. ... The Secret War (1962-1975) was the Laos front of the Second Indochina War. ... The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN, or North Vietnam), allied with the National Liberation Front (NLF, or Viet Cong) against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam), and their allies—notably the United States military in support of...


The CIA continued to involve itself in Latin America. During the early 1970s, the CIA conducted operations to prevent the election of Salvador Allende in Chile. When these operations failed, the CIA supported Allende's Chilean opponents, who would eventually overthrow him in a coup. In the early 1980s, the CIA funded and armed the Contras in Nicaragua, forces opposed to the Sandinista government in that country, until the Boland Amendment forbade the agency from continuing their support. This support resulted in a World Court decision in the case Nicaragua v. United States ordering the United States to pay Nicaragua reparations. In 1993, with support of the U.S. government, Colombia created the Search Block to locate and kill Pablo Escobar. This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... Dr. Salvador Allende Gossens1 (July 26, 1908–September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from 1970 until his death during the violent coup détat of 1973. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 60s and 70s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... The Contras (Spanish contrarrevolucionario, counter-revolutionary) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista National Liberation Front Government Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the ending of the Somoza familys 43-year rule. ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ... The Boland Amendment was an amendment to the House Appropriations Bill of 1982, which was attached as something known as a Barnacle Bill, or provision that would not be expected to pass on its own merit, to the Defense Appropriations Act of 1983. ... The World Court refers collectively to the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) and its successor the International Court of Justice (ICJ). ... The Republic of Nicaragua v. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... A WANTED poster of Escobar Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria (January 12, 1949 – December 2, 1993) gained world infamy as a Colombian drug lord who became one of the richest men in the world by smuggling cocaine into the United States and countries around the world. ...


In 1996, journalist Gary Webb wrote a series of exposes for the San Jose Mercury News, entitled "Dark Alliance," in which he uncovered a massive CIA operation that allowed Central American narcotics traffickers to import crack cocaine to US cities in the 1980s. Internal government investigations supported Webb's reporting. 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Gary Webb Gary Webb (August 31, 1955 – December 10, 2004) was an American investigative journalist best known for his 1996 Dark Alliance series for the San Jose Mercury News in which he explored the Contra-crack cocaine connection (it was later published as a book under the same title). ... The Mercs sections vary by day of the week, but Business, Sports, and The Valley are standard daily fare. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Cocaine is a crystalline alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


Controversies

Defectors such as former agent Philip Agee have alleged that such CIA covert action is extraordinarily widespread, extending to propaganda campaigns within countries allied to the United States. The agency has also been accused of participation in the illegal drug trade, notably in Laos, Afghanistan, and Nicaragua. It is known to have attempted assassinations of foreign leaders, most notably Fidel Castro, though since 1976 a Presidential order has banned such "executive actions", except during wartime. A defector is generally a person who gives up allegiance to a certain country in exchange for allegiance to another. ... Philip Burnett Franklin Agee (born 1936) is a former CIA agent and author who published a controversial book, Inside the Company: CIA Diary, detailing his experiences in, and the operation of, the eponymous agency. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... A drug is any substance that can be used to modify a chemical process or processes in the body, for example to treat an illness, relieve a symptom, enhance a performance or ability, or to alter states of mind. ... Jack Ruby murdered Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a very public manner In its most common use, assassination has come to mean the killing of an important person. ... Cuban President Fidel Castro Fidel Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) has been the leader of Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he overthrew the government of Fulgencio Batista, and transformed Cuba into the first Communist state in the Western Hemisphere. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Executive Action is also the title of a 1973 movie about the JFK assassination. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ...


In 1996, the U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence issued a congressional report estimating that the clandestine service part of the intelligence community "easily" breaks "extremely serious laws" in countries around the world, 100,000 times every year. [3] 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Peter Hoekstra. ... The Clandestine Service is the unofficial name for the United States Central Intelligence Agencys Directorate of Operations, which operates covertly in foreign countries. ... The Intelligence Community of the United States is an organization of several executive branch agencies within the federal government that are responsible for foreign and domestic intelligence, military planning, and espionage. ...


In a briefing held September 15, 2001 George Tenet presented the Worldwide Attack Matrix, a "top-secret" document describing covert CIA anti-terror operations in 80 countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The actions, underway or being recommended, would range from "routine propaganda to lethal covert action in preparation for military attacks". The plans, if carried out, "would give the CIA the broadest and most lethal authority in its history". [4] September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is a former United States Director of Central Intelligence. ... The Worldwide Attack Matrix is a document describing covert anti-terror operations in 80 countries in Asia, the Middle East and Africa created in the wake of September 11, 2001. ... World map showing location of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia, defined by subtracting Europe from Eurasia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and second most populous after Asia. ...


On November 5, 2002, newspapers reported that Al-Qaeda operatives in a car traveling through Yemen had been killed by a missile launched from a CIA-controlled Predator drone (a medium-altitude, remote-controlled aircraft). On May 15, 2005, it was reported [5] that another of these drones had been used to assassinate Al-Qaeda figure Haitham al-Yemeni inside Pakistan. November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The RQ-1 Predator is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) which the U.S. Air Force describes as a medium-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle system. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Haitham al-Yemeni (?? - May 2005) was an al Qaeda explosives expert from Yemen killed in northwest Pakistan (near the Afganistan border) in early March of 2005 by an unmanned CIA-operated RQ-1 Predator aircraft (probably using a Hellfire missile), according to ABC News. ...


In June 2005, two events occured that may shape CIA operations for years to come.


Arrest warrants for 13 CIA agents were issued in Italy. The agents are alleged to have taken a suspected Egyptian militant from Milan on 17 February 2003 for extraordinary rendition to Egypt, where according to his relatives of the cleric, he was allegedly tortured. The removal of the militant wasn't unusual except that it was conducted without the approval of the Italian government. Similar operations of this sort have occurred worldwide since 9/11, the vast majority with at least tacit approval by the national government. Additionally, it allegedly disrupted Italian attempts to penetrate the militant's Al Qaeda network [6]. The New York Times reported soon after that it is highly unlikely that the CIA agents involved would be extradited, despite the US-Italy bilaterial treaty regarding extraditions for crimes that carry a penalty of more than a year in prison. The agents involved in the operation are also reported to have booked lavish hotels during the operation and taken taxpayer-funded vacations after it was complete. [7] Location within Italy Piazza della Scala Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese dialect: Milán) is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed Italian region. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Extraordinary rendition, which has been called a euphemism for torture by proxy, refers to a procedure practiced by the government of the United States (and possibly aided by other western countries) whereby suspects are sent to countries in which torture is routinely used in interrogation. ... Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Al-Qaeda (Arabic: - al-Qā‘idah, the foundation or the base) is the name given to an international campaign comprised of independent and collaborative cells that all profess the same cause of reducing outside influence upon Islamic affairs. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Soon after, President Bush appointed the CIA to be in charge of all human intelligence and manned spying operations. This was the apparent culmination of a years old turf war regarding influence, philosophy and budget between the Defense Intelligence Agency of The Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency. The Pentagon, through the DIA, wanted to take control of the CIA's paramilitary operations and many of its human assets. The CIA, which has for years held that human intelligence is the core of the agency, successfully argued that the CIA's decades long experience with human resources and civilian oversight made it the ideal choice. Thus, the CIA was given charge of all US human intelligence, but as a compromise, the Pentagon was authorized to include increased paramilitary capabilities in future budget requests. // Overview The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), designated in 1986 as a United States Department of Defense combat support intelligence agency was established in 1961. ... A pre-9/11 view of The Pentagon, looking east with the Potomac River and Washington Monument in the distance. ...


Despite reforms which have led back to what the CIA considers its traditional principal capacities, the CIA Director position has lost influence in the White House. For years, the Director of the CIA met regularly with the President to issue daily reports on ongoing operations. After the creation of the post of the National Intelligence Director, currently occupied by John Negroponte, that practice has been discontinued in favor of the National Intelligence Director, with oversight of all intelligence, including DIA operations outside of CIA jurisdiction, giving the report. Current CIA Director Porter Goss denies this has had a diminishing effect on morale, in favor of promoting his singular mission to reform the CIA into the lean and agile counter-terrorism focused force he believes it should be. Seal of the United States Director of National Intelligence The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is a United States cabinet-level official coordinating all 15 components of the Intelligence Community, and is the principal intelligence adviser to the president and the statutory intelligence advisor to the National Security Council. ... John D. Negroponte John Dimitri Negroponte (born July 21, 1939) (IPA ) is a career diplomat currently serving as Director of National Intelligence for the United States. ... Porter Goss Porter Johnston Goss (born November 26, 1938) is an American politician and the current Director of the Central Intelligence Agency . ...


Support for foreign dictators

Recruitment poster
Recruitment poster

The activities of the CIA have caused considerable political controversy both in the United States and in other countries, often nominally friendly to the United States, where the agency has operated (or been alleged to.) Particularly during the Cold War, the CIA supported various dictators, including the infamous Augusto Pinochet, who have been friendly to perceived U.S. geopolitical interests (namely anti-Communism), sometimes over democratically-elected governments. File links The following pages link to this file: Central Intelligence Agency Categories: Central Intelligence Agency images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Central Intelligence Agency Categories: Central Intelligence Agency images ... For the generic term for a high-tension rivalry between countries, see cold war (war). ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... a symbol for anti-communism Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ...


Often cited as one of the American intelligence community's biggest blunders is the CIA involvement in equipping and training Mujahedeen fighters in Afghanistan in response to the Soviet invasion of the country. Many of the Mujahedeen trained by the CIA later joined Usama bin Laden's Al Qaeda terrorist organization. Zbigniew Brzezinski, the National Security Advisor under President Carter, has discussed U.S. involvement in Afghanistan in several publications. Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Osama bin Laden Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957 or July 30, 1957) (Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عود بن لادن), commonly known as Osama bin Laden (أسامة بن لادن), is the head of al-Qaeda, a militant Islamist organization that has been involved in... Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ...


The CIA facilitated the so-called Reagan Doctrine, channelling weapons and other support (in addition to the Mujahedeen and the Contras) to Jonas Savimbi's UNITA rebel movement in Angola in response to Cuban military support for the MPLA, thus turning an otherwise low-profile African civil war into one of the larger battlegrounds of the Cold War. The Reagan Doctrine was created in response to the Brezhnev Doctrine of the Soviet Union. ... Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (August 3, 1934–February 22, 2002) was a rebel leader in Angola who founded the UNITA movement in 1966, and ultimately proved a central figure in 20th century Cold War politics. ... UNITA sticker The União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) is an Angolan political faction. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ...


Criticism for ineffectiveness

The agency has also been criticized for ineffectiveness as an intelligence gathering agency. These criticisms included allowing a double agent, Aldrich Ames, to gain high position within the organization, and for focusing on finding informants with information of dubious value rather than on processing the vast amount of open source intelligence. In addition, the CIA has come under particular criticism for failing to predict the collapse of the Soviet Union and India's nuclear tests or to forestall the September 11, 2001 attacks. A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... Aldrich Ames Aldrich Hazen Ames (born June 16, 1941 in River Falls, Wisconsin) is a former Central Intelligence Agency counter-intelligence officer and analyst, who in 1994 was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union. ... Open source intelligence or OSINT refers to an intelligence gathering discipline based on information collected from open sources, i. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated attacks carried out against the United States on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. ...


Conversely, proponents of the CIA respond by stating that only the failures become known to the public, whereas the successes cannot be known until decades have passed. Immediate release of successful operations would reveal operational methods to foreign intelligence, which could affect future and/or ongoing missions. Some successes for the CIA include the U-2 and SR-71 programs, anti-Soviet operations in Afghanistan in the mid-1980s (though with the serious downsides noted earlier, the ultimate worth of these operations is open to considerable debate), and perhaps others which may not come to light for some time. The U-2 is a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude Surveillance aircraft flown by the United States Air Force. ... The Lockheed SR-71, unofficially known as the Blackbird, is a long-range, advanced, strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed A-12 and YF-12A aircraft by Lockheeds Skunk works, which was also responsible for the U-2 and many other advanced aircraft. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (transliteration: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None; Russian (de facto) Capital Moscow Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km²  ?% Population  - Total  - Density 3rd before collapse 293,047,571 (July 1991) 13. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 60s and 70s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...


Criticisms of U.S. Citizens

Thousands of U.S. Citizens have claimed to witness CIA agents commit crimes - theft, drug dealing, rape, torture, and murder - against U.S. citizens - and use the CIAs powers of secrecy to cover up these crimes and fatal blunders. These claims have caused a public relations nightmare for the CIA. Some of these critics claim to be retired CIA agents. Other accusations include : torture to the point of life-lasting crippling effects, torture to death (accidentally to intentionally), freeing drug lords from prison early as informants, and teaching Islamic extremists in Iran how to cause more pain in torture by using finer points of the victim's anatomy against him. Many people distrust the CIA's secretive nature, saying it is no different than the secret police of any corrupt government. The CIA admits that some agents have committed crimes, but that these agents were punished by the CIA. Critics say that most CIA agents do not commit crimes against people, but the small minority that do, can do a lot of damage and neglect to report it to their CIA superiors. Local police and FBI point out that normal law enforcement are held accountable for every bullet fired, while the CIA can keep all information of a case secret, and often won't share information with other law enforcement authorities. The CIA is criticised for its power to stop a trial (as a Federal matter) or overturn the decision of any judge in any trial, as long as the trial isn't high level (government interests involved). Some groups are calling for the elimination of the CIA. The CIA was created to fight the tide of Communism in the Cold War, and was given unusual powers beyond normal law enforcement in order to battle the KGB, a secret police with powers beyond the law. Now that the cold war is over and the U.S.S.R. has become a democracy, there is no need for the too-powerful CIA, critics say. Some local police, detectives, and judges whose cases have been interfered with again and again by the CIA, agree with the elimination of the CIA. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a popular movement. ... For the generic term for a high-tension rivalry between countries, see cold war (war). ... Cheka-KGB emblem: sword and shield The Committee for State Security, or KGB, (Russian:   listen?), was the name of the main Soviet Security Agency and intelligence agency, as well as the main secret police agency from March 13, 1954 to November 6, 1991. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


CIA operations in Iraq

According to some sources [8] [9] [10] [11] the CIA appears to have supported the 1963 military coup in Iraq and the subsequent Saddam Hussein-led government up until the point of the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. U.S. support was premised on the notion that Iraq was a key buffer state in relations with the Soviet Union. There are court records [12] indicating that the CIA gave military and monetary assistance to Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War. The CIA were also involved in the failed 1996 coup against Saddam Hussein (see Iyad Allawi). 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein Ê»Abd al-MajÄ«d al-TikrÄ«t, sometimes spelled Husayn or Hussain; (Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 ) was the President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture by United States-led coalition forces during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Iran-Iraq War The Iran-Iraq War, also called the First Persian Gulf War, or the Imposed War (جنگ تحمیلی) in Iran, was a war between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran lasting from September 1980 to August 1988. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Iyad Allawi Dr Iyad Allawi (اياد علاوي) (born 1945) is an Iraqi politician, and was the interim Prime Minister of Iraq prior to Iraqs 2005 legislative elections. ...


In 2002 an unnamed source, quoted in the Washington Post, says that the CIA was authorized to undertake a covert operation, if necessary with help of the Special Forces, that could serve as a preparation for a full-scale military attack of Iraq. [13] 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... For the . ...


It became widely known that the basis of the second Gulf War in 2003 was erroneous intelligence regarding Iraq's weapons capability. The term "Weapons of mass deception" (WMD) was famous around the world and was frequently used to deride those who had initiated the invasion, notably George W. Bush and Tony Blair. Weapons of mass deception is the term used to describe George W. Bushs claim that Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction as justification for the war on Iraq by those who hold the suspicion that he did not. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the current President of the United States and former Governor of the State of Texas. ... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


The unreliability of U.S. intelligence on weapons of mass destruction in Iraq have been a focus of intense scrutiny in the U.S. in 2004, the continuing armed resistance against the U.S. invasion of Iraq, and the widely perceived need for systematic review of the respective roles of the CIA, FBI and the Defense Intelligence Agency are prominent themes. On July 9, 2004 the Senate Report of Pre-war Intelligence on Iraq of the Senate Intelligence Committee stated that the CIA described the danger presented by weapons of mass destruction in Iraq in an unreasonable way, largely unsupported by the available intelligence. [14] Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... // Overview The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), designated in 1986 as a United States Department of Defense combat support intelligence agency was established in 1961. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell displays a vial of anthrax during his presentation to the UN Security Council, February 5, 2003. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is a select committee of the United States Senate dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ...


Other

Other Government Agency or OGA is reportedly slang for the CIA, as is The Agency.


A pejorative term for people who work for the CIA or other intelligence agencies is often 'spook'; the phrase "Virginia farmboys" is also occasionally used. A word or phrase is pejorative or derogatory (sometimes misspelled perjorative) if it expresses contempt or disapproval; dyslogistic (noun: dyslogism) is used synonymously (antonyms: meliorative, eulogistic, noun eulogism). ...


One of the CIA's publications, the CIA World Factbook, is unclassified and is indeed made freely available without copyright restrictions because it is a work of the United States federal government. Much of the demographic information presented in Wikipedia is drawn from this publication. World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... For copyright issues in relation to Wikipedia itself, see Wikipedia:Copyrights. ... The Wikipedia logo. ...


Further reading

  • Christopher Andrew, For the President's Eyes Only (HarperCollins, 1996) ISBN 0006380719
  • Robert Baer, See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism (Three Rivers Press, 2003) ISBN 140004684X
  • Milton Bearden and James Risen, The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown With the KGB, (Random House, 2003) ISBN 067946309
  • William Blum, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (Common Courage Press, 2003) ISBN 1567512526 [15]
  • Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival (Henry Holt & Co., 2003) ISBN 0805076883, also Deterring Democracy, also 9/11
  • Loch K. Johnson, America's Secret Power: The CIA in a Democratic Society (Oxford University Press, 1991)
  • Ronald Kessler, Inside the CIA (1992, Pocket Books reissue 1994) ISBN 067173458X
  • L. Fletcher Prouty, Secret Team: The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the United States and the World, Prentice Hall; (April 1973), ISBN 0137981732
  • W. Thomas Smith, Jr., Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency (Facts on File, 2003) ISBN 0816046670
  • Frances Stonor Saunders, The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters (New Press, 1999) ISBN 1565846648 (aka, Who Paid the Piper?: CIA and the Cultural Cold War 1999 Granta [UK edition])
  • Bob Woodward, Veil, (Pocket Books, 1988) ISBN 0-671-66159-0
  • H. Bradford Westerfield, ed., Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal, 1955-1992 (Yale University Press, 1997) ISBN 0300072643

Collins was a Scottish printing company founded by a schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819. ... Robert Baer, also known as Bob Baer; is an author and former case officer at the CIA. Reared in Aspen, Colorado, Robert Baer aspired to become a professional skier. ... Milton Bearden is a retired CIA officer and author. ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann AG, which acquired it in 1998. ... William Blum is an author and critic of United States foreign policy. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is Institute Professor Emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Pocket Books is the name of a subdivision of Simon & Schuster publishers. ... L. Fletcher Prouty (January 24, 1917 - June 5, 2001) was a commissioned officer in the United States Air Force, author, banker, and critic of US foreign policy, especially as regarded the activities of the CIA. His books include The Secret Team: The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the... W. Thomas Smith, Jr. ... Bob Woodward Robert Upshur Bob Woodward (born March 26, 1943) is one of the best-known journalists in the United States, thanks largely to his work in helping uncover the Watergate scandal of President Richard Nixon, in a historical journalistic partnership with Carl Bernstein, while working as a reporter for... Pocket Books is the name of a subdivision of Simon & Schuster publishers. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ...

See also

A number of theories exist with regard to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... A number of conspiracy theories have emerged concerning the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... Blowback is a term used in espionage to describe unintended consequences. ... CIA cryptonyms are code words seen in declassified documents of the US Central Intelligence Agency. ... This proposed logo for a U.S. government agency was dropped due to fears that its Masonic symbolism would provoke conspiracy theories. ... Extraordinary rendition, which has been called a euphemism for torture by proxy, refers to a procedure practiced by the government of the United States (and possibly aided by other western countries) whereby suspects are sent to countries in which torture is routinely used in interrogation. ... Gary Webb Gary Webb (August 31, 1955 – December 10, 2004) was an American investigative journalist best known for his 1996 Dark Alliance series for the San Jose Mercury News in which he explored the Contra-crack cocaine connection (it was later published as a book under the same title). ... In-Q-Tel is the venture capital arm of the American Central Intelligence Agency. ... This is a list United States interventions since 1945. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Genera Melanotis Mimodes Mimus Nesomimus Mockingbirds are a group of New World passerine birds best known for the habit of some species of mimicking the songs of other birds, often loudly and in rapid succession. ... Nonofficial cover is a term used in espionage (particularly by the CIA) for an agent or operative who assumes a covert role in an organization without ties to the government he or she is working for. ... Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin that broadcast streams of numbers, letters (using a phonetic alphabet), or words. ... The National Security Agency / Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is a United States government agency responsible for both the collection and analysis of message communications, and for the security of government communications against similar agencies elsewhere. ... The Phoenix Program, known as Kế Hoạch Phụng Hoàng (a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) in Vietnamese, was a covert intelligence operation undertaken by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in close collaboration with South Vietnamese intelligence during the Vietnam War. ... Technical Services Staff is the United States Central Intelligence Agency component responsible for providing supporting gadgets, disguises, forgeries, secret writings, and weapons. ... The Agency was a CBS television series that followed the inner-workings of the CIA (Fictional). ... The Acoustic Kitty was a CIA project launched in the 1960s attempting to use cats in spy missions. ...

CIA Insiders and Whistleblowers

The Director of US Central Intelligence George J. Tenet announced on March 16, 2001 the appointment of A.B. Buzzy Krongard to serve as Executive Director of the US Central Intelligence Agency. ... This page is about the CIA agent; for the actor, see John Stockwell (actor). ... L. Fletcher Prouty (January 24, 1917 - June 5, 2001) was a commissioned officer in the United States Air Force, author, banker, and critic of US foreign policy, especially as regarded the activities of the CIA. His books include The Secret Team: The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the... Philip Burnett Franklin Agee (born 1936) is a former CIA agent and author who published a controversial book, Inside the Company: CIA Diary, detailing his experiences in, and the operation of, the eponymous agency. ... William Blum is an author and critic of United States foreign policy. ...

Other Countries

Main article List of intelligence agencies

Australia The following is a partial list of intelligence agencies, past and present. ...

Canada The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) is Australias foreign intelligence service, roughly equivalent to the British Secret Intelligence Service or the Central Intelligence Agency. ... The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), Australias domestic counterintelligence service, is responsible (in coordination with the Australian Federal Police) for preventing espionage by foreign powers, and is attempting to monitor and prevent terrorist and other political violence. ...

Israel . The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) was founded by an act of the Canadian Parliament, Bill C-9, an Act to Establish the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) to be a replacement for the floundering RCMP Security Service. ... The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or Mounties; French, Gendarmerie royale du Canada, GRC) is both the federal police force and the national police of Canada. ... The CSE badge The Communications Security Establishment or CSE is an intelligence agency of the Canadian government, charged with the duty of keeping track of foreign signals intelligence. ...

United Kingdom Official seal of the Mossad Ha-Mossad le-Modiin ule-Tafkidim Meyuhadim (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations) is an Israeli intelligence agency, commonly referred to as Mossad. ...

The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Current MI5 headquarters in Thames House, London MI5, officially called the Security Service, is one of the British secret service agencies. ...

External links

Commons

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Official websites and documents

Other


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