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Encyclopedia > Cádiz

Cádiz is a coastal city in southwestern Spain, in the region of Andalusia, and is the capital of the province of Cádiz. As of the 2003 census its population was 134,989, and the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 406,095, ranking as the 16th-largest urban area of Spain. Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87 268 km²  17,2% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 1st  7 478 432  17,9%  85,70/km² Demonym... Cádiz province Cádiz is a province of southern Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


HISTORY


The city was originally founded as Gadir (Phoenician גדר "walled city") by the Phoenicians, who used it in their trade with Tartessos. The Greeks knew it as Gadira or Gadeira. Traditionally, its date of establishment is about 1100 BCE, although as of 2004 no finds have been found that date back further than the 9th century BCE. One resolution of the discrepancy has been to assume that it was in the initial phase merely a small trading post. It is regarded as the most ancient extant city in western Europe. According to Greek legend, Gadir was founded by Heracles after killing Geryon. Indeed, one of its notable features during this era was the temple dedicated to the Phoenician god Melqart. Some historians think that the columns of this temple gave origin to the myth of the Columns of Hercules (Melqart was associated by the Greeks with Heracles, or Hercules). Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city on the south coast of Spain, at the mouth of the Guadalquivir. ... (Redirected from 1100s BCE) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... In Greek mythology, Geryon (aka Geyron), son of Chrysaor and Echidna, was a winged giant made from three entire human bodies conjoined at the waist. ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa) replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ... Pillars of Hercules is the ancient name given to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Straits of Gibraltar. ... For the son of Alexander the Great, see Heracles (Macedon). ... Hercules and Cacus, by Baccio Bandinelli, 1525 - 1534. ...


In about 500 BCE the city fell under the sway of the Carthage. In 206, the city fell to Romans forces under Scipio Africanus. Under the Romans it was renamed Gades. The city flourished under Roman rule, but, with the decline of the Roman Empire, Gades' commercial importance began to fade. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 206 ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


Under Moorish rule, the city was called Qādis (Arabic قادس), and the modern Spanish name Cádiz was derived from this form. A high altitude form of heathland habitat widespread in northern Britain; see heath. ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


During the Age of Exploration the city had another renaissance: Columbus sailed from Cádiz on his second voyage in 1495, and the city later became the home port of the Spanish treasure fleet. The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Columbus is a latinized version of the Italian surname Colombo, which means Dove. ... Events February 22 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the citys throne. ... Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the Spanish treasure fleets brought the wealth of the Spanish colonies in Central and South America to Spain, in the form of silver, gold, gems, spices, cocoa and other exotic goods. ...


Sir Francis Drake destroyed a Spanish fleet in its harbor in April 1587. In the Anglo-Spanish War Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Cádiz from 1655 and 1657, during which one of his captains, Richard Stayner destroyed most of the Spanish treasure fleet. A galleon of treasure was captured, and the overall loss to Spain was estimated at £2,000,000. Sir Francis Drake, c. ... Events February 8 - Mary, Queen of Scots is beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in England after she is implicated in a plot to murder her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. July 22 - Colony of Roanoke: A group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina to re-establish the... The Anglo-Spanish War, caused by commercial rivalry, was fought between the Spanish between 1654 and 1660. ... Robert Blake, General at Sea, 1599–1657 by Henry Perronet Briggs, painted 1829. ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... For the fictional unit of money called a galleon, see Money in Harry Potter. ...


In the 18th century, the city surpassed Seville as the port monopolizing commerce with Spanish America. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Giralda Tower Seville (Spanish: Sevilla) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, crossed by the river Guadalquivir. ... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ...


Cádiz was the seat of the liberal Cortes fighting Joseph I of Spain in the Peninsula war; the Spanish Constitution of 1812 was proclaimed there. Cádiz is also famous by its carnival with Chirigotas (amateur satirical choruses) competing for a prize. The Cortes Generales (English: General Courts) is the Spanish legislature. ... Joseph Bonaparte (January 7, 1768—July 28, 1844) was the eldest brother of the French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples (1806–1808) and Spain (1808–1813). ... The Peninsular War (1808-1814) was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars. ... 1812: This is the beginning of the Spanish constitutionalism. ... Swabian-Alemannic carnival clowns in Wolfach, Germany A carnival parade is a public celebration, combining some elements of a circus and public street party, generally during the Carnival Season. ...


Since the 1950s, a power line crosses the bay of Cádiz. The pylons on which they are mounted are from unique design. Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... The Pylons of Cadiz are two pylons for a 132kV-powerline crossing the bay of Cadiz in Spain. ...


INTERESTING PLACES (http://www.cadizturismo.com/PAGINASWEB/ESP/Inicio/ConjuntoMarcos_1024.htm)



MONUMENTS


Cadiz Cathedral


This Cathedral of baroque style was built over a period of 116 years. This is why the cathedral suffered many changes in style. It was started in baroque style, but the ground floor and the inside until the rococo frieze, was finished in neoclassic style. Its chapels have many paintings and relics from the Old Cathedral and the other monasteries. Inside the Cathedral there is the Cathedral's museum. The cathedral was ordered to be built by around 1260 but it was burned in 1596. The reconstruction, which was not started until 1776, was supervised by the architect Vicente Arcero who had also built the Granada Cathedral. This architect left the project and was succeeded by several other architects.


Theatre Falla


This theatre was built between 1884 and 1905 over the remains of the previous Gran Teatro. The architect was Adolfo Morales de los Rios and the direction was carry out by Juan Cabrera Latorre. The outside is covered by red bricks and is of "mudejar" style.


Puertas de Tierra


This great wall come from a primitive wall of the 6th century, after many modifications and improvements this great wall was built with severals layers of walls, but nowadays they have almost completely dissappeared with only one left remaining.


Pylons of Cadiz The Pylons of Cadiz are two pylons for a 132kV-powerline crossing the bay of Cadiz in Spain. ...


Electricity pylons of unusual design of a powerline crossing the bay of Cadiz.


BEACHES


Caleta


It is the most well loved beach of Cadiz, it has always been in the Carnival songs due to its unequalled beauty and its proximity to the "Barrio de la Viña" - an authentic and pure district where all Cadiz's famous joy is contained. It is the beach of the old city and it is situated between two castles, San Sebastian castle and Santa Catalina castle. It is around 400 metres long and 30 metres wide when there is low tide.


Victoria Beach


It is the most visited beach by the tourists and the native people of Cadiz. It is about 3 kilometres long and it has an average width of 50 metres of soft golden sand. The moderate swell and the absence of rocks allows the entire family to enjoy bathing at this beach. It is separate from the city by an avenue, and on the other side of the avenue there are a lot of shops and resturants. The beach provides a lot of activities for example there are lifeguards, sport areas, places where you can rent beach umbrellas, sun loungers, and jet-ski, etc...

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