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Encyclopedia > Byzantine emperor

This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. The Byzantine Empire (Native Greek names: ΡΩΜΑΝΙΑ Romania or ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ Basileia Romaion) is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Note: It is difficult to determine when exactly the Roman Empire ends and the Byzantine Empire begins; Diocletian split the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves for administrative purposes in 284. Candidates for the "first" Byzantine emperor include Constantine I (the first Christian emperor, who moved the capital to Constantinople), Valens (the Battle of Adrianople (378) provides one of the traditional cut-off events to mark the start of the medieval period), Arcadius (treating Theodosius I as the last emperor of a single Roman Empire), and Zeno I (as the last western emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed during his reign). Others date the beginning of the Empire even as late as Heraclius (who replaced the traditional Roman imperial title of "Augustus" with "Basileus", the Greek word for "Emperor", and discontinued the use of Latin by making Greek the official language). Numismatists note the monetary reforms of Anastasius I in 498, which used the Greek numbering system. Of course, the Byzantines themselves continued to think of their empire as "Roman" for over a millennium. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (245-313 AD), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... For other uses, see number 284. ... Constantine. ... Arian Valens (328 – August 9, 378) was Roman emperor from 364 until his death, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. His father was the general Gratian the Elder. ... For other uses, see Battle of Adrianople (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Flavius Arcadius ( 377/ 378– May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca (modern Coca, Segovia, Spain), January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... Imperator Caesar Flavius Zeno Augustus or Tarasicodissa or Trascalissaeus (c. ... Flavius Romulus Augustus (460s/470s – after 511), often called Romulus Augustulus, was the last of the Western Roman Emperors. ... Flavius Heraclius Augustus (c. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Flavius Anastasius or Anastasius I (c. ... Events November 22 - Symmachus succeeds Anastasius as Pope. ...

Contents

Constantinian dynasty

  • Constantine I the Great (AD 272 - 337, ruled 306 - 337)
  • Constantius II (317 - 361, ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
  • Julian the Apostate (331 - 363, ruled 361 - 363) – son in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Constantine. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... emperor Constantius II Constantius II, Roman Emperor ( 7 August 317 - 3 November 361, reigned 337 - 361), was the middle of the three sons of Constantine I the Great and Fausta. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... For other meanings of Julian, see Julian (disambiguation). ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ...

Non-dynastic

  • Jovian (332 - 364, ruled 363 - 364) – soldier under Julian

Jovian siliqua, ca 363. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ...

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty

Arian Valens (328 – August 9, 378) was Roman emperor from 364 until his death, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. His father was the general Gratian the Elder. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... Medallion of Valentinian I (364-375) Thessalonika, 364-367 Valentinian I (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman emperor of the Western Roman Empire (364 - 375). ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca (modern Coca, Segovia, Spain), January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... Events January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Flavius Arcadius ( 377/ 378– May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Link title{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 404 405 406 407 - 408 - 409 410 411 412 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 370s 380s 390s - 400s - 410s 420s 430s |- | align=center | Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century |} Events Theodosius II... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... Link title{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 404 405 406 407 - 408 - 409 410 411 412 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 370s 380s 390s - 400s - 410s 420s 430s |- | align=center | Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century |} Events Theodosius II... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Imperator Caesar Flavius Marcianus Augustus or Marcian (c. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. ...

Dynasty of Leo

  • Leo I the Great (401-474, ruled 457 - 474)
  • Leo II (467-474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I
  • Zeno Tarasius (425-491, ruled 474 - 491) – son-in-law of Leo I (first husband of Ariadne), father of Leo II
  • Basiliscus (rival emperor) (???-476, ruled 475 - 476) – brother-in-law of Leo I
  • Anastasius I (430-518, ruled 491 - 518) – son-in-law of Leo I (second husband of Ariadne)

Imperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401 - 474, reigned 457 - 474), sometimes known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. ... Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. ... Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ... Imperator Caesar Flavius Leo Augustus or Leo II (467- November 17, 474) served as Eastern Roman Emperor from January 18 to November 17, 474. ... Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ... Imperator Caesar Flavius Zeno Augustus or Tarasicodissa or Trascalissaeus (c. ... Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ... Events AElle conquers the fortified Roman town of Anderida through siegecraft. ... Flavius Basiliscus was a rival Byzantine Emperor 475 _ 476. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Flavius Anastasius or Anastasius I (c. ... Events AElle conquers the fortified Roman town of Anderida through siegecraft. ... Events July 9 - Justin becomes Roman emperor September 29 - Severus, Patriarch of Antioch is deposed by a synod for his Monophysitism. ...

Justinian dynasty

Flavius Iustinus Augustus or Justin I (c. ... Events July 9 - Justin becomes Roman emperor September 29 - Severus, Patriarch of Antioch is deposed by a synod for his Monophysitism. ... This article is about the year. ... Justinian I depicted on a Byzantine mosaic Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from AD August 1, 527 until his death. ... This article is about the year. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus or Justin II (c. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Events Tiberius II Constantine succeeds Justin II as Byzantine Emperor Births Deaths July 30 - Jacob Baradaeus, bishop of Edessa October 5 - Justin II, Roman emperor Northern Zhou Wu Di, Chinese ruler John Malalas, Byzantine chronicler Categories: 578 ... Flavius Tiberius Constantinus Augustus or Tiberius II Constantine (c. ... Events Tiberius II Constantine succeeds Justin II as Byzantine Emperor Births Deaths July 30 - Jacob Baradaeus, bishop of Edessa October 5 - Justin II, Roman emperor Northern Zhou Wu Di, Chinese ruler John Malalas, Byzantine chronicler Categories: 578 ... Events Maurice I succeeds Tiberius II Constantine as Byzantine Emperor. ... A solidus of Maurices reign Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus or Maurice I (539 - November, 602) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 582 to 602. ... Events Maurice I succeeds Tiberius II Constantine as Byzantine Emperor. ... Events Phocas kills Byzantine Emperor Maurice I and makes himself emperor Beginning of a series of wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanids Births Muawiyah, founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs (approximate date) Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ...

Non-dynastic

  • Phocas the Tyrant (???-610, ruled 602 - 610) – overthrew Maurice

Phocas on a contemporary coin Flavius Phocas Augustus, Eastern Roman Emperor (reigned 602-610), is perhaps one of the most maligned figures to have held the Imperial title in the long history of Rome and Byzantium. ... Events Phocas kills Byzantine Emperor Maurice I and makes himself emperor Beginning of a series of wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanids Births Muawiyah, founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs (approximate date) Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ...

Heraclian dynasty

  • Heraclius (575-641, ruled 610 - 641)
  • Constantine III Heraclius (612-641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius
  • Heraclonas Constantine (626-641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius, step-brother of Constantine III
  • Constans II Heraclius Pogonatus (the Bearded) (630-668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III
  • Constantine IV (649-685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
  • Justinian II Rhinotmetus (the Slit-nosed) (668-711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV

Flavius Heraclius Augustus (c. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Heraclius Constantine, or Constantine III, was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudocia, born May 3, 612. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Heraclonas (626 - 641?), Byzantine emperor (February - September 641), was the son of Heraclius and Martina. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Constans II on a contemporary coin Constans Heraclius Pogonatus, known in English as Constans II, ( November 7, 630– September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. ... Constantine IV on a contemporary coin Constantine IV (649-685) was Byzantine emperor from 668-685. ... Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. ... Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... Justinian II, known as Rhinotmetus (the Split-nosed) (669-711) was Byzantine emperor from 685 to 695 and again from 704 to 711. ... Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... Events People of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Leontius II made emperor, Justinian II is banished. ...

Non-dynastic

Leontius Leontius II was Byzantine emperor from 695-698. ... Events People of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Leontius II made emperor, Justinian II is banished. ... Events Tiberius III deposes Leontius II and becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... Tiberius III (d. ... Events Tiberius III deposes Leontius II and becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 705 Events End of the short-lived Zhou Dynasty in China Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik succeeded by al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik. ... Justinian II, known as Rhinotmetus (the Split-nosed) (669-711) was Byzantine emperor from 685 to 695 and again from 704 to 711. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 705 Events End of the short-lived Zhou Dynasty in China Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik succeeded by al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Philippicus, Eastern Roman emperor, 711–713, was the son of the patrician Nicephorus, and became distinguished as a soldier under Justinian II. His proper name, which indicates his Armenian origin, was Bardanes. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Events Byzantine Emperor Philippicus deposed. ... Anastasius II (died 721), Byzantine emperor, whose original name was Artemius, was raised to the throne of Constantinople by the voice of the senate and people in 713, on the deposition of Philippicus, whom he had served in the capacity of secretary. ... Events Byzantine Emperor Philippicus deposed. ... Events August 11 - Germanus is translated from the bishopric of Cyzicus to the Patriarch of Constantinople Umayyad caliph al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik End of the reign of Empress Gemmei of Japan, she is succeeded by Empress Gensho. ... Theodosius III, emperor of the Byzantine Empire (715-717), was a financial officer and tax collector in Adramyttium before being acclaimed in May of 715 as an imperial candidate for the troops of the Opsikian theme rebelling against Anastasius II. According to the chronicler Theophanes, Theodosius was unwilling to accept... Events August 11 - Germanus is translated from the bishopric of Cyzicus to the Patriarch of Constantinople Umayyad caliph al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik End of the reign of Empress Gemmei of Japan, she is succeeded by Empress Gensho. ... Events March 25 - Leo III usurps the throne of Byzantium August 15 - Muslama begins the Second Arab siege of Constantinople. ...

Isaurian dynasty

Leo III (disambiguation). ... Events March 25 - Leo III usurps the throne of Byzantium August 15 - Muslama begins the Second Arab siege of Constantinople. ... Events June 18 - Constantine V succeeds Leo III as emperor of the Byzantine Empire. ... Constantine V Copronymus (The Dung-named) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. ... Events June 18 - Constantine V succeeds Leo III as emperor of the Byzantine Empire. ... Artabasdus was a chamberlain of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian and briefly seized power in Constantinople soon after the accession of Leos son, Constantine V Copronymus, in 741. ... Events June 18 - Constantine V succeeds Leo III as emperor of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743) succeeded by al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744). ... Constantine V Copronymus (The Dung-named) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. ... Events Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743) succeeded by al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744). ... Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. ... Leo IV, called Chozar or the Khazar (c. ... Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. ... Events Constantine VI becomes Byzantine Emperor with Irene as guardian. ... Constantine VI (771 - 797) succeeded his father Leo IV as Byzantine emperor at the age of nine in 780, and was emperor under the regency of his iconophile mother Irene. ... Events Constantine VI becomes Byzantine Emperor with Irene as guardian. ... Events July 17 - Irene orders her son, the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI captured and deposed August 15 - Irenes orders are accomplished; her son is blinded, and herself declared emperor the next day. ... Saint Irene (c. ... Events July 17 - Irene orders her son, the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI captured and deposed August 15 - Irenes orders are accomplished; her son is blinded, and herself declared emperor the next day. ... Events 31 October - Irene deposed as Emperoress of Byzantium and replaced by Nicephorus I. She is banished to Lesbos. ...

Non-dynastic

Nicephorus I aka Nikeforos Fokas, Nicephorus Phocas (died July 26, 811) was a Byzantine emperor (802-811). ... Events 31 October - Irene deposed as Emperoress of Byzantium and replaced by Nicephorus I. She is banished to Lesbos. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Pliska: Nicephorus I is defeated by the Bulgar khan Krum, and is succeeded by Stauracius as Byzantine emperor. ... Stauracius (d. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Pliska: Nicephorus I is defeated by the Bulgar khan Krum, and is succeeded by Stauracius as Byzantine emperor. ... Michael I on a contemporary coin Michael I Rhangabes, an obscure nobleman who had married Procopia, the daughter of Nicephorus I, and been made master of the palace. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Pliska: Nicephorus I is defeated by the Bulgar khan Krum, and is succeeded by Stauracius as Byzantine emperor. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... This article is about the Byzantine Emperor. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of...

Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty

Michael II, called Psellus, the stammerer, or the Amorian (770-829) reigned as Byzantine emperor 820 - 829. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... Events Egbert of Wessex conquers Mercia and is recognized as Bretwalda. ... Theophilus (813 - 842) was Byzantine emperor from 829 to 842. ... Events Egbert of Wessex conquers Mercia and is recognized as Bretwalda. ... Events Oath of Strasbourg - alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar - sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ... Michael III (839-867), the Drunkard, was grandson of Michael II, and succeeded his father Theophilus as Byzantine emperor when he was three years old in 842. ... Events Oath of Strasbourg - alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar - sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ... Events September: Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ...

Macedonian dynasty

  • Basil I the Macedonian (811-886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow
  • Leo VI the Wise (866-912, ruled 886 - 912) – supposed son of Basil I; probably son of Michael III
  • Alexander III (870-913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I
  • Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (the Purple-born) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
  • Romanus I Lecapenus (co-emperor), (870-948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII
  • Romanus II Porphyrogentius (939-963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
  • Nicephorus II Phocas (912-969, ruled 963 - 969) – married Romanus II's widow; step-father of Basil II and Constantine VIII
  • John I Tzimisces (925-976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II
  • Basil II Bulgaroktonus (the Bulgar-slayer) (958-1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanus II
  • Constantine VIII Porphyrogenitus (960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanus II, brother of Basil II
  • Romanus III Argyrus (968-1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – son-in-law of Constantine VIII (Zoe's first husband)
  • Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1010-1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – married Romanus III's widow (Zoe's second husband)
  • Michael V Calaphates (the Caulker) (1015-1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's cousin
  • Zoë Porphyrogenita (the Purple-born) (978-1050, regent 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
  • Constantine IX Monomachus (1000-1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – married Michael IV's widow (Zoe's third husband)
  • Theodora Porphyrogenita, (980-1056, ruled 1055 - 1056) – daughter of Constantine VIII (Zoe's sister)

Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, emperess Eudocia Ingerina. ... Events September: Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionairies from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire. ... This article is about the Byzantine Emperor. ... Events The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionairies from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire. ... Events Orso II Participazio becomes Doge of Venice Patriarch Nicholas I Mysticus becomes patriarch of Constantinople Births November 23 - Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor (+ 973) Abd-ar-rahman III - prince of the Umayyad dynasty Deaths Oleg of Kiev Categories: 912 ... Alexander III (870 - 913) was the brother of Byzantine emperor Leo VI and had been named co-emperor during Leos rule. ... Events Orso II Participazio becomes Doge of Venice Patriarch Nicholas I Mysticus becomes patriarch of Constantinople Births November 23 - Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor (+ 973) Abd-ar-rahman III - prince of the Umayyad dynasty Deaths Oleg of Kiev Categories: 912 ... Events The Shiite Fatimid state in modern day Tunisia launches a failed military campaign against Egypt Births Deaths Eadwulf, Anglo-Saxon Earl of Bernicia who ruled the land north of the Tees Alexander III of Byzantium Categories: 913 ... Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos (the Purple-born) (905 – November 9, 959) was the son of Byzantine emperor Leo VI and nephew of Alexander III. He earned his nickname as the legitimate (or more accurately legitimized) son of Leo, as opposed to the others who claimed the throne during his lifetime. ... Events The Shiite Fatimid state in modern day Tunisia launches a failed military campaign against Egypt Births Deaths Eadwulf, Anglo-Saxon Earl of Bernicia who ruled the land north of the Tees Alexander III of Byzantium Categories: 913 ... Events October 1 - Edwy, king of England dies and is succeeded by his brother Edgar. ... Romanus I Lecapenus (Romanos I Lakapenos, 870 - 948), who shared the throne of the Byzantine Empire with Constantine VII and exercised all the real power from 919 to 944, was admiral of the Byzantine fleet on the Danube River when, hearing of the defeat of the army at the Battle... Events King Edward I of England conquers Bedford. ... Events City of Algiers (re)founded by the Zirid king Buluggin ibn Ziri Abu Yazid launches a rebellion against the Fatimids in the Aures mountains. ... Romanus II (939 - 963) succeeded his father Constantine VII as Byzantine emperor in 959 at the age of twenty-one, and died, poisoned, it was believed, by his wife, Theophanu in 963. ... Events October 1 - Edwy, king of England dies and is succeeded by his brother Edgar. ... Events Holy Roman Emperor Otto I defeats Mieszko I of Poland, compels him to pay tribute Luxembourg is founded, and the Blegium area becomes part of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. ... Nicephorus II Phocas, Byzantine emperor 963-969, belonged to a Cappadocian family which had produced several distinguished generals. ... Events Holy Roman Emperor Otto I defeats Mieszko I of Poland, compels him to pay tribute Luxembourg is founded, and the Blegium area becomes part of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... Events April 18 - Boleslaw I Chrobry is crowned as the first king of Poland. ... Constantine VIII (in Greek Konstantinos VIII, written Κωνσταντίνος Η) (960 – November 15, 1028), Byzantine emperor (December 15, 1025 – November 15, 1028) was the son of the Emperor Romanus II and the younger brother of the eminent Basil II, who died childless and thus left the rule of the Byzantine Empire... Events April 18 - Boleslaw I Chrobry is crowned as the first king of Poland. ... Events November 12 - Dying Emperor Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire marries his daughter Zoe of Byzantium to his chosen heir Romanus Argyrus. ... Romanus III (Argyrus), (in Greek Romanos Argyros, written Ρωμανός Αργυρός, lived 968 - April 11, 1034) was a Byzantine emperor(November 15, 1028 to April 11, 1034). ... Events November 12 - Dying Emperor Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire marries his daughter Zoe of Byzantium to his chosen heir Romanus Argyrus. ... Events April 11 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael IV. Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire. ... Michael IV, the Paphlagonian, (1010 - December 10, 1041) (in Greek Μιχαήλ Παφλαγών, meaning from the province of Paphlagonia) was Byzantine emperor (April 11, 1034 to December 10, 1041). ... Events April 11 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael IV. Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ... Michael V Calaphates (1015 - August 24, 1042) (in Greek Μιχαήλ Καλαφάτης, meaning the caulker), was the nephew and successor as Byzantine emperor of Michael IV and adoptive son of his wife Zoë. ... Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Zoe (in Greek Ζωή, meaning life), (c. ... Events November 12 - Dying Emperor Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire marries his daughter Zoe of Byzantium to his chosen heir Romanus Argyrus. ... Events Leofric becomes Bishop of Exeter Births Margrave Leopold II of Austria (d. ... Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Theodora (in Greek Θεοδώρα, literally meaning Gift of God, lived 981 - August 31, 1056) ruled as Byzantine Empress from January 11, 1055 to August 31, 1056. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury leaves Italy. ...

Non-dynastic

Michael VI Stratioticus, the warlike, was Byzantine emperor (1056 - 1057). ... Events Anselm of Canterbury leaves Italy. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ...

Ducaian-Comnenan dynasty

Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus family was an important family in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... Isaac I Comnenus (c. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... Constantine X Ducas (1006 - May, 1067) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire (1059 - 1067). ... Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Events Romanesque church begun at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Anselm of Canterbury becomes abbot of Le Bec William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built Births Deaths Categories: 1078 ... Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence of the... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Eudocia Macrembolitissa (1021 - 1096), daughter of John Macrembolites, was the wife of the Byzantine emperor Constantine X. After his death (1067) she became the wife of Romanus IV. She had sworn to her first husband on his deathbed not to marry again, and had even imprisoned and exiled Romanus, who... Nicephorus III Botaniates, Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081, belonged to a family which claimed descent from the Roman Fabii; he rose to be commander of the troops in Asia. ... Events Romanesque church begun at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Anselm of Canterbury becomes abbot of Le Bec William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built Births Deaths Categories: 1078 ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births December 21 - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Taira no Kiyomori, Japanese general Deaths January 21 - Pope... Mosaic of John II John II Comnenus (September 13, 1087 - April 8, 1143) was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births December 21 - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Taira no Kiyomori, Japanese general Deaths January 21 - Pope... Events Celestine II is elected pope. ... Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? - September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ... Events Celestine II is elected pope. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Alexius II Comnenus (1167-1183), Byzantine emperor (1180-1183), was the son of emperor Manuel I Comnenus and Maria, daughter of Raymund, prince of Antioch, and was born at Constantinople on September 10, 1167. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor, son of prince Isaac Comnenus, and grandson of Alexius I Comnenus, was born about the beginning of the 12th century. ... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Sea Battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ...

Angelan dynasty

Isaac II Angelus, Byzantine emperor 1185-1195, and again 1203-1204, was the successor of Andronicus I. He inaugurated his reign by a decisive victory over the Normans in Sicily, but elsewhere his policy was less successful. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Sea Battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Alexius III Angelus, Byzantine emperor, was the second son of Andronicus Angelus, nephew of Alexius I. In 1195, while his brother Isaac II was away hunting in Thrace, he was proclaimed emperor by the troops; he captured Isaac at Stagira in Macedonia, put out his eyes, and kept him henceforth... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... Alexius IV Angelus (c. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Isaac II Angelus, Byzantine emperor 1185-1195, and again 1203-1204, was the successor of Andronicus I. He inaugurated his reign by a decisive victory over the Normans in Sicily, but elsewhere his policy was less successful. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Alexius V Ducas Murtzouphlos, Byzantine emperor, was proclaimed emperor on February 5, 1204, during the siege of Constantinople by the Latins (Fourth Crusade). ... Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ...

Lascaran dynasty (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea during the time of the Latin Empire)

The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... John III Ducas Vatatzes (1193 - November 3, 1254) was Byzantine Emperor, in exile in the Empire of Nicaea, from 1222 to 1254. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... Events December 2 - Manfred of Sicily defeats army of Pope Innocent IV at Foggia. ... Theodore II Lascaris (died August 1258) was Byzantine emperor, in exile in the Empire of Nicaea, from 1254 to 1258. ... Events December 2 - Manfred of Sicily defeats army of Pope Innocent IV at Foggia. ... Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground and killing 800,000 citizens Llywelyn the Last declares himself Prince of Wales. ... John IV Lascaris was only a boy of 8 years when he was elevated as emperor of the Nicaean Empire in 1258 on the death of his father Theodore II Lascaris. ... Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground and killing 800,000 citizens Llywelyn the Last declares himself Prince of Wales. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of...

Palaeologan Dynasty (restored at Constantinople)

In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Caesar; his successors continued this claim. See Osmanli for the complete list of Ottoman sultans. The Palaeologus family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire. ... Michael VIII (1225 - December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events English conquest of Wales begins under Edward I of England Sicilian Vespers - Sicilians rebel against Charles of Anjou and are aided by Peter III of Aragon Births Pope Innocent VI Deaths August 25 - Thomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford October 13 - Nichiren December 11 - Llywelyn the Last, Prince of Wales... Andronicus II Palaeologus (1260 - February 13, 1332), Byzantine emperor, was the elder son of Michael VIII Palaeologus, whom he succeeded in 1282. ... Events English conquest of Wales begins under Edward I of England Sicilian Vespers - Sicilians rebel against Charles of Anjou and are aided by Peter III of Aragon Births Pope Innocent VI Deaths August 25 - Thomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford October 13 - Nichiren December 11 - Llywelyn the Last, Prince of Wales... Events May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Andronicus III Palaeologus (c. ... Events May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events Petrarch becomes famous Beginning of the Breton War of Succession over the control of the Duchy of Brittany Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, expells her husband John Henry of Bohemia, to whom she had been married as a child. ... John V Palaeologus (1332 - February 16, 1391) was the son of Andronicus III, whom he succeeded as Byzantine emperor in 1341. ... Events Petrarch becomes famous Beginning of the Breton War of Succession over the control of the Duchy of Brittany Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, expells her husband John Henry of Bohemia, to whom she had been married as a child. ... Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... John VI Cantacuzenus (c. ... -1... Events End of reign of John VI Cantacuzenus, as Byzantine emperor. ... Andronicus IV was Byzantine emperor from 1376 to1379. ... Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Events Robert of Geneva, the butcher of Cesena was elected as Pope Clement VII. This led to a schism in the Catholic church with one pope in Rome (Pope Gregory XI and the antipope (Clement VII) in Avignon. ... John V Palaeologus (1332 - February 16, 1391) was the son of Andronicus III, whom he succeeded as Byzantine emperor in 1341. ... Events Robert of Geneva, the butcher of Cesena was elected as Pope Clement VII. This led to a schism in the Catholic church with one pope in Rome (Pope Gregory XI and the antipope (Clement VII) in Avignon. ... Events Many Jews left Barcelona after the 1391 massacres, though a large number remained in the city. ... John VII (1370-1408), surnamed Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor, grandson of John V, initially ruled for only six months in 1390. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne Mortimer John Dunstable, English composer (d. ... Manuel II Palaeologus (1350 – July 21, 1425) was Byzantine emperor from 1391 to 1425, and son of Emperor John V Palaeologus. ... Events Many Jews left Barcelona after the 1391 massacres, though a large number remained in the city. ... Events Foundation of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Births Deaths March 17 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Ashikaga shogun July 21 - Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor Categories: 1425 ... John VII (1370-1408), surnamed Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor, grandson of John V, initially ruled for only six months in 1390. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births Deaths November 1 - John V, Duke of Brittany Categories: 1399 ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... John VIII (1390 - Constantinople October 31, 1448), surnamed Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor, the oldest son of Manuel II, became sole emperor in 1425. ... Events Foundation of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Births Deaths March 17 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Ashikaga shogun July 21 - Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor Categories: 1425 ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Constantine XI Paleologus Constantine XI Paleologus (sometimes numbered Constantine XII or Constantine XIII), also known as Constantine Drageses (Gr. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... Mehmed II Mehmed II, also known as Muhammed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; also known as el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Caesar (p. ... The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ...


See also

Roman Emperors by Epoch (see also: List - Concise List - Roman Empire)  
 PRINCIPATE  CRISIS of the 
 3rd Century 
 DOMINATE  LATE EMPIRE

(most Tetrarchies) Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... The Principate/Claudian Dynasty Later Claudian Dynasty Flavian Dynasty Nervan-Antonian dynasty Severan Dynasty, African, Asian and Syrian Emperors Rulers during the Crisis of the Third Century Illyrian Emperors Tetrarchy Collegiate Emperors of the Constantine Dynasty Valentinian Dynasty Theodosian Dynasty Western Empire Eastern Empire Gallic Empire 260 to 274 Britannic... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... The office of Roman Emperor went through a complex evolution over the 1500 years of its existence. ... The Crisis of the Third Century marked the end of the Principate, the early phase of Imperial Roman government. ... The Crisis of the Third Century marked the end of the Principate, the early phase of Imperial Roman government. ... The accession to the purple on November 20, 284, of Diocletian, the lower-class, Greek-speaking Dalmatian commander of Caruss and Numerians household cavalry (protectores domestici), marked a major departure from traditional Roman constitutional theory regarding the Emperor, who was nominally first among equals; Diocletian introduced Oriental despotism... The office of Roman Emperor underwent significant turbulence in the fourth and fifth centuries, after assuming the trappings of Eastern despotism during the Dominate. ... The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the series of the first five Roman Emperors. ... The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68 AD, was followed by a brief period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Antonys death in 31 BC) known as the Year of the four emperors. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... The Five Good Emperors. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Barraks Emperor is the way Roman Emperors who ruled during 235–268 are collectively known. ... The Gallic Empire (in Latin, imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that lived a brief existence during the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century, from 259 to 274. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ...

  • Constantine
    Dynasty -
    Brittanic
    Emperors
  • Valentinian
    Dynasty

Theodosian Dynasty
(Tetrarchy, unifica-
tion and final split) The House of Theodosius was a Roman family that rose to eminence in the waning days of the Roman Empire. ...


Emperors of the
Western Empire
The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ...


Byzantine Emperors

-> (Italy:)
Barbarian Kings

-> (Much later in Western Europe:)
The following is a list of barbarian kings of Italy: Maximinus Thrax (235-238) Odoacer (476-493) Ostrogothic Kings of Italy Theoderic (493-526) Athalaric (526-534) Theodahad (534-536) Witiges (536-540) Heldebadus (540-541) Totila (541-552) Teias (552) Teias was killed by the Byzantine general Narses, and...

Holy Roman Emperors

-> (Continuing in Eastern Europe:)
The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...

Byzantine Emperors

  Results from FactBites:
 
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The Byzantine science of military tactics rested on the basic assumption that there was a repetitiveness in warfare and that therefore, by mastery of various alternative patterns, one could avoid being surprised and overcome by the unexpected knowledge of military discipline and order in battle would help to overcome any surprises and unexpected enemy tactics.
Various Byzantine emperors encouraged the writing or actually wrote manuals themselves of tactics and strategy, some of the great families influenced the tone and content of such manuals, which therefore must be read with appropriate caution and discounting of biases and self-interest and self-glorification.
Byzantine commanders and emperors were usually mindful of the difficulty of replacing losses among the soldiers, who were relatively expensive and difficult to recruit and train in that era of relatively small armies.
Byzantine Empire (4092 words)
The greatest of these emperors was Justinian I (reigned 527-565), who with his able wife Theodora prepared for the reconquest by defeating the Persians on the eastern frontier and extirpating various heresies that had alienated the Roman Catholic church.
Byzantine art is generally taken to include the arts of the Byzantine Empire from the foundation of the new capital of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in AD 330 in ancient BYZANTIUM to the capture of the city by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Byzantine art could play this role because, throughout its long history, it maintained a connection with the artistic heritage of Greek and Roman art and architecture; it preserved and transmitted much of this heritage to the West until Western artists were able to approach antiquity directly.
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