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Encyclopedia > Byzantium

Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Latin: BYZANTIVM, Byzantium) was an ancient Greek city, which was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). The name "Byzantium" is a Latinization of the original name Byzantion. The city is what later evolved to be the center of the Byzantine Empire (the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of late Antiquity and the Middle Ages) under the name of Constantinople. Constantinople fell to the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1453. The name of the city was changed to Istanbul in 1930. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Bold text For other uses, see Megara (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC Events and trends 668 BC - Egypt revolts against Assyria 668 BC - Assurbanipal succeeds Esarhaddon as king of... According to a Greek legend, Byzas was a Greek colonist (reported by some to be a leader or even a king) from the Doric colony of Megara in Ancient Greece, who consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... In linguistics, romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453...

Contents

History

The origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend. The traditional legend has it that Byzas from Megara (a town near Athens), founded Byzantium, when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea. Byzas had consulted the Oracle at Delphi to ask where to make his new city. The Oracle told him to find it "opposite the blind." At the time, he did not know what this meant. But when he came upon the Bosporus he realized what it meant: on the Asiatic shore was a Greek city, Chalcedon. It was they who must have been blind because they had not seen that obviously superior land was just a half mile away on the other side of the Bosporus. Byzas founded his city here in this "superior" land and named it Byzantion after himself. It was mainly a trading city due to its strategic location at the Black Sea's only entrance. Byzantion later conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosporus. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Michelangelos rendering of the Delphic Sibyl The Delphic Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian Oracle at Delphi, a Greek colony, located in a plateau on the side of Mount Parnassus. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Üsküdar). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, and quickly regained its previous prosperity. The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, refounded it as Nova Roma. After his death the city was called Constantinople (Greek Κωνσταντινοπολησ or Konstantinopolis) ('city of Constantine'). It remained the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, which was later called the Byzantine Empire by historians. Pescennius Niger as emperor. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


This combination of imperialism and location would affect Constantinople's role as the crossing point between two continents: Europe and Asia. It was a commercial, cultural, and diplomatic magnet. With its strategic position, Constantinople could control the route between Asia and Europe, as well as the passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land on the planet Earth. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article is about negotiations. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


On May 29, 1453, the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, and, once again, became the capital of another powerful state, the Ottoman Empire. The Turks called the city Istanbul (though not officially renamed until 1930) and it has remained Turkey's largest (and arguably its most important) city, although Ankara is now the capital. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


Emblem

The banner of Constantinople

In 670 BC, the citizens of Byzantium made the crescent moon as their state symbol, after an important victory. Byzantium was the first governing state to use the crescent moon as its national symbol. In 330 AD Constantine I added the Virgin Mary's star to the flag. Byzantium would then also be the first attested nation or empire to use the combination of the crescent moon and star together as an emblem. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC Events and Trends 677 BC - Death of Zhou li wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Our Lady redirects here. ...


The crescent moon and star was not completely abandoned by the Christian world after the fall of Constantinople. To date the official flag of the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is a labarum of white, a church building with two towers, and on either side of the arms, at the top, are the outline in black of a crescent moon facing center and a star with rays.[1] The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ...


Notable people

The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Philo of Byzantium, a Greek writer on mechanics, (born about 280 BCE) flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century B.C. (according to some, a century earlier). ... Epigenes is also the name shared by other figures of antiquity. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Leonitus (c. ...

Notes

References

  • Harris, Jonathan, Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium (Hambledon/Continuum, London, 2007). ISBN: 978 1847251794
  • Jeffreys, Elizabeth and Michael, and Moffatt, Ann, Byzantine Papers: Proceedings of the First Australian Byzantine Studies Conference, Canberra, 17-19 May 1978 (Australian National University, Canberra, 1979).
  • Istanbul Historical Information - Istanbul Informative Guide To The City. Retrieved January 6, 2005.
  • The Useful Information about Istanbul. Retrieved January 6, 2005.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (Oxford University Press, 1991) ISBN: 0195046528

is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453...

External links

  • Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies : www.byzantium.ac.uk
  • Description of Byzantine monetary system - fifth Century BC : History of money FAQs

  Results from FactBites:
 
Byzantium: The Byzantine Studies Page (1791 words)
It would be wrong then to present the later history of Byzantium as a "thousand year history of decline", leading inevitably to its conquest by the Ottoman Turks on Tuesday 29th May 1453.
Marxist historians are often derided, especially in the United States, for fitting facts to theory [as if they alone were guilty of this!] In Byzantium, especially in the agricultural laws of the tenth century, which were presented at the time as addressing a struggle of the "poor" and the "powerful".
As the centrally located culture, and by far the most stable state, of the Medieval period, Byzantium is of major interest both in itself, and because the development and late history of Western European, Slavic and Islamic cultures are not comprehensible without taking it into consideration.
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