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Encyclopedia > C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis

Born 29 November 1898(1898-11-29)
Belfast, Ireland
Died 22 November 1963 (aged 64)
Oxford, England
Occupation Novelist, Scholar, Broadcaster
Genres Fantasy, Science fiction, Christian apologetics, Children's literature
Influences H. Rider Haggard, Christianity, Arthur Balfour, J. R. R. Tolkien, George MacDonald, H. G. Wells, G. K. Chesterton, William Blake, Irish, Norse, and Greek Mythology
Influenced Christopher Derrick, Stephen R. Donaldson, Peter Kreeft, J. I. Packer, J. K. Rowling, J. R. R. Tolkien, widespread
Anglicanism Portal

Clive Staples "Jack" Lewis (29 November 189822 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. Lewis is known for his work on medieval literature, Christian apologetics, literary criticism, and fiction. He is best known today for his series The Chronicles of Narnia. Image File history File links C.s. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Childrens books redirects here. ... H. Rider Haggard, author Sir Henry Rider Haggard (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Christopher Hugh Derrick (12 June 1921 – 2 October 2007) was the son of the artist, illustrator and cartoonist Thomas Derrick. ... Stephen Reeder Donaldson (born May 13, 1947 in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American fantasy, science fiction and mystery novelist. ... Peter Kreeft Peter Kreeft is a Catholic apologist for Christianity, professor of philosophy at Boston College and The Kings College, and author of over 45 books including Fundamentals of the Faith, Everything you Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven, and Back to Virtue. ... J. I. Packer James Innell Packer (born July 22, 1926 in Gloucester, England) is a British-born Canadian Christian theologian in the Reformational Anglican tradition. ... Joanne Jo Murray, née Rowling OBE[1] (born 31 July 1965),[2] who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling,[3] is an British writer and author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Photograph by Keith Edkins File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Narnia redirects here. ...


Lewis was a close friend of J. R. R. Tolkien, the author of The Lord of the Rings. Both authors were leading figures in the English faculty at Oxford University and in the informal Oxford literary group known as the "Inklings". According to his memoir Surprised by Joy, Lewis had been baptised in the Church of Ireland at birth, but fell away from his faith during his adolescence. Owing to the influence of Tolkien and other friends, at about the age of 30, Lewis re-converted to Christianity, becoming "a very ordinary layman of the Church of England" (Lewis 1952, p. 6). His conversion had a profound effect on his work, and his wartime radio broadcasts on the subject of Christianity brought him wide acclaim. Later in life he married the American writer Joy Gresham, who died of bone cancer four years later at the age of 45. Tolkien redirects here. ... This article is about the novel. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Eagle and Child pub (commonly known as the Bird and Baby) in Oxford where the Inklings met on Thursday nights in 1939. ... Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life is a partial autobiography published by C.S. Lewis in 1955. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Joy Gresham Joy Davidman (born Helen Joy Davidman on April 18, 1915, died July 13, 1960) was a Jewish writer, a radical communist and an atheist until her conversion to Christianity in the late 1940s. ... An arm bone tumor Bone tumor is an inexact term, which can be used for both benign and malignant abnormal growths found in bone, but is most commonly used for primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma (or osteoma). ...


Lewis's works have been translated into more than 30 languages and sell more than a million copies a year. The books that comprise The Chronicles of Narnia have sold more than 100 million copies. Many stage and screen adaptations of Lewis's works have also been produced, the most notable of which is the 2005 Disney film adaptation of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Film adaptation is the transfer of a written work to a feature film. ...

Contents

Biography

Childhood

Clive Staples Lewis was born in Belfast, Ireland on November 29, 1898. His father was Albert James Lewis (1863–1929), a solicitor whose father, Richard, had come to Ireland from Wales. His mother was Flora Augusta Lewis née Hamilton (1862–1908), the daughter of a Church of Ireland minister. He had one older brother, Warren Hamilton Lewis (Warnie). At the age of four, shortly after his dog Jacksie was hit by a car, Lewis announced that his name was now Jacksie. At first he would answer to no other name, but later accepted Jacks which became Jack, the name by which he was known to friends and family for the rest of his life. At six his family moved into "Little Lea", the house the elder Mr. Lewis built for Mrs. Lewis, in Strandtown, Ireland. This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... This article is about the country. ... The French word née (feminine) or né (masculine) (or the English word nee) is still commonly used in some newspapers when mentioning the maiden name of a woman in engagement or wedding announcements. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other types of... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Little Lea
Little Lea

Lewis was initially schooled by private tutors before being sent to the Wynyard School in Watford, Hertfordshire, in 1908, the same year (and very shortly after) his mother died of cancer. Lewis's brother had already enrolled there three years previously. The school was closed not long afterwards due to a lack of pupils — the headmaster Robert "Oldie" Capron was soon after committed to an insane asylum. Tellingly, in Surprised By Joy, Lewis would later nickname the school "Belsen". There is some speculation by biographer Alan Jacobs that the atmosphere at Wynyard greatly traumatized Lewis and was responsible for the development of "mildly sadomasochistic fantasies". (Gopnik 2005) Four of the letters that the adolescent Lewis wrote to his life-long friend Arthur Greeves (out of an overall correspondence of nearly 300 letters) were signed "Philomastix" ("whip-lover"), and two of those also detailed women he would like to spank. (Hooper 1979, pp. 160–170) Image File history File linksMetadata Little_Lea. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Little_Lea. ... Wynyard School was a school in Watford, U.K., which was attended by C.S. Lewis. ... Watford is a town and district in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, situated 34 km (21 miles) northwest of London and within the bounds of the M25 motorway. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... dont you know this is bad info This article is about the Nazi concentration camp. ... Adolescent redirects here. ... Erotic spanking can sometimes go hand in hand with other paraphilia, such as for erotic clothes or erotic humiliation. ...


After Wynyard closed, Lewis attended Campbell College in the east of Belfast about a mile from his home, but he left after a few months due to respiratory problems. As a result of his illness, Lewis was sent to the health-resort town of Malvern, Worcestershire, where he attended the preparatory school Cherbourg House (called "Chartres" in Lewis's autobiography). Campbell College is a voluntary grammar school in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... Malvern is a town and civil parish in Worcestershire, England . ... In English language usage in the former British Empire, the present-day Commonwealth, a preparatory school (usually abbreviated to prep school) is an independent school preparing children up to the age of eleven or thirteen for fee-paying, secondary independent schools, some of which are called public schools. ...


In September 1913 Lewis enrolled at Malvern College, where he would remain until the following June. It was during this time at the age of 15 that he abandoned his childhood Christian faith and became an atheist, becoming interested in mythology and the occult.[1]Later he would describe "Wyvern" (as he styled the school in his autobiography) as so singularly focused on increasing one's social status that he came to see the homosexual relationships between older and younger pupils as "the one oasis (though green only with weeds and moist only with fetid water) in the burning desert of competitive ambition. […] A perversion was the only thing left through which something spontaneous and uncalculated could creep" (Lewis 1966, p. 107). After leaving Malvern he moved to study privately with William T. Kirkpatrick, his father's old tutor and former headmaster of Lurgan College. Malvern College is a coeducational English public school, founded in 1865. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Lurgan College is a selective age 14-18 Grammar School situated in the large town of Lurgan, County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ...


As a young boy, Lewis had a fascination with anthropomorphic animals, falling in love with Beatrix Potter's stories and often writing and illustrating his own animal stories. He and his brother Warnie together created the world of Boxen, inhabited and run by animals. Lewis loved to read, and as his father’s house was filled with books, he felt that finding a book he had not read was as easy as "finding a blade of grass." Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Falling in love is a mainly Western term used to describe the process of moving from a feeling of neutrality towards someone, to one of love. ... Helen Beatrix Potter (28 July 1866 – 22 December 1943) was an English author and illustrator, botanist, and conservationist, best known for her childrens books, which featured animal characters such as Peter Rabbit. ... Boxen is a fictional world that was created by C. S. Lewis as a child and was inhabited by talking animals. ...


As a teenager, he was wonderstruck by the songs and legends of what he called Northernness, the ancient literature of Scandinavia preserved in the Icelandic sagas. These legends intensified a longing he had within, a deep desire he would later call "joy". He also grew to love nature—the beauty of nature reminded him of the stories of the North, and the stories of the North reminded him of the beauties of nature. His writing in his teenage years moved away from the tales of Boxen, and he began to use different art forms (epic poetry and opera) to try to capture his newfound interest in Norse mythology and the natural world. Studying with Kirkpatrick (“The Great Knock”, as Lewis afterwards called him) instilled in him a love of Greek literature and mythology, and sharpened his skills in debate and clear reasoning. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ...


World War I

Lewis in 1919, at the age of 21

Having won a scholarship to University College, Oxford in 1916, Lewis enlisted the following year in the British Army as World War I raged on, and was commissioned an officer in the third Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry. Lewis arrived at the front line in the Somme Valley in France on his nineteenth birthday, and experienced trench warfare. Image File history File links CSLewis. ... Image File history File links CSLewis. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... College name University College Collegium Magnae Aulae Universitatis Named after Established 1249 Sister College Trinity Hall Master Lord Butler of Brockwell JCR President Peter Surr Undergraduates 420 MCR President Monte MacDiarmid Graduates 144 Homepage Boatclub Crest of University College, Oxford University College (in full, the The Master and Fellows of... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Alberts) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... Somme is a French département, named after the Somme River, located in the north of France. ...


On April 15, 1917, Lewis was wounded during the Battle of Arras, and suffered some depression during his convalescence, due in part to missing his Irish home. On his recovery in October, he was assigned to duty in Andover, England. He was discharged in December 1918, and soon returned to his studies. Lewis received a First in Honour Moderations (Greek and Latin Literature) in 1920, a First in Greats (Philosophy and Ancient History) in 1922, and a First in English in 1923. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... Statistics Population: 52,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SU3645 Administration District: Test Valley Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Hampshire Historic county: Hampshire Services Police force: Hampshire Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South Central Post office and telephone Post town... Honour Moderations (or Mods) are a first set of examinations at Oxford University, normally during the first half of the degree course for some courses (e. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Literae Humaniores is the name given to the study of Classics at Oxford and some other universities. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology...


While being trained for the army Lewis shared a room and became close friends with another cadet, "Paddy" Moore. The two had made a mutual pact that if either died during the war, the survivor would take care of both their families. Paddy was killed in action in 1918 and Lewis kept his promise. Paddy had earlier introduced Lewis to his mother, Jane King Moore, and a friendship very quickly sprang up between Lewis, who was eighteen when they met, and Jane, who was forty-five. The friendship with Mrs. Moore was particularly important to Lewis while he was recovering from his wounds in hospital, as his father, who had an almost pathological reluctance to break free from the routine of his Belfast practice, could not bring himself to visit him. Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ...


Jane Moore

Lewis was known to have had a close personal relationship with Jane Moore (1871/2–1951). She was the mother of his friend, Paddy Moore (1898–1918). In keeping a promise to Paddy after his death in France during WWI, Lewis lived with and cared for Mrs. Moore until she was hospitalized in the late 1940s. He routinely introduced Moore as his "mother". Lewis, whose mother had died when he was a child and whose father was distant and demanding, came to draw affection from his friendship with Moore. "All I can or need to say is that my earlier hostility to the emotions was very fully and variously avenged", he wrote of her in his autobiography. He also said to his friend George Sayer: "She was generous and taught me to be generous, too." The nature of their relationship is unknown, although it is most probable that he looked to her as his "mother." His stepson, Douglas Gresham, writes in his biography of Lewis that it will remain a mystery. The speculation that they became lovers has tempted biographers, but remains unproven. Douglas Gresham (born November, 1945) is a British biographer and film producer. ...


In December 1917 Lewis wrote in a letter to his childhood friend Arthur Greeves that Jane and Greeves were "the two people who matter most to me in the world."


In 1930, Lewis, Moore, her daughter Maureen and Warnie moved into "The Kilns", a house in Risinghurst, Headington. They all contributed financially to the purchase of the house, which passed to Maureen, then Lady Dunbar of Hempriggs, when Warren died in 1973. Risinghurst is a quiet outlying residential area of Oxford, England, situated just outside the Eastern Bypass road which forms part of the Oxford ring road. ... Lady Dunbar of Hempriggs, born Maureen Daisy Helen Moore (born 19 August 1906, died 14 February 1997), was the only daughter of Janie King Askins Minto Moore (1873-1951) with whom C.S. Lewis had a 33-year platonic cohabitation and, possibly, at times, sexual relationship, and Courtenay Edward Moore...


Moore suffered from dementia in her later years and was eventually moved into a nursing home, where she died in 1951. Lewis visited her every day in this home until her death. For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Rest home for seniors in Český Těšín, Czech Republic SNF redirects here. ...


"My life"

Plaque on a park-bench in Bangor, County Down
Plaque on a park-bench in Bangor, County Down

Lewis experienced a certain cultural shock upon first arriving in England: "No Englishman will be able to understand my first impressions of England," Lewis wrote in Surprised by Joy. "The strange English accents with which I was surrounded seemed like the voices of demons. But what was worst was the English landscape … I have made up the quarrel since; but at that moment I conceived a hatred for England which took many years to heal." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x663, 47 KB) Summary Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x663, 47 KB) Summary Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article is about the town in Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life is a partial autobiography published by C.S. Lewis in 1955. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


From boyhood Lewis immersed himself firstly in Norse and Greek and then in Irish mythology and literature and expressed an interest in the Irish language, though he seems to have made little attempt to learn it. He developed a particular fondness for W. B. Yeats, in part because of Yeats’s use of Ireland’s Celtic heritage in poetry. In a letter to a friend Lewis wrote, "I have here discovered an author exactly after my own heart, whom I am sure you would delight in, W. B. Yeats. He writes plays and poems of rare spirit and beauty about our old Irish mythology." In 1921, Lewis had the opportunity to meet Yeats on two occasions, since Yeats had moved to Oxford. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... Irish writing of 8th century For a comparatively small country, Ireland has made a disproportionate contribution to world literature in all its branches. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... William Butler Yeats, 1933 photograph, author unknown. ... This article is about the European people. ...


Surprised to find his English peers indifferent to Yeats and the Celtic Revival movement, Lewis wrote: "I am often surprised to find how utterly ignored Yeats is among the men I have met: perhaps his appeal is purely Irish—if so, then thank the gods that I am Irish." Early in his career, Lewis considered sending his work to the major Dublin publishers, writing: "If I do ever send my stuff to a publisher, I think I shall try Maunsel, those Dublin people, and so tack myself definitely onto the Irish school." After his conversion to Christianity, his interests gravitated towards Christian spirituality and away from pagan Celtic mysticism. The Celtic Revival, also known as the Irish Literary Revival, was begun by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in Ireland in 1896. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity. ...


Lewis occasionally expressed a somewhat tongue-in-cheek chauvinism toward the English. Describing an encounter with a fellow Irishman he wrote: "Like all Irish people who meet in England we ended by criticisms of the inevitable flippancy and dullness of the Anglo-Saxon race. After all, ami, there is no doubt that the Irish are the only people … I would not gladly live or die among another folk." Sarcasm is the making of remarks intended to mock the person referred to (who is normally the person addressed), a situation or thing. ... Chauvinism (IPA:) is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...


Due to his Oxford career Lewis did indeed live and die among another folk, and he often expressed regret at having to leave Ireland. Throughout his life, he sought out the company of his fellow Irish living in England and visited Northern Ireland regularly, even spending his honeymoon there (The Old Inn 2007). He called this "my Irish life".


Conversion to Christianity

Although raised in a church-going family in the Church of Ireland, Lewis became an atheist at the age of 13, and remained as such until he was 31 years old. His separation from Christianity began when he started to view his religion as a chore and as a duty; around this time he also gained an interest in the occult as his studies expanded to include such topics. Lewis quoted Lucretius as having one of the strongest arguments for atheism: The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (c. ...

Nequaquam nobis divinitus esse paratam
Naturam rerum; tanta stat praedita culpa (Lucretius)
"Had God designed the world, it would not be
A world so frail and faulty as we see."

Though an atheist at the time, Lewis later described his young self (in Surprised by Joy) as being paradoxically "very angry with God for not existing". Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life is a partial autobiography published by C.S. Lewis in 1955. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Lewis's interest in fantasy and mythology, especially in relation to the works of George MacDonald, was part of what turned him from atheism. In fact, MacDonald's position as a Christian fantasy writer was very influential on Lewis. This can be seen particularly well through this passage in The Great Divorce, chapter nine, when the semi-autobiographical main character meets MacDonald in Heaven: George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...

…I tried, trembling, to tell this man all that his writings had done for me. I tried to tell how a certain frosty afternoon at Leatherhead Station when I had first bought a copy of Phantastes (being then about sixteen years old) had been to me what the first sight of Beatrice had been to Dante: Here begins the new life. I started to confess how long that Life had delayed in the region of imagination merely: how slowly and reluctantly I had come to admit that his Christendom had more than an accidental connexion with it, how hard I had tried not to see the true name of the quality which first met me in his books is Holiness. (Lewis 1946, pp. 66–67) For other uses of this name, see Leatherhead (disambiguation). ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... It has been suggested that True name (legal) be merged into this article or section. ...

Influenced by arguments with his Oxford colleague and friend J. R. R. Tolkien, and by the book The Everlasting Man by Roman Catholic convert G. K. Chesterton, he slowly rediscovered Christianity. He fought greatly up to the moment of his conversion noting, "I came into Christianity kicking and screaming." He described his last struggle in Surprised by Joy: Tolkien redirects here. ... The Everlasting Man is a book by G. K. Chesterton, published in 1925. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life is a partial autobiography published by C.S. Lewis in 1955. ...

You must picture me alone in that room in Magdalen, night after night, feeling, whenever my mind lifted even for a second from my work, the steady, unrelenting approach of Him whom I so earnestly desired not to meet. That which I greatly feared had at last come upon me. In the Trinity Term of 1929 I gave in, and admitted that God was God, and knelt and prayed: perhaps, that night, the most dejected and reluctant convert in all England. (Lewis 1966)

After his conversion to theism in 1929, Lewis converted to Christianity in 1931. Following a long discussion and late-night walk with his close friends Tolkien and Hugo Dyson, he records making a specific commitment to Christian belief while on his way to the zoo with his brother. He became a member of the Church of England — somewhat to the disappointment of the devout Catholic Tolkien, who had hoped he would convert to Roman Catholicism (Carpenter 2006).[2] Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Hugo Dyson, whose full name was Henry Victor Dyson Dyson, was a member of the Inklings literary group. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


A committed Anglican, Lewis upheld a largely orthodox Anglican theology, though in his apologetic writings, he made an effort to avoid espousing any one denomination. In his later writings, some believe he proposed ideas such as purification of venial sins after death in purgatory (The Great Divorce) and mortal sin (The Screwtape Letters), which are generally considered to be Catholic teachings. Regardless, Lewis considered himself an entirely orthodox Anglican to the end of his life, reflecting that he had initially attended church only to receive communion and had been repelled by the hymns and the poor quality of the sermons. He later came to consider himself honoured by worshipping with men of faith who came in shabby clothes and work boots and who sang all the verses to all the hymns. The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... According to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, a mortal sin is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ...


Joy Gresham

Joy Gresham

In Lewis's later life, he corresponded with and later met Joy Davidman Gresham, an American writer of Jewish background and also a convert from atheism to Christianity.[3] She was separated from her husband and came to England with her two sons, David and Douglas. Lewis at first regarded her as an agreeable intellectual companion and personal friend, and it was at least overtly on this level that he agreed to enter into a civil marriage contract with her so that she could continue to live in the UK. Lewis's brother Warnie wrote: "For Jack the attraction was at first undoubtedly intellectual. Joy was the only woman whom he had met… who had a brain which matched his own in suppleness, in width of interest, and in analytical grasp, and above all in humour and a sense of fun" (Haven 2006). However, after complaining of a painful hip, she was diagnosed with terminal bone cancer, and the relationship developed to the point that they sought a Christian marriage. Since she was divorced, this was not straightforward in the Church of England at the time, but a friend, the Rev. Peter Bide, performed the ceremony at Joy's hospital bed in 1956. Image File history File links Joy_Gresham. ... Image File history File links Joy_Gresham. ... Joy Gresham Joy Davidman (born Helen Joy Davidman on April 18, 1915, died July 13, 1960) was a Jewish writer, a radical communist and an atheist until her conversion to Christianity in the late 1940s. ... Douglas Gresham (born November, 1945) is a British biographer and film producer. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


Joy's cancer soon went into a remarkable yet brief remission, and the couple lived as a family (together with Warren Lewis) until her eventual relapse and death in 1960. The year she died, the couple took a brief holiday in Greece and the Aegean in 1960; Lewis was fond of walking but not of travel, and this marked his only crossing of the English Channel after 1918. Lewis’s book A Grief Observed describes his experience of bereavement in such a raw and personal fashion that Lewis originally released it under the pseudonym N.W. Clerk to keep readers from associating the book with him. However, so many friends recommended the book to Lewis as a method for dealing with his own grief that he made his authorship public. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... A Grief Observed, first published in 1961, is a collection of C.S. Lewiss reflections on the experience of bereavement, after his wife, Joy Gresham, died from cancer. ...


Lewis continued to raise Joy's two sons after her death. Douglas Gresham is an active Christian and remains involved in the affairs of the Lewis estate, though David Gresham returned to his mother's original Jewish faith. The two brothers are now estranged (Neven 2001).


Illness and death

In early June 1961, Lewis began experiencing medical problems and was diagnosed with inflammation of the kidneys which resulted in blood poisoning. His illness caused him to miss the autumn term at Cambridge, though his health gradually began improving in 1962 and he returned that April. Lewis's health continued to improve, and according to his friend George Sayer, Lewis was fully himself by the spring of 1963. However, on July 15, 1963 he fell ill and was admitted to hospital. The next day at 5:00 pm, Lewis suffered a heart attack and lapsed into a coma, unexpectedly awaking the following day at 2:00 pm. After he was discharged from hospital, Lewis returned to the Kilns though he was too ill to return to work. As a result, he resigned from his post at Cambridge in August. Lewis's condition continued to decline and in mid-November, he was diagnosed with end stage renal failure. On November 22, 1963, Lewis collapsed in his bedroom at 5:30 pm and died a few minutes later, exactly one week before what would have been his 65th birthday. He is buried in the churchyard of Holy Trinity Church, Headington, Oxford (Friends of Holy Trinity Church). Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ... Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English, also known as blood poisoning or toxemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Chronic renal failure (CRF, or chronic kidney failure, CKF, or chronic kidney disease, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years and defined as an abnormally low glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Headington Shark Headington is a residential suburb of Oxford, England, lying on top of a hill of the same name overlooking the city of Oxford in the river valley below. ...


Media coverage of his death was overshadowed by news of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, which occurred on the same day, as did the death of Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World. This coincidence was the inspiration for Peter Kreeft's book Between Heaven and Hell: A Dialog Somewhere Beyond Death with John F. Kennedy, C. S. Lewis, & Aldous Huxley (Kreeft 1982). John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Peter Kreeft Peter Kreeft is a Catholic apologist for Christianity, professor of philosophy at Boston College and The Kings College, and author of over 45 books including Fundamentals of the Faith, Everything you Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven, and Back to Virtue. ... Between Heaven and Hell is a fictional story by Peter Kreeft about President John F. Kennedy, and authors C.S. Lewis (The Chronicles of Narnia) and Aldous Huxley (Brave New World) meeting in Limbo or Purgatory and engaging in a philisophical discussion on faith. ...


C. S. Lewis is commemorated on 22 November in the church calendar of the Episcopal Church. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a calendar of saints and blessed found in the 1979 Book of Common Prayer of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ...


Career

The scholar

Magdalen College
Magdalen College

Lewis taught as a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, for nearly thirty years, from 1925 to 1954, and later was the first Professor of Medieval and Renaissance Literature at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge. Using this position, he argued that there was no such thing as an English Renaissance. Much of his scholarly work concentrated on the later Middle Ages, especially its use of allegory. His The Allegory of Love (1936) helped reinvigorate the serious study of late medieval narratives like the Roman de la Rose. Lewis wrote several prefaces to old works of literature and poetry, like Layamon's Brut. His preface to John Milton’s poem Paradise Lost is still one of the most important criticisms of that work. His last academic work, The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature (1964), is a summary of the medieval world view, the "discarded image" of the cosmos in his title. Download high resolution version (880x584, 84 KB)Magdalen College, Oxford, 2004-06-13. ... Download high resolution version (880x584, 84 KB)Magdalen College, Oxford, 2004-06-13. ... College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced... The Chair in Medieval and Renaissance English is a professorship in English at Cambridge University. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Full name The College of Saint Mary Magdalene Motto Garde ta Foy Keep your Faith Named after Mary Magdalene Previous names Buckingham College Established 1428 Sister College(s) Magdalen College Master Duncan Robinson Location Magdalene Street Undergraduates 335 Postgraduates 169 Homepage Boatclub Magdalene College (pronounced ) was founded in 1428 as... The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ... Written in 1936 by C. S. Lewis, The Allegory of Love is an exploration of the Medieval conventions of courtly love. ... Mirth and Gladness lead a Dance in this miniature from a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose in the Bodleian Library (MS Douce 364, folio 8r). ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature is the last book written by C. S. Lewis. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (pronounced ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It implies a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ...


Lewis was a prolific writer, and his circle of literary friends became an informal discussion society known as the "Inklings", including J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and his brother Warnie Lewis. At Oxford he was the tutor of, among many other undergraduates, poet John Betjeman, critic Kenneth Tynan, mystic Bede Griffiths, and Sufi scholar Martin Lings. Curiously, the religious and conservative Betjeman detested Lewis, whereas the anti-Establishment Tynan retained a life-long admiration for him (Tonkin 2005). The Eagle and Child pub (commonly known as the Bird and Baby) in Oxford where the Inklings met on Thursday nights in 1939. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Charles Walter Stansby Williams (September 20, 1886 – May 15, 1945), was a British writer and poet, and a member of the loose literary circle called the Inklings. ... Owen Barfield (November 9, 1898–December 14, 1997) was a British philosopher, author, poet, and critic. ... A collection of Betjemans poetry, published by John Murray in January 2006 Sir John Betjeman CBE (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was an English poet, writer and broadcaster who described himself in Whos Who as a poet and hack. He was born to a middle-class family... Kenneth Peacock Tynan (April 2, 1927 - July 26, 1980), was an influential and often controversial British theatre critic and writer. ... Alan Richard Griffiths (17 December 1906 Walton-on-Thames, England - 13 May 1993, Shantivanam, South India) was a British-born mystic who lived in an ashram, called Shantivanam, in south India. ... Martin Lings Martin Lings (Abu Bakr Siraj Ad-Din) (January 24, 1909 – May 12, 2005) was a lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon and a British scholar of Sufism. ... Not to be confused with antidisestablishmentarianism. ...


Of J. R. R. Tolkien, Lewis writes in Surprised by Joy: Tolkien redirects here. ... Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life is a partial autobiography published by C.S. Lewis in 1955. ...

When I began teaching for the English Faculty, I made two other friends, both Christians (these queer people seemed now to pop up on every side) who were later to give me much help in getting over the last stile. They were H.V.V. Dyson … and J.R.R. Tolkien. Friendship with the latter marked the breakdown of two old prejudices. At my first coming into the world I had been (implicitly) warned never to trust a Papist, and at my first coming into the English Faculty (explicitly) never to trust a philologist. Tolkien was both. (Lewis 1966, p. 173)

The author

In addition to his scholarly work, Lewis wrote a number of popular novels, including his science fiction Space Trilogy and his fantasy Narnia books, most dealing implicitly with Christian themes such as sin, the Fall, and redemption. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Space Trilogy, Cosmic Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy is a trilogy of three science fiction novels by C. S. Lewis. ... For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ... Narnia is a fantasy world created by C. S. Lewis as a location for his Chronicles of Narnia, a series of seven fantasy novels for children. ...


The Pilgrim's Regress

Main article: The Pilgrim's Regress

His first novel after becoming a Christian was The Pilgrim's Regress, his take on John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress which depicted his own experience with Christianity. The book was critically panned at the time, particularly for its esoteric nature—as to read it requires a close familiarity with classical sources. The Pilgrims Regress is a book of allegorical fiction by C.S. Lewis. ... John Bunyan. ... The Pilgrims Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (published, February, 1678) is a Christian allegory. ...


In a footnote of the biography D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones: The Fight of Faith 1939–1981 by Iain Murray, Murray notes the following: "Lewis is said to have valued ML-J's appreciation and encouragement when the early edition of his Pilgrim's Regress was not selling well. Vincent Lloyd-Jones and Lewis knew each other well, being contemporaries at Oxford. ML-J met the author again and they had a long conversation when they found both themselves on the same boat to Ireland in 1953. On the later occasion, to the question, 'When are you going to write another book?', Lewis replied, 'When I understand the meaning of prayer'" (Murray 1990). Iain H. Murray (b. ...


Space Trilogy

Main article: Space Trilogy

His Space Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy novels (also called the Cosmic Trilogy) dealt with what Lewis saw as the then-current dehumanizing trends in modern science fiction. The first book, Out of the Silent Planet, was apparently written following a conversation with his friend J. R. R. Tolkien about these trends; Lewis agreed to write a "space travel" story and Tolkien a "time travel" one. Tolkien’s story, "The Lost Road", a tale connecting his Middle-earth mythology and the modern world, was never completed. Lewis’s character of Ransom is based in part on Tolkien, a fact that Tolkien himself alludes to in his Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. The second novel, Perelandra, illustrates a new "Garden of Eden", a new "Adam and Eve", and a new "serpent figure" to tempt them. The story illustrates a hypothesis of what could have happened if "our Eve" would have resisted more firmly the temptation of the serpent. The last novel in the Trilogy also contains numerous references to Tolkien's fictional universe, and can be seen partially as a homage to Tolkien. The minor character Jules, from That Hideous Strength, is an obvious caricature of H. G. Wells. Many of the ideas presented in the books, particularly in That Hideous Strength, are dramatizations of arguments made more formally in Lewis’s The Abolition of Man. The Space Trilogy, Cosmic Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy is a trilogy of three science fiction novels by C. S. Lewis. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Out of the Silent Planet is the first novel of a science fiction trilogy written by C. S. Lewis, sometimes referred to as the Space Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... ... The Lost Road and Other Writings is the fifth volume of The History of Middle-earth, a series of compilations of drafts and essays written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Elwin Ransom is a character from C.S. Lewiss Space Trilogy. ... Perelandra (also titled Voyage to Venus in a later edition published by Pan Books) is the second book in the Space Trilogy of C. S. Lewis. ... That Hideous Strength is a 1945 novel by C. S. Lewis, the final book in Lewiss theological science fiction Space Trilogy. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The Abolition of Man is a 1943 book by C. S. Lewis. ...


Another science fiction novel, The Dark Tower, was begun, but remained unfinished; it is not clear whether it was intended as part of the same series as the completed novels. The manuscript was eventually published in 1977, though controversy arose about its authenticity. The Dark Tower is a fragment of a novel attributed to C. S. Lewis and published posthumously by his personal secretary, Walter Hooper, in 1977. ... An unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper. ...


The Chronicles of Narnia

The Mountains of Mourne
The Mountains of Mourne

The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children and is considered a classic of children's literature. Written between 1949 and 1954 and illustrated by Pauline Baynes, the series is Lewis's most popular work having sold over 100 million copies in 41 languages (Kelly 2006)(Guthmann 2005). It has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, television, stage, and cinema. The series has been published in several different orders, and the preferred reading order for the series is often debated among fans; though Douglas Gresham has stated that Lewis preferred that they be read in "Narnian chronology", not the order in which they were published (Drennan 1999). View of the mountains and mourne wall. ... View of the mountains and mourne wall. ... Narnia redirects here. ... For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ... Childrens books redirects here. ... Pauline Baynes (born 1922, in Hove, Sussex) is an English book illustrator, whose work encompasses more than 100 books. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


The books contain many allusions to Christian ideas which are easily accessible to younger readers; however, the books are not weighty, and can be read for their adventure, colour and richness of ideas alone. Because of this, they have become favourites of children and adults, Christians and non-Christians. In addition to Christian themes, Lewis also borrows characters from Greek and Roman mythology as well as traditional British and Irish fairy tales. Lewis reportedly based his depiction of Narnia on the geography and scenery of the Mourne Mountains and "that part of Rostrevor which overlooks Carlingford Lough" (Guardian Unlimited 2005). Lewis cited George MacDonald's Christian fairy tales as an influence in writing the series. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... The granite Mountains of Mourne are located in the first proposed national park of Northern Ireland. ... Welcome to Rostrevor Rostrevor (in Irish: Ros Treabhair, ie Trevor’s Wood, also Caislean Ruairi, ie Rorys Castle) is a village in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... Carlingford Lough (Loch Cairlinn in Irish) (Cairlinn being shortened form of Cathair Linn literally translated as City of the Pool) is a sea loch that forms part of the international border between Northern Ireland to the north and the Republic of Ireland to the south. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ...


The Chronicles of Narnia present the adventures of children who play central roles in the unfolding history of the fictional realm of Narnia, a place where animals talk, magic is common, and good battles evil. In the majority of the books, children from our world find themselves transported to Narnia by a magical portal. Once there, they are quickly involved in setting some wrong to right with the help of the lion Aslan who is the central character of the series. A fictional universe is an imaginary world that serves as the setting or backdrop for one or (more commonly) multiple works of fiction or translatable non-fiction. ... For other uses of Narnia, see Narnia (disambiguation). ... WPA poster by Kenneth Whitley, 1939 The talking animal or speaking animal term, in general, refers to any form of animal which can talk or conduct speech. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aslan (disambiguation). ... Alice, a fictional character based on a real character from the work of Lewis Carroll. ...


Other works

Lewis wrote a number of works on Heaven and Hell. One of these, The Great Divorce, is a short novella. A few residents of Hell take a bus ride to Heaven, where they are met by people they had known on earth. The proposition is that they can stay (in which case they can call the place where they had come from “Purgatory”, instead of “Hell”): but many find it not to their taste. The title is a reference to William Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, a concept that Lewis found a "disastrous error" (Lewis 1946, p. vii). This work deliberately echoes two other more famous works with a similar theme: the Divine Comedy of Dante Aligheri, and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. Another short work, The Screwtape Letters, consists of letters of advice from a senior demon, Screwtape, to his nephew Wormwood, on the best ways to tempt a particular human and secure his damnation. Lewis’s last novel was Till We Have Faces — many believe (as he did) that it is his most mature and masterful work of fiction, but it was never a popular success. It is a retelling of the myth of Cupid and Psyche from the unusual perspective of Psyche's sister. It is deeply concerned with religious ideas, but the setting is entirely pagan, and the connections with specific Christian beliefs are left implicit. The Great Divorce: A Dream is a work of fantasy by C. S. Lewis . ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... The Marriage of Heaven and Hell is one of William Blakes books, a series of texts written in imitation of biblical books of prophecy, but expressing Blakes own intensely personal Romantic and revolutionary beliefs. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... The Pilgrims Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (published 1678) is an allegorical novel. ... The Screwtape Letters is a work of Christian fiction by C.S. Lewis first published in book form in 1942. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... “Dammit” redirects here. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Psyche was one of three sisters, princesses in a Grecian kingdom. ...


Before Lewis’s conversion to Christianity, he published two books: Spirits in Bondage, a collection of poems, and Dymer, a single narrative poem. Both were published under the pen name Clive Hamilton. Spirits in Bondage (1919) was author and Christian apologist C.S. Lewiss first published work. ... Dymer is a narrative poem by C.S. Lewis published in 1926 under the pseudonym Clive Hamilton. ... Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ...


Lewis penned A Grief Observed after the death of his wife (see Joy Gresham above). A Grief Observed, first published in 1961, is a collection of C.S. Lewiss reflections on the experience of bereavement, after his wife, Joy Gresham, died from cancer. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ...


The Christian apologist

In addition to his career as an English professor and an author of fiction, Lewis is regarded by many as one of the most influential Christian apologists of his time; Mere Christianity was voted best book of the twentieth century by Christianity Today magazine in 2000. Lewis was very much interested in presenting a reasonable case for the truth of Christianity. Mere Christianity, The Problem of Pain, and Miracles were all concerned, to one degree or another, with refuting popular objections to Christianity. He also became known as a popular lecturer and broadcaster, and some of his writing (including much of Mere Christianity) originated as scripts for radio talks or lectures (Lewis 1952, p. v). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Mere Christianity[2] is a book by C. S. Lewis, adapted from a 1943 series of BBC radio lecture broadcast while Lewis was at Oxford during World War II. It is considered a classic work in Christian apologetics. ... Christianity Today is an Evangelical Christian periodical based in Carol Stream, Illinois. ... Mere Christianity[2] is a book by C. S. Lewis, adapted from a 1943 series of BBC radio lecture broadcast while Lewis was at Oxford during World War II. It is considered a classic work in Christian apologetics. ... The Problem of Pain is a 1940 book by C. S. Lewis, in which he seeks to provide a Christian response to intellectual questions about suffering. ... In Miracles, C.S. Lewis makes the case for the titular events by first explaining how there must be something more than nature or the whole show and then detailing why that something more is a benevolent being and why it is likely that he would intervene with nature after...


Due to Lewis's approach to religious belief as a skeptic, and his following conversion, he has become popularly known as "The Apostle to the Skeptics." Consequently, his books on Christianity examine common difficulties in Christianity, such as "How could a good God allow pain to exist in the world?", which he examined in detail in The Problem of Pain. Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ...


Lewis also wrote an autobiography titled Surprised by Joy, which places special emphasis on his own conversion. (It was written before he met his wife, Joy Gresham; the title of the book came from the first line of a poem by William Wordsworth.) His essays and public speeches on Christian belief, many of which were collected in God in the Dock and The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses, remain popular today. Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life is a partial autobiography published by C.S. Lewis in 1955. ... Joy Gresham Joy Davidman (born Helen Joy Davidman on April 18, 1915, died July 13, 1960) was a Jewish writer, a radical communist and an atheist until her conversion to Christianity in the late 1940s. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... God in the Dock is a collection of essays and speeches from C. S. Lewis. ... The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses is a compilation of essays on Christianity by C.S. Lewis. ...


His most famous works, the Chronicles of Narnia, contain many strong Christian messages and are often considered allegory. Lewis, an expert on the subject of allegory, maintained that the books were not allegory, and preferred to call the Christian aspects of them "suppositional". As Lewis wrote in a letter to a Mrs. Hook in December of 1958: The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children written by C. S. Lewis. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...

If Aslan represented the immaterial Deity in the same way in which Giant Despair [a character in The Pilgrim's Progress] represents despair, he would be an allegorical figure. In reality however he is an invention giving an imaginary answer to the question, 'What might Christ become like, if there really were a world like Narnia and He chose to be incarnate and die and rise again in that world as He actually has done in ours?' This is not allegory at all. (Martindale & Root 1990) The Pilgrims Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (published, February, 1678) is a Christian allegory. ...

Trilemma

Main article: Lewis's trilemma

In the book Mere Christianity, Lewis famously criticized the idea that Jesus was merely a human being, albeit a great moral teacher: Lewiss Trilemma (or the Lewis Triumvirate) is a form of apologetics intended to prove the divinity of Jesus. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: I’m ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don’t accept his claim to be God. That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic — on the level with the man who says he is a poached egg — or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God, or else a madman or something worse. You can shut him up for a fool, you can spit at him and kill him as a demon or you can fall at his feet and call him Lord and God, but let us not come with any patronising nonsense about his being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to. (Lewis 1952, p. 43) How To Poach an Egg Heres how to poach perfect eggs. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of...

Lewis, who did not invent this argument but did much to popularise it, argues that Jesus made many claims to divinity, either explicitly or implicitly. As a result, he said, there are only three possible options: For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ...

  1. Jesus was telling falsehoods and knew it, and so he was a liar.
  2. Jesus was telling falsehoods but believed he was telling the truth, and so he was insane.
  3. Jesus was telling the truth, and so he was divine.

Lewis’s argument was used by the Christian apologist Josh McDowell in his book More Than a Carpenter (McDowell 2001). The term "trilemma" (which Lewis did not use) is often used to refer to this argument. Although widely repeated in Christian apologetic literature, it has been largely ignored by professional theologians and biblical scholars.[4] Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... The term trilemma derives from the much older term dilemma, a choice between two unacceptable options. ...


Lewis's trilemma appeared at a time when scholars such as Albert Schweitzer and Rudolf Bultmann had portrayed Jesus's miracles and resurrection as myths. The concept that Jesus was not God but a wise man had gained ground in academic circles. The trilemma opposes the idea that Jesus was not divine, without relying on miracles for proof. In accepting the premise that Jesus had claimed divinity, he contradicted a viewpoint, popularized by H. G. Wells in his Outline of History, that Jesus had made no such claim. Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965), was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Rudolf Karl Bultmann (August 20, 1884 - July 30, 1976) was a German theologian of Lutheran background, who was for three decades professor of New Testament studies at the University of Marburg. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the apocryphal book of the Bible, see Book of Wisdom. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The goal of H. G. Wells in The Outline of History was stated in the subtitle: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind. Wells was very dissatisfied with the quality of history textbooks at the end of World War I, and so, between 1918 and 1919 produced a 1...


(Lewis restated the trilemma's structure in the first Narnia book, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, when Professor Kirke advises the young heroes that their sister's claims of a magical world must logically be taken as either lies, madness, or truth.) This article is about the novel. ...


Universal morality

One of the main theses in Lewis' apologia is that there is a common morality known throughout humanity. In the first five chapters of Mere Christianity Lewis discusses the idea that people have a standard of behaviour to which they expect other people to adhere. This standard has been called Universal Morality or Natural Law. Lewis claims that all over the earth people know about this law and that they break it. He goes on to claim that there must be someone or something behind such a universal set of principles. (Lindskoog 2001b, p. 144) Mere Christianity[2] is a book by C. S. Lewis, adapted from a 1943 series of BBC radio lecture broadcast while Lewis was at Oxford during World War II. It is considered a classic work in Christian apologetics. ...

These then are the two points that I wanted to make. First, that human beings, all over the earth, have this curious idea that they ought to behave in a certain way, and can not really get rid of it. Secondly, that they do not in fact behave in that way. They know the Law of Nature; they break it. These two facts are the foundation of all clear thinking about ourselves and the universe we live in. (Lewis 1952, p. 21)

Lewis also portrays Universal Morality in his works of fiction. In The Chronicles of Narnia he describes Universal Morality as the "Deep magic" which everyone knew. (Lindskoog 2001b, p. 146)


In the second chapter of Mere Christianity Lewis recognizes that "many people find it difficult to understand what this Law of Human Nature [...] is". And he responds first to the idea "that the Moral Law is simply our herd instinct" and second to the idea "that the Moral Law is simply a social convention". In responding to the second idea Lewis notes that people often complain that one set of moral ideas is better than another, but that this actually argues for there existing some "Real Morality" to which they are comparing other moralities. Finally he notes that sometimes differences in moral codes are exaggerated by people who confuse differences in beliefs about morality with differences in beliefs about facts:

I have met people who exaggerate the differences, because they have not distinguished between differences of morality and differences of belief about facts. For example, one man said to me, "Three hundred years ago people in England were putting witches to death. Was that what you call the Rule of Human Nature or Right Conduct?" But surely the reason we do not execute witches is that we do not believe there are such things. If we did—if we really thought that there were people going about who had sold themselves to the devil and received supernatural powers from him in return and were using these powers to kill their neighbours or drive them mad or bring bad weather, surely we would all agree that if anyone deserved the death penalty, then these filthy quislings did. There is no difference of moral principle here: the difference is simply about matter of fact. It may be a great advance in knowledge not to believe in witches: there is no moral advance in not executing them when you do not think they are there. You would not call a man humane for ceasing to set mousetraps if he did so because he believed there were no mice in the house. (Lewis 1952, p. 26)

Legacy

A statue of Digory Kirke (C.S. Lewis's fictional alter ego from The Magician's Nephew) in front of the wardrobe of his book The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in East Belfast, Northern Ireland
A statue of Digory Kirke (C.S. Lewis's fictional alter ego from The Magician's Nephew) in front of the wardrobe of his book The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in East Belfast, Northern Ireland

Lewis continues to attract a wide readership. Readers of his fiction are often unaware of what Lewis considered the Christian themes of the works. His Christian apologetics are read and quoted by followers of a wide range of religious denominations, including Roman Catholics and Mormons (Pratt 1998). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1365x2048, 836 KB) Statue of C.S. Lewis looking into a wardrobe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1365x2048, 836 KB) Statue of C.S. Lewis looking into a wardrobe. ... Digory Kirke (1888 - 1949) is a human character from C. S. Lewiss fantasy series The Chronicles of Narnia. ... The Magicians Nephew is a fantasy novel for children written by C. S. Lewis. ... This article is about the novel. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other senses of this word, see denomination. ...


Lewis has been the subject of various biographies, a few of which were written by some of his close friends, such as Roger Lancelyn Green and George Sayer); at least one play attributed to his life; and a 1993 film, Shadowlands, based on an original stage and television play. The film fictionalises his relationship with Joy Gresham. Roger (Gilbert) Lancelyn Green (2 November 1918 – 8 October 1987) was a British biographer and childrens writer. ... Shadowlands is a play, TV drama and film written by William Nicholson. ... Joy Gresham Joy Davidman (born Helen Joy Davidman on April 18, 1915, died July 13, 1960) was a Jewish writer, a radical communist and an atheist until her conversion to Christianity in the late 1940s. ...


Many books have been inspired by Lewis, including A Severe Mercy by his correspondent Sheldon Vanauken. The Chronicles of Narnia have been particularly influential. Modern children's literature such as Daniel Handler's A Series of Unfortunate Events, Eoin Colfer's Artemis Fowl, Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials, and J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter have been more or less influenced by Lewis's series (Hilliard 2005). Pullman, a critic of Lewis, considers him a negative influence (Ezard 2002). Authors of adult fantasy literature such as Tim Powers have also testified to being influenced by Lewis's work. A Severe Mercy is an autobiographical book by Sheldon Vanauken, relating the authors relationship with his wife, their friendship with C.S. Lewis, conversion to Christianity and subsequent tragedy. ... Sheldon Vanauken (1914 - October 18, 1996) is an American author, best known for his autobiographical book A Severe Mercy (1977), which recounts his and his wifes friendship with C.S. Lewis, their conversion to Christianity and dealing with tragedy. ... Daniel Handler (born February 28, 1970), is an American author, screenwriter, and accordionist. ... This article is about the book series. ... Eoin Colfer (pronounced Owen, IPA: )(born May 14, 1965) is an Irish author. ... Artemis Fowl is a series of fantasy novels written by Irish author Eoin Colfer, starring the child criminal mastermind Artemis Fowl. ... Philip Pullman CBE (born October 19, 1946) is an English writer. ... The trilogy (U.K versions), in order of succession from left to right. ... Joanne Jo Murray, née Rowling OBE[1] (born 31 July 1965),[2] who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling,[3] is an British writer and author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Tim Powers at the Israeli ICon 2005 SF&F Convention Timothy Thomas Powers (born February 29, 1952) is an American science fiction and fantasy author. ...


Most of Lewis’s posthumous work has been edited by his literary executor, Walter Hooper. An independent Lewis scholar, the late Kathryn Lindskoog, argued that Hooper's scholarship is not reliable and that he has made false statements and attributed forged works to Lewis (Lindskoog 2001a). A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of a literary estate. ... Walter McGehee Hooper (born 1931) is a trustee and literary advisor of the estate of C.S. Lewis. ... Kathryn Lindskoog (December 26, 1934 to October 21, 2003) was a C.S. Lewis scholar known largely for her theory that some works attributed to Lewis are forgeries, including The Dark Tower. ...


According to Lindskoog's research, after Lewis's death in 1963, Hooper began portraying himself as having been Lewis's "companion secretary." Although Hooper's only association with Lewis was between early June and late August of 1963, his published introductions to Lewis's works give the impression he knew Lewis for many years and had a very close relationship with him. Lindskoog's research and arguments are laid out in Sleuthing C.S. Lewis: More Light in the Shadowlands.


A bronze statue of Lewis's character, Digory, from The Magician's Nephew, looking into a wardrobe stands in Belfast's Holywood Arches in front of the Holywood Road Library (BBC News 2004). Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ...


Lewis was strongly opposed to the creation of live-action versions of his works due to the technology at the time. His major concern was that the anthropomorphic animal characters "when taken out of narrative into actual visibility, always turn into buffoonery or nightmare". This was said in the context of the 1950s, when technology would not allow the special effects required to make a coherent, robust film version of Narnia. Whether or not Lewis would be happy with the CGI creations of The Chronicles of Narnia film series, naturally, cannot be known. In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ... Special effects (also called SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ... The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe poster. ...


The song "The Earth Will Shake" performed by Thrice is based on one of his poems, and the band Sixpence None the Richer are named after a passage in Mere Christianity. The Great Divorce has served as the inspiration for at least three pieces of music: a string quartet piece entitled The Great Divorce by Matt Slocum of Sixpence None the Richer, the song "The High Countries" by Caedmon's Call on their album Back Home, and Phil Woodward's 2007 rock album Ghosts and Spirits. New Zealand Christian singer-songwriter Brooke Fraser also included a song entitled "C.S. Lewis Song" in her latest album "Albertine" which contains passages from his writing.[5] Christian alternative rock band Poor Old Lu are so named because of a sentence in The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe. Another alternative rock band, Future of Forestry, got its name from Lewis's poem The Future of Forestry. 2nd Chapter of Acts recorded an album entitled The Roar of Love, inspired by the first of the Narnia stories. British band The Waterboys quoted from the final Narnia Book, The Last Battle in their 1984 song "Church Not Made with Hands". Later, on their 1990 album Room to Roam, The Waterboys included a song entitled "Further Up, Further In", the title taken from the last chapter of The Last Battle. Look up thrice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sixpence None the Richer was a Grammy-nominated pop/rock band with roots in New Braunfels, Texas, eventually settling in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Matt Slocum (born December 27, 1972) is a guitarist, and composer, best known for his work with the rock band Sixpence None The Richer. ... Sixpence None the Richer was a Grammy-nominated pop/rock band with roots in New Braunfels, Texas, eventually settling in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Caedmons Call is a Contemporary Christian band and pioneer of white blues music, which fuses traditional folk with world music and alternative rock. ... Back Home is an album by the British singer/songwriter Eric Clapton. ... Brooke Gabrielle Fraser (born December 15, 1983 in Wellington, New Zealand) is an award-winning New Zealand singer-songwriter. ... Christian alternative music is a form of alternative rock music lyrically grounded in a Christian worldview. ... Poor old Lu Poor Old Lu was and is a pioneering alternative Christian band based in the Northwest. ... Future of Forestry is an alternative Christian rock band from Southern California, USA who plays regularly at Flood, a ministry that meets weekly at Kearny High School in San Diego, and is pastored by Matt Hammett. ... The Future of Forestry is a poem by C. S. Lewis. ... 2nd Chapter of Acts was a Jesus Music and an early Contemporary Christian Music group comprised of sisters Annie Herring and Nelly Greisen and brother Matthew Ward. ... The Roar of Love is a 1978 concept album by Christian band 2nd Chapter of Acts that tells the story of the first book in the Chronicles of Narnia series by C.S. Lewis. ... The Waterboys are a band formed in 1983 by Mike Scott. ... This article is about the novel by C. S. Lewis. ... This article is about the novel by C. S. Lewis. ...


The movie The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe was based on his first installment in the Narnia series of the same name, and movies based on two other books he wrote, Prince Caspian and The Screwtape Letters are both to be released sometime in 2008.


Several C. S. Lewis Societies exist around the world, including one which was founded in Oxford in 1982 (see their website) to discuss papers on the life and works of Lewis and the other Inklings, and generally appreciate all things Lewisian. His name is also used by a variety of Christian organizations, often with a concern for maintaining conservative Christian values in education or literary studies. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian...


Criticism

The Chronicles of Narnia have variously been depicted as featuring religious propaganda, misogyny, racism, and emotional sadism (BBC News 2005). For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Look up sadism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

For more details on this topic, see The Chronicles of Narnia#Criticism.

Criticism of Lewis's work is not limited to his Narnia books. In Losing Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist, former preacher turned atheist activist Dan Barker discusses Mere Christianity and takes issue with Lewis's belief in absolute morality, arguing "any morality which is based on an unyielding structure above and beyond humanity is dangerous to human beings. History is filled with examples of what religious 'morality' has done to worsen our lot" (Barker 1992). Narnia redirects here. ... Dan Barker (born June 25, 1949) is a prominent American atheist activist who served as a Christian preacher and musician for 17 years, but left Christianity in 1984. ... Moral absolutism is the belief that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, devoid of the context of the act. ...


Lewis's Christian apologetics have also been extensively criticised by John Beversluis in C. S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion (1985, rev. 2007) and by S. T. Joshi in God's Defenders: What They Believe and Why They Are Wrong (2003). N. T. Wright observed that the 'trilemma' argument "doesn’t work as history, and it backfires dangerously when historical critics question his reading of the Gospels."[6] Sunanda Tryambak Joshi (b. ... Tom (N.T.) Wright, Bishop of Durham Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ...


Bibliography

Nonfiction

  • The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition (1936)
  • Rehabilitations and other essays (1939) — with two essays not included in Essay Collection (2000)
  • The Personal Heresy: A Controversy (with E. M. W. Tillyard, 1939)
  • The Problem of Pain (1940)
  • A Preface to Paradise Lost (1942)
  • The Abolition of Man (1943)
  • Beyond Personality (1944)
  • Miracles: A Preliminary Study (1947, revised 1960)
  • Arthurian Torso (1948; on Charles Williams's poetry)
  • Mere Christianity (1952; based on radio talks of 1941–1944)
  • English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama (1954); 1975 reprint ISBN 0198812981;
  • Major British Writers, Vol I (1954), Contribution on Edmund Spenser
  • Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life (1955; autobiography)
  • Reflections on the Psalms (1958)
  • The Four Loves (1960)
  • Studies in Words (1960)
  • An Experiment in Criticism (1961)
  • A Grief Observed (1961; first published under the pseudonym «N. W. Clerk»)
  • They Asked for a Paper: Papers and Addresses(1962)
  • Selections from Layamon's Brut (ed. G L Brook, 1963 Oxford University Press) introduction
  • Prayer: Letters to Malcolm (1964)
  • The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature (1964)
  • Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature (1966) — not included in Essay Collection (2000)
  • Spenser's Images of Life (ed. Alastair Fowler, 1967)
  • Letters to an American Lady (1967)
  • Christian Reflections (1967; essays and papers)
  • Selected Literary Essays (1969) — not included in Essay Collection (2000)
  • God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics (1970), = Undeceptions (1971) — all included in Essay Collection (2000)
  • Of Other Worlds (1982; essays) — with one essay not included in Essay Collection
  • Present Concerns (1986; essays)
  • All My Road Before Me: The Diary of C. S. Lewis 1922–27 (1993)
  • Essay Collection: Literature, Philosophy and Short Stories (2000)
  • Essay Collection: Faith, Christianity and the Church (2000)
  • Collected Letters, Vol. I: Family Letters 1905–1931 (2000)
  • Collected Letters, Vol. II: Books, Broadcasts and War 1931–1949 (2004)
  • Collected Letters, Vol. III: Narnia, Cambridge and Joy 1950–1963 (2007)
  • The Business Of Heaven:Daily Readings From C.S.Lewis ed. Walter Hooper, 1984, Harvest Book, Harcourt, Inc.

Fiction

Poetry

  • Spirits in Bondage (1919; published under pseudonym Clive Hamilton)
  • Dymer (1926; published under pseudonym Clive Hamilton)
  • Narrative Poems (ed. Walter Hooper, 1969; includes Dymer)
  • The Collected Poems of C. S. Lewis (ed. Walter Hooper, 1994; includes Spirits in Bondage)

As editor

  • George MacDonald: An Anthology (1947)
  • Essays Presented to Charles Williams (1947)

Written in 1936 by C. S. Lewis, The Allegory of Love is an exploration of the Medieval conventions of courtly love. ... The Personal Heresy is a collection of essays by C.S. Lewis and E. M. W. Tillyard that discusses poetrys relationship to the poets personality. ... Eustace Mandeville Wetenhall Tillyard (1889 –1962) was a British classical scholar and literary scholar. ... The Problem of Pain is a 1940 book by C. S. Lewis, in which he seeks to provide a Christian response to intellectual questions about suffering. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Abolition of Man is a 1943 book by C. S. Lewis. ... In Miracles, C.S. Lewis makes the case for the titular events by first explaining how there must be something more than nature or the whole show and then detailing why that something more is a benevolent being and why it is likely that he would intervene with nature after... Charles Walter Stansby Williams (September 20, 1886 – May 15, 1945), was a British writer and poet, and a member of the loose literary circle called the Inklings. ... Mere Christianity[2] is a book by C. S. Lewis, adapted from a 1943 series of BBC radio lecture broadcast while Lewis was at Oxford during World War II. It is considered a classic work in Christian apologetics. ... Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life is a partial autobiography published by C.S. Lewis in 1955. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... The Four Loves is a 1960 book by C. S. Lewis in which he explores the nature of love from a Christian perspective. ... Studies in Words is a secular work of linguistic scholarship written by Clive Staples Lewis and published by the Cambridge University Press in 1960. ... The basic idea of An Experiment in Criticism is to evaluate the quality of books not by how they are written, but by how they are read. ... A Grief Observed, first published in 1961, is a collection of C.S. Lewiss reflections on the experience of bereavement, after his wife, Joy Gresham, died from cancer. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... Layamon, or Laȝamon (using the archaic letter yogh), was a poet of the early 13th century, whose Brut (c. ... Brut can mean many different things: Brutus of Troy (also known as Brut, Brute) was a legendary British character. ... God in the Dock is a collection of essays and speeches from C. S. Lewis. ... The Pilgrims Regress is a book of allegorical fiction by C.S. Lewis. ... See also: 1932 in literature, other events of 1933, 1934 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The Space Trilogy, Cosmic Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy is a trilogy of three science fiction novels by C. S. Lewis. ... Out of the Silent Planet is the first novel of a science fiction trilogy written by C. S. Lewis, sometimes referred to as the Space Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy. ... See also: 1937 in literature, other events of 1938, 1939 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Perelandra (also titled Voyage to Venus in a later edition published by Pan Books) is the second book in the Space Trilogy of C. S. Lewis. ... See also: 1942 in literature, other events of 1943, 1944 in literature, list of years in literature. ... That Hideous Strength is a 1945 novel by C. S. Lewis, the final book in Lewiss theological science fiction Space Trilogy. ... See also: 1945 in literature, other events of 1946, 1947 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The Screwtape Letters is a work of Christian fiction by C.S. Lewis first published in book form in 1942. ... See also: 1941 in literature, other events of 1942, 1943 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The Great Divorce: A Dream is a work of fantasy by C. S. Lewis . ... See also: 1944 in literature, other events of 1945, 1946 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Narnia redirects here. ... This article is about the novel. ... See also: 1949 in literature, other events of 1950, 1951 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Prince Caspian is a novel for children by C. S. Lewis, first published in 1951. ... See also: 1950 in literature, other events of 1951, 1952 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The Voyage of the Dawn Treader is a fantasy novel by C. S. Lewis. ... See also: 1951 in literature, other events of 1952, 1953 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The Silver Chair is part of The Chronicles of Narnia, a series of seven fantasy novels written by C.S. Lewis. ... See also: 1952 in literature, other events of 1953, 1954 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Cover of a recent edition of The Horse and His Boy The Horse and His Boy is a novel by C.S. Lewis. ... See also: 1953 in literature, other events of 1954, 1955 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The Magicians Nephew is a fantasy novel for children written by C. S. Lewis. ... See also: 1954 in literature, other events of 1955, 1956 in literature, list of years in literature. ... This article is about the novel by C. S. Lewis. ... See also: 1955 in literature, other events of 1956, 1957 in literature, list of years in literature. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The Screwtape Letters is a work of Christian fiction by C. S. Lewis first published in book form in 1942. ... See also: 1960 in literature, other events of 1961, 1962 in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 1963 in literature, other events of 1964, 1965 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The Dark Tower is a fragment of a novel attributed to C. S. Lewis and published posthumously by his personal secretary, Walter Hooper, in 1977. ... See also: 1976 in literature, other events of 1977, 1978 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Boxen is a fictional world that was created by C. S. Lewis as a child and was inhabited by talking animals. ... See also: 1984 in literature, other events of 1985, 1986 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Spirits in Bondage (1919) was author and Christian apologist C.S. Lewiss first published work. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... Dymer is a narrative poem by C.S. Lewis published in 1926 under the pseudonym Clive Hamilton. ...

Secondary works

  • John Beversluis, C. S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. Eerdmans, 1985. ISBN 0-8028-0046-7
  • Humphrey Carpenter, The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams and their friends. George Allen & Unwin, 1978. ISBN 0-04-809011-5
  • Joe R. Christopher & Joan K. Ostling, C. S. Lewis: An Annotated Checklist of Writings about him and his Works. Kent State University Press, n.d. (1972). ISBN 0-87338-138-6
  • James Como, Branches to Heaven: The Geniuses of C. S. Lewis, Spence, 1998.
  • James Como, Remembering C. S. Lewis (3rd ed. of C. S. Lewis at the Breakfast Table). Ignatius, 2006
  • Michael Coren, The Man Who Created Narnia: The Story of C.S. Lewis. Eerdmans Pub Co, Reprint edition 1996. ISBN 0-8028-3822-7
  • Christopher Derrick, C. S. Lewis and the Church of Rome: A Study in Proto-Ecumenism. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. 1981. ISBN 978-9991718507
  • Colin Duriez and David Porter, The Inklings Handbook: The Lives, Thought and Writings of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and Their Friends. 2001, ISBN 1-902694-13-9
  • Colin Duriez, Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship. Paulist Press, 2003. ISBN 1-58768-026-2
  • Bruce L. Edwards, Not a Tame Lion: The Spiritual World of Narnia. Tyndale. 2005. ISBN 1414303815
  • Bruce L. Edwards, Further Up and Further In: Understanding C. S. Lewis’s The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Broadman and Holman, 2005. ISBN 0805440704
  • Bruce L. Edwards, General Editor, C. S. Lewis: Life, Works, and Legacy. 4 Vol. Praeger Perspectives, 2007. ISBN 0275991164
  • Bruce L. Edwards, Editor. The Taste of the Pineapple: Essays on C. S. Lewis as Reader, Critic, and Imaginative Writer. The Popular Press, 1988. ISBN 0879724072
  • Bruce L. Edwards, A Rhetoric of Reading: C. S. Lewis's Defense of Western Literacy. Center for the Study of Chrfistian Values in Literature, 1986. ISBN 0939555018
  • Alastair Fowler, 'C.S. Lewis: Supervisor', Yale Review, Vol. 91, No. 4 (October 2003).
  • Jocelyn Gibb (ed.), Light on C. S. Lewis. Geoffrey Bles, 1965 & Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1976. ISBN 0-15-652000-1
  • Douglas Gilbert & Clyde Kilby, C.S. Lewis: Images of His World. Eerdmans, 1973 & 2005. ISBN 0-8028-2800-0
  • Diana Pavlac Glyer The Company They Keep: C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien as Writers in Community. Kent State University Press. Kent Ohio. 2007. ISBN 978-0-87338-890-0
  • David Graham (ed.), We Remember C.S. Lewis. Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-8054-2299-4
  • Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. Fully revised & expanded edition. HarperCollins, 2002. ISBN 0-00-628164-8
  • Douglas Gresham, Jack's Life: A Memory of C.S. Lewis. Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2005. ISBN 0-8054-3246-9
  • Douglas Gresham, Lenten Lands: My Childhood with Joy Davidman and C.S. Lewis. HarperSanFrancisco, 1994. ISBN 0-06-063447-2
  • William Griffin, C.S. Lewis: The Authentic Voice. (Formerly C.S. Lewis: A Dramatic Life) Lion, 2005. ISBN 0-7459-5208-9
  • Joel D. Heck, Irrigating Deserts: C. S. Lewis on Education. Concordia Publishing House, 2006. ISBN 0-7586-0044-5
  • David Hein, "A Note on C. S. Lewis's The Screwtape Letters." The Anglican Digest 49.2 (Easter 2007): 55-58. Argues that Lewis's portrayal of the activity of the Devil was influenced by contemporary events--in particular, by the threat of a Nazi invasion of Britain in 1940.
  • David Hein and Edward Hugh Henderson, eds., Captured by the Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. New York and London: T & T Clark / Continuum, 2004. A study of Lewis's close friend the theologian Austin Farrer, this book also contains material on Farrer's circle, "the Oxford Christians," including C. S. Lewis.
  • Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Companion and Guide. HarperCollins, 1996. ISBN 0-00-627800-0
  • Walter Hooper, Through Joy and Beyond: A Pictorial Biography of C. S. Lewis. Macmillan, 1982. ISBN 0-02-553670-2
  • Alan Jacobs, The Narnian: The Life and Imagination of C.S. Lewis. HarperSanFrancisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-076690-5
  • Carolyn Keefe, C.S. Lewis: Speaker & Teacher. Zondervan, 1979. ISBN 0-310-26781-1
  • Clyde S. Kilby, The Christian World of C. S. Lewis. Eerdmans, 1964, 1995. ISBN 0-8028-0871-9
  • W.H. Lewis (ed), Letters of C.S. Lewis. Geoffrey Bles, 1966. ISBN 0-00-242457-6
  • Kathryn Lindskoog, Light in the Shadowlands: Protecting the Real C. S. Lewis. Multnomah Pub., 1994. ISBN 0-88070-695-3
  • Susan Lowenberg, C. S. Lewis: A Reference Guide 1972–1988. Hall & Co., 1993. ISBN 0-8161-1846-9
  • Wayne Mardindale & Jerry Root, The Quotable Lewis. Tyndale House Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-8423-5115-9
  • Markus Mühling, "A Theological Journey into Narnia. An Analysis of the Message beneath the Text", Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-60423-8
  • Joseph Pearce, C. S. Lewis and the Catholic Church. Ignatius Press, 2003. ISBN 0-89870-979-2
  • Thomas C. Peters, Simply C.S. Lewis. A Beginner's Guide to His Life and Works. Kingsway Publications, 1998. ISBN 0-85476-762-2
  • Justin Phillips, C.S. Lewis at the BBC: Messages of Hope in the Darkness of War. Marshall Pickering, 2003. ISBN 0-00-710437-5
  • Victor Reppert, C.S. Lewis's Dangerous Idea: In Defense of the Argument from Reason. InterVarsity Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8308-2732-3
  • George Sayer, Jack: C. S. Lewis and His Times. Macmillan, 1988. ISBN 0-333-43362-9
  • Peter J. Schakel, Imagination and the Arts in C. S. Lewis: Journeying to Narnia and Other Worlds. University of Missouri Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8262-1407-X
  • Peter J. Schakel. Reason and Imagination in C. S. Lewis: A Study of "Till We Have Faces." Available online. Eerdmans, 1984. ISBN 0-8028-1998-2
  • Peter J. Schakel, ed. The Longing for a Form: Essays on the Fiction of C. S. Lewis. Kent State University Press, 1977. ISBN 0-87338-204-8
  • Peter J. Schakel and Charles A. Huttar, ed. Word and Story in C. S. Lewis. University of Missouri Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8262-0760-X
  • Stephen Schofield. In Search of C.S. Lewis. Bridge Logos Pub. 1983. ISBN 0-88270-544-X
  • Jeffrey D. Schultz and John G. West, Jr. (eds.), The C.S. Lewis Readers' Encyclopedia. Zondervan Publishing House, 1998. ISBN 0-310-21538-2
  • G. B. Tennyson (ed.), Owen Barfield on C.S. Lewis. Wesleyan University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8195-5233-X.
  • Richard J. Wagner. C.S. Lewis and Narnia for Dummies. For Dummies, 2005. ISBN 0-7645-8381-6
  • Andrew Walker, Patrick James (ed.), Rumours of Heaven: Essays in Celebration of C.S. Lewis, Guildford: Eagle, 1998, ISBN 0863472508
  • Chad Walsh, C. S. Lewis: Apostle to the Skeptics. Macmillan, 1949.
  • Chad Walsh, The Literary Legacy of C. S. Lewis. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. ISBN 0-15-652785-5.
  • George Watson (ed.), Critical Essays on C. S. Lewis. Scolar Press, 1992. ISBN 0-85967-853-9
  • Michael White, C.S. Lewis: The Boy Who Chronicled Narnia. Abacus, 2005. ISBN 0-349-11625-3
  • Erik J. Wielenberg, God and the Reach of Reason. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-521-70710-7
  • A. N. Wilson, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. W. W. Norton, 1990. ISBN 0-393-32340-4

Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... Chairman and Professor of the Department of Performing and Fine Arts at York College of the City University of New York (CUNY), in Jamaica, Queens. ... Christopher Hugh Derrick (12 June 1921 – 2 October 2007) was the son of the artist, illustrator and cartoonist Thomas Derrick. ... Colin Duriez (b. ... David Porter (February 1, 1780 – March 3, 1843) was an officer in the United States Navy and later the commander-in-chief of the Mexican Navy. ... Bruce L. Edwards is Professor of English and Associate Dean for Distance Education and International Programs at Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio, where has he been a faculty member and administrator since 1981. ... Bruce L. Edwards is Professor of English and Associate Dean for Distance Education and International Programs at Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio, where has he been a faculty member and administrator since 1981. ... Bruce L. Edwards is Professor of English and Associate Dean for Distance Education and International Programs at Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio, where has he been a faculty member and administrator since 1981. ... Bruce L. Edwards is Professor of English and Associate Dean for Distance Education and International Programs at Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio, where has he been a faculty member and administrator since 1981. ... Bruce L. Edwards is Professor of English and Associate Dean for Distance Education and International Programs at Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio, where has he been a faculty member and administrator since 1981. ... Roger (Gilbert) Lancelyn Green (2 November 1918 – 8 October 1987) was a British biographer and childrens writer. ... Walter McGehee Hooper (born 1931) is a trustee and literary advisor of the estate of C.S. Lewis. ... Douglas Gresham (born November, 1945) is a British biographer and film producer. ... Austin Farrer (1904-1968) English theologian, biblical scholar, and philosopher. ... Joseph Pearce (born 1961) is an English-born writer, as of 2005 Writer in Residence and Professor of Literature at Ave Maria University in Naples, Florida; previously he had a comparable position, from 2001, at Ave Maria College in Ypsilanti, Michigan. ... There have been multiple public figures named Michael White or Mike White, including: Michael White (journalist), Associate Editor and former Political Editor of The Guardian Michael White (politician), former Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio Michael White (clarinetist), New Orleans jazz musician Michael White (violinist), jazz musician Michael White (Bassist), member of... Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer, known for his biographies, novels and works of popular and cultural history. ...

See also

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Narnia redirects here. ... The Inklings was a literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford. ... Pauline Baynes (born 1922, in Hove, Sussex) is an English book illustrator, whose work encompasses more than 100 books. ... Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (March 18, 1919 – January 5, 2001) (known as Elizabeth Anscombe, published as G. E. M. Anscombe) was a British analytic philosopher, a theologian and a pupil of Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://atheism.about.com/od/cslewisnarnia/a/biography.htm accessed September 15, 2007
  2. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1978). The Inklings. Allen & Unwin.  Lewis was brought up in the Church of Ireland, and after his conversion joined the Church of England.
  3. ^ http://www.lamblion.com/articles/other/gems/Gems-02.php
  4. ^ "Was Jesus Mad, Bad, or God?", in Stephen T. Davis, Daniel Kendall, Gerald O'Collins, The Incarnation: an interdisciplinary symposium on the Incarnation of the Son of God (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 222–3.
  5. ^ http://songslyrics.selaplana.com/songs/international/cs-lewis-song-brooke-fraser retrieved September 9, 2007
  6. ^ N. T. Wright, "Simply Lewis: Reflections on a Master Apologist After 60 Years", Touchstone, March 2007 [1]

The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...

References

  • Barker, Dan (1992), written at Madison, Losing Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist, Freedom from Religion Foundation, ISBN 1-877733-07-5
  • BBC News, Staff (2005), "Pullman attacks Narnia film plans", BBC News 2005 (16 October), <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4347226.stm>
  • BBC News, Staff (2004), "City that inspired Narnia fantasy", BBC News 2004 (5 March), <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/3533797.stm>
  • Carpenter, Humphrey (2006), The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien and Their Friends, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-0077-4869-8
  • Dodd, Celia (2004), "Human nature: Universally acknowledged", The Times 2004 (05-08), <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/printFriendly/0,,1-100-1100513,00.html>
  • Drennan, Miriam (1999), "Back into the wardrobe with The Complete Chronicles of Narnia", BookPage, <http://www.bookpage.com/9903bp/douglas_gresham.html>
  • Ezard, John (2002), "Narnia books attacked as racist and sexist", The Guardian 2002 (6-3), <http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,726739,00.html>
  • Friends of Holy Trinity Church, Staff, History of the Building, <http://www.friendsofholytrinity.org.uk/History1.html>
  • Gopnik, Adam (2005), "PRISONER OF NARNIA How C. S. Lewis escaped", The New Yorker 2005 (11–21), <http://www.newyorker.com/critics/content/articles/051121crat_atlarge>
  • Guardian Unlimited, Staff (2005), "If you didn't find Narnia in your own wardrobe…", Guardian Unlimited 2005 (04–12), <http://travel.guardian.co.uk/article/2005/dec/04/unitedkingdom.cslewis.booksforchildrenandteenagers>
  • Guthmann, Edward (2005), "'Narnia' tries to cash in on dual audience", San Francisco Chronicle, <http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/12/11/NARNIA.TMP>
  • Haven, Cynthia (2006), "Lost in the shadow of C.S. Lewis' fame Joy Davidman was a noted poet, a feisty Communist and a free spirit", San Francisco Chronicle (no. 01-01), <http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/01/01/RVGQFGC5DO1.DTL>
  • Hooper, Walter (1979), written at London, They stand together: The letters of C. S. Lewis to Arthur Greeves (1914–1963), Collins, ISBN 0-00-215828-0
  • Hilliard, Juli (2005), "Hear the Roar", Sarasota Herald-Tribune 2005 (12–09), <http://www.heraldtribune.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051209/FEATURES/512090692/1376>
  • Kelly, Clint (2006), "Dear Mr. Lewis", Response 29 (1), <http://www.spu.edu/depts/uc/response/winter2k6/features/lewis.asp>
  • Kreeft, Peter (1982), Between Heaven and Hell: A Dialogue Somewhere Beyond Death with John F. Kennedy, C. S. Lewis & Aldous Huxley, InterVarsity Press, 0-8778-4389-9
  • Lewis, C.S. (1946), written at London, The Great Divorce, Collins, 0-00-628056-0
  • Lewis, C.S. (1952), written at London, Mere Christianity, Collins, 0-00-628054-4
  • Lewis, C.S. (1942), written at London, The Screwtape Letters, Collins, 0-00-767240-3
  • Lewis, C.S. (1966), written at London, Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life, Harvest Books, 0156870118
  • Lindskoog, Kathyrn (2001a), Sleuthing C.S. Lewis: More Light In The Shadowlands, Mercer University Press, ISBN 0-8655-4730-0
  • Lindskoog, Kathyrn (2001b), Surprised by C.S. Lewis, George Macdonald, & Dante: An Array of Original Discoveries, Mercer University Press, ISBN 0865547289
  • Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, ISBN 0-1981-4405-9, <http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/785>
  • Martindale, Wayne & Jerry Root (1990), The Quotable Lewis, Tyndale House, ISBN 0-8423-5115-9
  • McDowell, Josh (2001), More Than a Carpenter, Kingsway Publications, ISBN 0-8547-6906-4
  • Murray, Iain (1990), David Martyn Lloyd-Jones: The Fight of Faith, 1939–1981, The Banner of Truth Trust, ISBN 0-8515-1564-9
  • Neven, Tom (2001), "In Lenten Lands", Le Penseur Réfléchit, <http://www.mrrena.com/2001/Lewis.shtml>
  • The Old Inn, Staff (2007), History of the Old Inn, <http://www.theoldinn.com/about-us/history-of-the-old-inn/>
  • Pratt, Alf (1998), "LDS Scholars Salute Author C.S. Lewis At BYU Conference", The Salt Lake Tribune 1998 (December), <http://www.crlamppost.org/BYU.htm>
  • Tonkin, Boyd (2005), "CS Lewis: The literary lion of Narnia", The Independent 2005 (11–11), <http://enjoyment.independent.co.uk/books/features/article326179.ece>
  • Toynbee, Polly (2005), "Narnia represents everything that is most hateful about religion", The Guardian 2005 (December 5), <http://www.guardian.co.uk/religion/Story/0,2763,1657759,00.html>

BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... From traditional book reviews and author interviews to a blog and e-newsletter services, BookPage has become one of the United States most popular sources of new book evaluations and news for librarians, booksellers, readers, and publishers, covering some 100 new works of fiction, nonfiction, childrens books, and audiobooks... For other uses, see Guardian. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Walter McGehee Hooper (born 1931) is a trustee and literary advisor of the estate of C.S. Lewis. ... The Sarasota Herald-Tribune is a daily newspaper located in Sarasota, Florida. ... Between Heaven and Hell is a fictional story by Peter Kreeft about President John F. Kennedy, and authors C.S. Lewis (The Chronicles of Narnia) and Aldous Huxley (Brave New World) meeting in Limbo or Purgatory and engaging in a philisophical discussion on faith. ... The Great Divorce: A Dream is a work of fantasy by C. S. Lewis . ... Mere Christianity[2] is a book by C. S. Lewis, adapted from a 1943 series of BBC radio lecture broadcast while Lewis was at Oxford during World War II. It is considered a classic work in Christian apologetics. ... The Screwtape Letters is a work of Christian fiction by C.S. Lewis first published in book form in 1942. ... Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life is a partial autobiography published by C.S. Lewis in 1955. ... Marquis of the Salt Lake Tribune on the Tribune Building in Downtown Salt Lake City The Salt Lake Tribune (ISSN 0746-3502) is Salt Lake City, Utahs largest-circulated local daily newspaper. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
C. S. Lewis
  • Original Works of CS Lewis
    • Marion E. Wade Center at Wheaton College — has the world’s largest collection of Lewis's works and works about him
    • Taylor University, Upland, Indiana, has the world's largest private collection of C. S. Lewis first editions, letters, manuscripts, and ephemera—the Edwin W. Brown Collection
    • Arend Smilde's CSL site — Dutch and (mainly) English. Several unique or hard-to-find texts and resources
    • Audio
      • Lewis on The George MacDonald Informational Web Has an excerpt of Lewis talking about friend and fellow author: Charles Williams, bottom of page
      • Lewis's Surviving Broadcast Talks on the BBC BBC page on Lewis with original audio recordings.
      • Complete text and audio of C.S. Lewis' BBC Radio Broadcast 'Beyond Personality - Mere Men'
      • The CS Lewis Myspace Page -- C.S. Lewis Myspace page
  • Periodical publications
    • The Chronicle — British academic journal for C.S. Lewis and his circle
  • Societies and Clubs
    • C.S. Lewis Foundation
    • Oxford University C.S. Lewis Society
    • New York C.S. Lewis Society
    • C.S. Lewis Society of California
    • The Philippine Order of Narnians — A Filipino Community of C.S. Lewis Enthusiasts
    • NarniaFans.com — C.S. Lewis news, database, and community
    • The Cumberland River Lamp Post - A very comprehensive website containing a complete bibliography and photo section
  • Analysis/Evaluation
    • Works by or about C. S. Lewis in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
    • C.S. Lewis at the Internet Book List
    • C. S. Lewis Blog — A weblog of news and reflections on CSL's life and work
    • C. S. Lewis & The Inklings — resources on Lewis and friends
  • FAQs
    • RapidNet.com — C. S. Lewis FAQ
  • Genealogy
    • Ancestry of C. S. Lewis
Honorary titles
Preceded by
None
Professor of Medieval and Renaissance English at
the University of Cambridge

1954–1964
Succeeded by
J. A. W. Bennett
Persondata
NAME Lewis, Clive Staples
ALTERNATIVE NAMES C.S. Lewis, CS Lewis, Jack (nickname)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Author & Christian apologist
DATE OF BIRTH 29 November 1898(1898-11-29)
PLACE OF BIRTH Belfast, Northern Ireland
DATE OF DEATH 22 November 1963
PLACE OF DEATH Oxford, England

 
 

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