FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "CERN" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > CERN
CERN logo

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced [sɝn] (or [sɛʀn] in French), is the world's largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. The convention establishing CERN was signed on 29 September 1954. From the original 12 signatories of the CERN convention, membership has grown to the present 20 member states. Its main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN by international collaborations to make use of them. This image is copyrighted, and used with permission. ... This image is copyrighted, and used with permission. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...


The main site at Meyrin also has a large computer centre containing very powerful data processing facilities primarily for experimental data analysis, and because of the need to make them available to researchers elsewhere, has historically been (and continues to be) a major wide area networking hub. This sign at the western edge of Meyrin features the coat of arms of the community. ... Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i. ...


CERN currently has approximately 2600 full-time employees. Some 7931 scientists and engineers (representing 500 universities and 80 nationalities), about half of the world's particle physics community, work on experiments conducted at CERN. For a List of scientists, see: List of anthropologists List of astronomers List of biologists List of chemists List of computer scientists List of economists List of engineers List of geologists List of inventors List of mathematicians List of meteorologists List of physicists Scientist pairs List of scientist pairs See... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ...


As an international facility, the CERN sites are not officially under Swiss or French jurisdiction, and some company vehicles have diplomatic number plates. This includes the organization's fleet of fire trucks.

Contents

Naming

The acronym CERN originally stood, in French, for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for setting up the laboratory, established by 11 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954.[1] According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the acronym could have become the awkward OERN, and Heisenberg said "But the acronym can still be CERN even if the name is [...]" For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Lew Kowarski was a naturalized French physicist, of Russian descent. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ...


Soon after its establishment, the work at the laboratory went beyond the study of the atomic nucleus, into higher-energy physics, an activity which is mainly concerned with the study of interactions between particles. Therefore the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules) which better describes the current research being performed at CERN. The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ...


Scientific achievements

Several important achievements in particle physics have been made during experiments at CERN. These include, but are not limited to:

  • 1973: The discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle bubble chamber.
  • 1983: The discovery of W and Z bosons in the UA1 and UA2 experiments.
  • 1989: The determination of the number of neutrino families at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) operating on the Z boson peak.
  • 1995: The first creation of antihydrogen atoms in the PS210 experiment.
  • 2001: The discovery of direct CP-violation in the NA48 experiments.

The 1984 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that led to the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. A neutral current is one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak nuclear force. ... Gargamelle was a giant particle detector at CERN, designed mostly for the detection of neutrinos. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... The UA1 high energy physics experiment ran at CERN from 1981 until 1993 on the SPS collider. ... The UA2 high energy physics experiment was one of the two major experiments and collaborations at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, and codiscovered the W and Z bosons in 1983. ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... The PS210 experiment was the first experiment that led to the observation of antihydrogen atoms produced at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring LEAR at CERN in 1995. ... CP-symmetry is a symmetry obtained by a combination of the C-symmetry and the P-symmetry. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Carlo Rubbia (born March 31, 1934) is an Italian physicist. ... Simon van der Meer (born November 24, 1925) is a Dutch physicist. ...


The 1992 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber." Georges Charpak (born August 1, 1924) is a Polish-French physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics winner. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Current accelerator complex

CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently active machines are:

  • Two linear accelerators generate low energy particles for injection into the Proton Synchrotron. The 50 MeV Linac2 is for protons, and the 4.2 MeV/u Linac3 is for heavy ions.[2]
  • The Proton Synchrotron Booster increases the energy of particles generated by the proton linear accelerator before they are transferred to the other accelerators.
  • The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerates the ions from the ion linear accelerator, before transferring them to the Proton Synchrotron (PS). This accelerator was commissioned in 2005, after having been reconfigured from the previous Low Energy Anti-proton Ring (LEAR).
  • The 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), built in 1959 and still operating as a feeder to the more powerful SPS.
  • The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), a circular accelerator with a diameter of 2 kilometres built in a tunnel, which started operation in 1976. It was designed to deliver an energy of 300 GeV and was gradually upgraded to 450 GeV. As well as having its own beamlines for fixed-target experiments, it has been operated as a proton-antiproton collider, and for accelerating high energy electrons and positrons which were injected into the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). From 2008 onwards, it will inject protons and heavy ions into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
  • The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), which is used to study unstable nuclei. Particles are initially accelerated in the PS Booster before entering ISOLDE. It was first commissioned in 1967 and was rebuilt with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992.
  • The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which reduces the velocity of antiprotons to about 10% the speed of light for research into antimatter.

A Linear particle accelerator is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... The PS Booster is the first and smallest proton circular accelerator in the CERN LHC injection complex [1]. It takes 50MeV protons from the linear accelerator Linac2 and accelerates them up to 1. ... The surface above the PS at CERN. With more than 45 years to be smoothed out and have buildings built around it, the ring-shaped hill containing the accelerator is not completely obvious--but it can be seen curving around on the left side of the image. ... The surface above the PS at CERN. With more than 45 years to be smoothed out and have buildings built around it, the ring-shaped hill containing the accelerator is not completely obvious--but it can be seen curving around on the left side of the image. ... The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator at CERN. Originally specified as a 300 GeV machine, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June 1976. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... The antiproton (aka pbar) is the antiparticle of the proton. ... A collider is a type of a particle accelerator with two opposite beams of the particles. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... The LEP tunnel at CERN, now being filled with magnets for the LHC The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) is one of the largest particle accelerators finished so far. ... Heavy-ion refers to ion of atom which is usually heavier than carbon. ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland (). Currently under construction, the LHC is scheduled to begin operation in May 2008. ... The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator, also known as the ISOLDE Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, is a facility located at CERN on the PS Booster. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is a particle accelerator at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ...

The accelerator of the future: the Large Hadron Collider

Main article: Large Hadron Collider
Construction of the CMS detector for LHC at CERN

Most of the activities at CERN are currently directed towards building a new collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project. Physics experiments are expected to start May 2008, delayed due to an inner triplet magnet assembly failing a pressure test in March 2007[3][4]. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland (). Currently under construction, the LHC is scheduled to begin operation in May 2008. ... Construction of one detector (called CMS ) of the LHC at CERN I took the picture 2003-10-10, when I visited CERN. It shows the new LHC they are building there. ... Construction of one detector (called CMS ) of the LHC at CERN I took the picture 2003-10-10, when I visited CERN. It shows the new LHC they are building there. ... // The sentence producing a rare particle, such as a Higgs boson proves this article was not written and checked by physicists, despiste ip are from cern. ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland (). Currently under construction, the LHC is scheduled to begin operation in May 2008. ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland (). Currently under construction, the LHC is scheduled to begin operation in May 2008. ...


The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva airport and the nearby Jura mountains. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP which was closed down in November 2000. CERN's existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes will be used to pre-accelerate protons which will then be injected into the LHC. Looking towards Lelex from near to Crêt de la Neige The Jura folds are located north of the main Alpine orogenic front and are being continually deformed, accommodating the northwards compression from Alpine folding. ... The LEP tunnel at CERN, now being filled with magnets for the LHC The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) is one of the largest particle accelerators finished so far. ...


Six experiments (CMS, ATLAS, LHCb, TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE) are currently being built, and will be running on the collider; each of them will study particle collisions under a different point of view, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments needed an extraordinary engineering effort. Just as an example, to lower the pieces for the CMS experiment into the underground cavern which will host it, a special crane will have to be rented from Belgium, which will be able to lift the almost 2000 tons for each piece. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005. // The sentence producing a rare particle, such as a Higgs boson proves this article was not written and checked by physicists, despiste ip are from cern. ... ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the five detector experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, and LHCb) being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland. ... The LHCb (standing for Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment is one of four large particle physics detector experiments being constructed on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. LHCb is a specialist b-physics experiment, particularly aimed at measuring the parameters of CP violation in the interactions of b-hadrons... A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... The LHCf (standing for Large Hadron Collider forward) experiment is one of six particle physics detector experiments being constructed on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. ... ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the five detector experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, and LHCb) being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is optimized to study heavy ion collisions. ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This accelerator will generate vast quantities of computer data, which CERN will stream to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (the GRID technology). In April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB per second to seven different sites across the world. If all the data generated by the LHC is to be analyzed, then scientists must achieve 1,800 MB per second before 2008. Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings: A local computer cluster which is like a grid because it is composed of multiple nodes. ...


Decommissioned accelerators

  • The original linear accelerator (Linac1).
  • The 600 MeV Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) which started operation in 1957 and was shut down in 1991.
  • The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), an early collider built from 1966 to 1971 and operated until 1984.
  • The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP), which operated from 1989 to 2000 and was the largest machine of its kind, housed in a 27 km-long circular tunnel which is now being used to build the Large Hadron Collider.
  • The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), commissioned in 1982, which assembled the first pieces of true antimatter, in 1995, consisting of nine atoms of antihydrogen. It was closed in 1996, and superseded by the Antiproton Decelerator.

The ISR (Intersecting Storage Rings) was a particle accelerator at CERN. It was the worlds first hadron collider, and ran from 1971 to 1984, with a maximum center of mass energy of 62 GeV. From its initial startup, the collider itself had the capability to produce particles like the... The LEP tunnel at CERN, now being filled with magnets for the LHC The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) is one of the largest particle accelerators finished so far. ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland (). Currently under construction, the LHC is scheduled to begin operation in May 2008. ... The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is a particle accelerator at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. ...

CERN sites

CERN's main site, looking from Switzerland towards France.

The smaller accelerators are located on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and so there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. There are six entrances to the Meyrin site: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1560x814, 144 KB) An aerial view of the main site of CERN, at the border between Switzerland and France near Geneva, looking towards the Jura mountains in France. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1560x814, 144 KB) An aerial view of the main site of CERN, at the border between Switzerland and France near Geneva, looking towards the Jura mountains in France. ... This sign at the western edge of Meyrin features the coat of arms of the community. ...

  • A, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel at specific times.
  • B, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel 24/7. Often referred to as the main entrance
  • C, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel at specific times.
  • D, in Switzerland. Open for goods reception at specific times.
  • E, in France. Open for French-resident CERN personnel at specific times. Controlled by customs personnel. Named "Porte Charles de Gaulle" in recognition of his role in the creation of the CERN [5] it is known colloquially as "Checkpoint Charlie"[citation needed]
  • Tunnel entrance, in France. Open for equipment transfer to and from CERN sites in France by personnel with a specific permit. This is the only permitted route for such transfers. Under the CERN treaty, no taxes are payable when such transfers are made. Controlled by customs personnel.

The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are located underground almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments themselves are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites.


Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter which will be used for LHC experiments). The UA1 high energy physics experiment ran at CERN from 1981 until 1993 on the SPS collider. ... The UA2 high energy physics experiment was one of the two major experiments and collaborations at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, and codiscovered the W and Z bosons in 1983. ...


Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of charmed particles and located at the Prévessin (North Area) site while WA22 used the BEBC bubble chamber at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator. The charm quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ...


Computer Science and CERN

This NeXTcube used by Berners-Lee (UK) at CERN became the first Web server.

The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honored by the ACM in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World-Wide Web. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 252 KB) Summary This NeXT workstation (a NeXTcube) was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the first Web server on the. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 252 KB) Summary This NeXT workstation (a NeXTcube) was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the first Web server on the. ... The NeXT Computer and NeXTcube were high-end workstation computers developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1988 until 1993. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... ENQUIRE was an early project (in the second half of 1980) of Tim Berners-Lee, who went on to create the World Wide Web in 1989. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... Robert Cailliau. ... ACM is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Abstract Control Model Academy of Country Music Academic Common Market Academy of Contemporary Music Advanced Cruise Missile Adaptive Combat Model Aerial Combat Maneuver Air combat manoeuvering Air Cycle Machine Airspace Coordination Measure Adams Capital Management Advanced compact MOSFET...


Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was aimed at facilitating sharing information among researchers. The first website went on-line in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is kept here. In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...

This Cisco Systems router at CERN was probably one of the first IP routers deployed in Europe.
This Cisco Systems router at CERN was probably one of the first IP routers deployed in Europe.

Prior to the Web's development, CERN had been a pioneer in the introduction of Internet technology in Europe, beginning in the early 1980s. A short history of this period can be found here. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x698, 139 KB)A Cisco Systems ASM/2-32EM router in the Microcosm public museum at CERN. This router was one of two installed at CERN in 1987; they are thought to have been the first Cisco routers in Switzerland and... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x698, 139 KB)A Cisco Systems ASM/2-32EM router in the Microcosm public museum at CERN. This router was one of two installed at CERN in 1987; they are thought to have been the first Cisco routers in Switzerland and...


More recently, CERN has become a centre for the development of Grid computing, hosting among others the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE and LHC Computing Grid projects. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main Internet Exchange Points in Switzerland. Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings: A local computer cluster which is like a grid because it is composed of multiple nodes. ... // The EGEE project Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) is project funded by the European Commissions Sixth Framework Programme through Directorate F: Emerging Technologies and Infrastructures, of the Directorate-General for Information Society and Media. ... The CERN Internet Exchange Point, or CIXP, is a historical European Internet landmark, through which the first pan-European Internet backbone and the first T1 connection to NFSnet were established in 1989 and 1990. ... // An Internet exchange point (IX or IXP) is a physical infrastructure that allows different Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems) by means of mutual peering agreements, which allow traffic to be exchanged without cost. ...


Member States

Member States of CERN      Founding members      Members who joined CERN later

The original CERN signatories were: Image File history File links CERN_members. ... Image File history File links CERN_members. ...

Since then: Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...

There are currently twenty member countries.
Eight additional international organizations or countries have "observer status": Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Public exhibits

The Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN
The Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN

Facilities at CERN open to the public include: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 486 KB) Summary Gloce of Science and Innovation at CERN. Taken 28 Sept 2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 486 KB) Summary Gloce of Science and Innovation at CERN. Taken 28 Sept 2005. ...

  • The Globe of Science and Innovation, which recently opened and is used four times a week for special exhibits.
  • The Microcosm museum on particle physics and CERN history.

The central section of the UA1 experiment on display at the Microcosm museum Microcosm is a museum of particle physics located at CERN in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, near the town of Meyrin. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ...

In fiction

This article is about the writer. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Angels and Demons Angels and Demons (Angels & Demons) is a bestselling mystery novel by Dan Brown. ... Stelios Grant Pavlou (born November 22, 1970) is a British author and screenwriter. ... Decipher is a popular bestselling science fiction novel by Stel Pavlou (1970–present), published in 2001 in England by Simon and Schuster and 2002 in the United States by St. ... Robert J. Sawyer is a Canadian science fiction writer, dubbed the dean of Canadian science fiction by the Ottawa Citizen in 1999. ... Flashforward is a science fiction novel by Canadian author Robert J. Sawyer. ... Clifford Stoll (or Cliff Stoll) is an astronomer and computer systems administrator, and author. ... The Cuckoos Egg is a book written by Clifford Stoll. ... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... State of Fear is a 2004 novel by Michael Crichton published by HarperCollins on December 7, 2004. ... John G. Cramer (born 1934) is a Professor of Physics at the University of Washington in Seattle, USA. When not teaching, he works with the STAR detector at the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and the particle accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Einsteins Bridge Einsteins Bridge is a hard science fiction novel by John Cramer, first published in June of 1997. ... Anne Inez McCaffrey (born April 1, 1926) is an American science fiction author best known for her Dragonriders of Pern series. ... Pegasus in Space is a novel by Anne McCaffrey, and the sequel to Pegasus in Flight and To Ride Pegasus. ... George Ouzounian,[1] better known by his pen name Maddox, is an American author and magazine columnist, who rose to prominence through the success of his satirical rant website, He attended the University of Utah, but does not hold a degree. ... Lexx is a science fantasy TV series that follows the adventures of a group of mismatched individuals aboard the Lexx, the most powerful destructive force in the two universes from which the show takes its name. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The CERN Name, on the CERN website. Last accessed on 25 October 2006.
  2. ^ http://linac2.home.cern.ch/linac2/default.htm
  3. ^ BBC article on revised LHC schedule
  4. ^ CERN report on LHC inner triplet incident
  5. ^ (Nov. 2004) "Red Carpet for CERN's 50th". CERN bulletin. 

is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

CERN Directors General typically serve 5 year terms beginning on January 1. ... Aerial view of the Fermilab site. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Léon Van Hove (Brussels, 1924 - 2 September 1990), was a Belgian physicist. ... The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 46°14′03″N, 6°03′10″E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
GridCafé - Grid @ CERN (271 words)
CERN has a reputation for being at the forefront of networking technology - "where the Web was born" is the lab's motto.
CERN has chosen Grid technology to solve a huge data storage and analysis challenge it faces in 2007, when the Large Hadron Collider, the biggest scientific instrument in the world, starts running.
So CERN has taken a big gamble on Grid technology, and is pushing the technology forward in several ways, in order to make the 2007 deadline for the LHC.
CERN Scientific Information Service - Home (134 words)
CERN publication policy - Action on Open Access
CERN Workshop on Innovations in Scholarly Communication (OAI4), Geneva, 20-22 October 2005.
ELAG 2005 on open access took place at CERN from the 1st until the 3rd of June 2005.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m