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Encyclopedia > Byzantine art
The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. Christ is flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. The mosaics were made in the 12th century.
The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. Christ is flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. The mosaics were made in the 12th century.

Byzantine art is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Eastern Roman Empire from about the 5th century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. (The Roman Empire during this period is conventionally known as the Byzantine Empire.) Image File history File links Hagiasophia-christ. ... Image File history File links Hagiasophia-christ. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... Map of Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Pantokrator (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †,[1] Mehmed II, Zağanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The term can also be used for the art of states which were contemporary with the Byzantine Empire and shared a common culture with it, without actually being part of it (the "Byzantine commonwealth"), such as Bulgaria, Serbia, or Rus; and also for the art of the Republic of Venice and Kingdom of Sicily, which had close ties to the Byzantine Empire despite being in other respects part of western European culture. Art produced by Balkan and Anatolian Christians living in the Ottoman Empire is often called "post-Byzantine." Certain artistic traditions that originated in the Byzantine Empire, particularly in regard to icon painting and church architecture, are maintained in Greece, Russia and other Eastern Orthodox countries to the present day. Byzantine Commonwealth is a term coined by 20th century historians to refer to the area where Byzantine liturgical tradition was spread during the Middle Ages by Byzantine missionaries. ... The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day Western Serbia and Northern Montenegro), Bosnia [1] (indistinct from Rascia until the 12th century), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...

Contents

Introduction

Just as the Byzantine empire represented the political continuation of the Roman Empire, Byzantine art developed out of the art of the Roman empire, which was itself profoundly influenced by ancient Greek art. Byzantine art never entirely lost sight of this classical heritage. The Byzantine capital, Constantinople, was adorned with a large number of classical sculptures[1], although they eventually became an object of some puzzlement for its inhabitants.[2] And indeed, the art produced during the Byzantine empire, although marked by periodic revivals of a classical aesthetic, was above all marked by the development of a new aesthetic. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


The most salient feature of this new aesthetic was its “abstract,” or anti-naturalistic character. If classical art was marked by the attempt to create representations that mimicked reality as closely as possible, Byzantine art seems to have abandoned this attempt in favor of a more symbolic approach.

Miniatures of the 6th-century Rabula Gospel display the more abstract and symbolic nature of Byzantine art.
Miniatures of the 6th-century Rabula Gospel display the more abstract and symbolic nature of Byzantine art.

The nature and causes of this transformation, which largely took place during late antiquity, have been a subject of scholarly debate for centuries.[3] Giorgio Vasari attributed it to a decline in artistic skills and standards, which had in turn been revived by his contemporaries in the Italian Renaissance. Although this point of view has been occasionally revived, most notably by Bernard Berenson,[4] modern scholars tend to take a more positive view of the Byzantine aesthetic. Alois Riegl and Josef Strzygowski, writing in the early 20th century, were above all responsible for the revaluation of late antique art.[5] Riegl saw it as a natural development of pre-existing tendencies in Roman art, whereas Strzygowski viewed it as a product of “oriental” influences. Notable recent contributions to the debate include those of Ernst Kitzinger,[6] who traced a “dialectic” between “abstract" and "Hellenistic” tendencies in late antiquity, and John Onians,[7] who saw an “increase in visual response” in late antiquity, through which a viewer “could look at something which was in twentieth-century terms purely abstract and find it representational.” Download high resolution version (611x793, 80 KB)Folio 13v of the Rabula Gospels. ... Download high resolution version (611x793, 80 KB)Folio 13v of the Rabula Gospels. ... Folio 13v of the Rabula Gospels contains a miniature of the Ascension. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Bernard Berenson in the garden of his estate Villa I Tatti in 1911 Bernard Berenson (born Bernhard Valvrojenski, June 26, 1865 – October 6, 1959), was an American art historian. ... Alois Riegl, ca. ... Josef Strzygowski (1862 - 1941) was an influential and controversial art historian. ... Ernst Kitzinger (born December 12, 1912, Munich; died January 22, 2003, Poughkeepsie) was a historian of late antique, early medieval, and Byzantine art. ...


In any case, the debate is purely modern: it is clear that most Byzantine viewers did not consider their art to be abstract or unnaturalistic. As Cyril Mango has observed, “our own appreciation of Byzantine art stems largely from the fact that this art is not naturalistic; yet the Byzantines themselves, judging by their extant statements, regarded it as being highly naturalistic and as being directly in the tradition of Phidias, Apelles, and Zeuxis.”[8] Cyril A. Mango (born 14 April 1928 in Istanbul) is a British scholar in the history, art, and architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ...

Frescoes in Nerezi near Skopje (1164), with their unique blend of high tragedy, gentle humanity, and homespun realism, anticipate the approach of Giotto and other proto-Renaissance Italian artists.
Frescoes in Nerezi near Skopje (1164), with their unique blend of high tragedy, gentle humanity, and homespun realism, anticipate the approach of Giotto and other proto-Renaissance Italian artists.

The subject matter of monumental Byzantine art was primarily religious and imperial: the two themes are often combined, as in the portraits of later Byzantine emperors that decorated the interior of the sixth-century church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. These preoccupations are partly a result of the pious and autocratic nature of Byzantine society, and partly a result of its economic structure: the wealth of the empire was concentrated in the hands of the church and the imperial office, which therefore had the greatest opportunity to undertake monumental artistic commissions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1494 pixel, file size: 326 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1494 pixel, file size: 326 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The church of St. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ...


Religious art was, however, not limited to the monumental decoration of church interiors. One of the most important genres of Byzantine art was the icon, an image of Christ, the Virgin, or a saint, used as an object of veneration in Orthodox churches and private homes alike. Icons were more religious than aesthetic in nature: especially after the end of iconoclasm, they were understood to manifest the unique “presence” of the figure depicted by means of a “likeness” to that figure maintained through carefully maintained canons of representation.[9] Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The illumination of manuscripts was another major genre of Byzantine art. The most commonly illustrated texts were religious, both scripture itself (particularly the Psalms) and devotional or theological texts (such as the Ladder of Divine Ascent of John Climacus or the homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus). Secular texts were also illuminated: important examples include the Alexander Romance and the history of John Skylitzes. The Ladder of Paradise icon (St. ... John Climacus ( ca. ... Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... The Alexander Romance is any of several collections of legends concerning the mythical exploits of Alexander the Great. ... John/Ioannes Skylitzes/Scylitzes (Ιωάννης Σκυλίτζης, 1081) was a Byzantine historian of the late 11th century. ...


“Minor” or “luxury” arts (i.e. ivories, steatites, enamels, jewelry, metalwork, ceramics, etc.) were produced in large number throughout the Byzantine era. Many of these were also religious in nature, although a large number of objects with secular or non-representational decoration were produced: for example, ivories representing themes from classical mythology, and ceramics decorated with figures that may derive from the Akritic epics. The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ... Digenis Acritas (Greek: Διγενής Ακρίτας) is the most famous epic poem that emerged out of the 12th century Byzantine Empire, following the Acritic songs tradition. ...


Periods

Early Byzantine art

Leaf from an ivory diptych of Areobindus, consul in Constantinople, 506. Areobindus is shown above, presiding over the games in the Hippodrome, depicted beneath.

Two events were of fundamental importance to the development of a unique, Byzantine, art. First, the Edict of Milan, issued by the emperors Constantine I and Licinius in 313, allowed for public Christian worship, and led to the development of a monumental, Christian art. Second, the dedication of Constantinople in 330 created a great new artistic centre for the eastern half of the Empire, and a specifically Christian one. Other artistic traditions flourished in rival cities such as Alexandria, Antioch, and Rome, but it was not until all of these cities had fallen - the first two to the Arabs and Rome to the Goths - that Constantinople established its supremacy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 225 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (724 × 1928 pixel, file size: 499 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Wikimedia Commons: http://commons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 225 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (724 × 1928 pixel, file size: 499 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Wikimedia Commons: http://commons. ... The Edict of Milan (313) was a letter that Said religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... February - Wtf is up mah cracka??. Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, ending all persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ...


Constantine devoted great effort to the decoration of Constantinople, adorning its public spaces with ancient statuary,[10] and building a forum dominated by a porphyry column that carried a statue of himself.[11] Major Constantinopolitan churches built under Constantine and his son, Constantius II, included the original foundations of Hagia Sophia and the Church of the Holy Apostles.[12] The Forum of Constantine was built at the foundation of Byzantium immediately outside of the old walls. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of...


The next major building campaign in Constantinople was sponsored by Theodosius I. The most important surviving monument of this period is the obelisk and base erected by Theodosius in the Hippodrome.[13] The earliest surviving church in Constantinople is the Basilica of St. John at the Stoudios Monastery, built in the fifth century.[14] An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... The Hippodrome today, with the Walled Obelisk in the foreground Obelisk of Thutmosis III The base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III showing Theodosius the Great as he offers a laurel wreath to the victor from the Kathisma (emperors box) at the Hippodrome The Delphi Tripod known as the... Byzantine miniature depicting the Stoudios monastery. ...


Due to subsequent rebuilding and destruction, relatively few Constantinopolitan monuments of this early period survive. However, the development of monumental early Byzantine art can still be traced through surviving structures in other cities. For example, important early churches are found in Rome (including Santa Sabina and Santa Maria Maggiore),[15] and in Thessaloniki (the Rotunda and the Acheiropoietos Basilica).[16] Santa Sabina interior. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore is the largest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... The Arch of Galerius (Greek: τόξο του Γαλερίου or Aψίδα του Γαλερίου) and the Tomb of Galerius (Τάφος το&#965...


A number of important illuminated manuscripts, both sacred and secular, survive from this early period. Classical authors, including Virgil (represented by the Vergilius Vaticanus[17] and the Vergilius Romanus[18]) and Homer (represented by the Ambrosian Iliad), were illustrated with narrative paintings. Illuminated biblical manuscripts of this period survive only in fragments: for example, the Quedlinburg Itala fragment is a small portion of what must have been a lavishly illustrated copy of 1 Kings.[19] Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of epics in three modes: the Bucolics [commonly but less correctly called the Eclogues], the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid... Folio 22r from the Vatican Virgil contains an illustration from the Aeneid of the flight from Troy. ... Folio 14 recto of the Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... This article needs translation. ... Categories: Art stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ... (Redirected from 1 Kings) The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...


Early Byzantine art was also marked by the cultivation of ivory carving.[20] Ivory diptychs, often elaborately decorated, were issued as gifts by newly appointed consuls.[21] Silver plates were another important form of luxury art:[22] among the most lavish from this period is the Missorium of Theodosius I.[23] Sarcophagi continued to be produced in great numbers. Ivory carving is the process whereby ivory is ornamented with any design, by means of sharp cutting tools, either mechanically or manually. ... Ivory consular diptych of Areobindus, Byzantium, 506 AD, Louvre museum A diptych is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Missorium of Theodosius I The missorium of Theodosius I is a large silver dish of pageantry preserved at Real Academia de Historia, in Madrid. ... A sarcophagus is a stone container for a coffin or body. ...


The Age of Justinian

Significant changes in Byzantine art coincided with the reign of Justinian I (527-565). Justinian devoted much of his reign to reconquering Italy, North Africa and Spain. He also laid the foundations of the imperial absolutism of the Byzantine state, codifying its laws and imposing his religious views on all his subjects by law.[24] (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Greek: Ιουστινιανός;) commonly known as Justinian I, or (among Eastern Orthodox Christians) as Saint Justinian the Great; c. ... This article is about the year. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ...

Mosaic from San Vitale in Ravenna, showing the Emperor Justinian and Bishop Maximian of Ravenna surruonded by clerics and soldiers.
Mosaic from San Vitale in Ravenna, showing the Emperor Justinian and Bishop Maximian of Ravenna surruonded by clerics and soldiers.

A significant component of Justinian's project of imperial renovation was a massive building program, which was described in a book, the Buildings, written by Justinian's court historian, Procopius.[25] Justinian renovated, rebuilt, or founded anew countless churches within Constantinople, including Hagia Sophia,[26] which had been destroyed during the Nika riots, the Church of the Holy Apostles,[27] and the Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus.[28] Justinian also built a number of churches and fortifications outside of the imperial capital: important examples include the Monastery of St. Catherine on the Sinai Peninsula,[29] and the Basilica of St. John in Ephesus.[30] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1489, 450 KB) Description: Title: de: Chormosaiken in San Vitale in Ravenna, Szene: Kaiser Justinian und Bischof Maximilianus und sein Hof Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ravenna Current location (gallery): de: San Vitale... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1489, 450 KB) Description: Title: de: Chormosaiken in San Vitale in Ravenna, Szene: Kaiser Justinian und Bischof Maximilianus und sein Hof Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ravenna Current location (gallery): de: San Vitale... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... The Nika riots (Greek: Στάση του Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of... The Apse of the former Church with the Mihrab. ... St. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888 Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ), was one of the cities of Ionia in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea. ...


Several major churches of this period were built in the provinces by local bishops in imitation of the new Constantinopolitan foundations. The Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, was built by Bishop Maximianus. The decoration of San Vitale includes important mosaics of Justinian and his empress, Theodora, although neither ever visited the church.[31] Also of note is the Euphrasian Basilica in Poreč.[32] The Basilica of San Vitale The Basilica of San Vitale is the most famous monument of Ravenna, Italy and is one of the most important examples of Byzantine Art and architecture in western Europe. ... Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Maximianus of Ravenna, bishop of Ravenna (499 - February 22, 556; feast day formerly February 21). ... Theodora, detail of a Byzantine mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. ... The Euphrasian Basilica is a minor basilica in Poreč, Croatia. ... Position of Poreč in Croatia. ...


The first fully-preserved illuminated biblical manuscripts date to the first half of the sixth century, most notably the Vienna Genesis,[33] the Rossano Gospels,[34] and the Sinope Gospels.[35] The Vienna Dioscurides is a lavishly illustrated botanical treatise, presented as a gift to the Byzantine aristocrat Julia Anicia.[36] The illustration on folio 12v from the Vienna Genesis shows the story of Jacob. ... Categories: Art stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ... A page from the Sinope Gospels. ... The donor portrait of Julia Anicia in the Vienna Dioscurides is the oldest extant donor portrait The Vienna Dioscurides (Vienna, Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. ...


Important ivory sculptures of this period include the Barberini ivory, which probably depicts Justinian himself, [37] and the Archangel ivory in the British Museum.[38] Silver plate continued to be decorated with scenes drawn from classical mythology; for example, a plate preserved in the Cabinet des Médailles, Paris, depicts Hercules wrestling the Nemean lion. Barberini Ivory on display at the Louvre. ... Hercules and the Nemean Lion (detail), silver plate, 6th century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris). ... The Nemean Lion (Latin: Leo Nemaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived in Nemea. ...


The seventh-century crisis

Mosaic from the church of Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki, late 7th or early 8th century, showing St. Demetrios with donors.

The Age of Justinian was followed by a political decline, since most of Justinian's conquests were lost and the Empire faced acute crisis with the invasions of the Avars, Slavs, Persians and Arabs in the 7th century. Constantinople was also wracked by religious and political conflict.[39] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2078 pixel, file size: 495 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from Wikimedia Commons: http://commons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2078 pixel, file size: 495 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from Wikimedia Commons: http://commons. ... St Demetrios with children: one of several Byzantine mosaics that escaped destruction from the hands of the Iconoclasts. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... 12th-century mosaic depicting St Demetrios, from the Golden-Roofed Monastery in Kiev. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


The most significant surviving monumental projects of this period were undertaken outside of the imperial capital. The church of Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki was rebuilt after a fire in the mid-seventh century. The new sections include mosaics executed in a remarkably abstract style.[40] The church of the Koimesis in Nicaea (present-day Iznik), destroyed in the early 20th century but documented through photographs, demonstrates the simultaneous survival of a more classical style of church decoration.[41] The churches of Rome, still a Byzantine territory in this period, also include important surviving decorative programs, especially Santa Maria Antiqua, Sant'Agnese fuori le mura, and the Chapel of San Venanzio in San Giovanni in Laterano.[42] Byzantine mosaicists probably also contributed to the decoration of the early Umayyad monuments, including the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Great Mosque of Damascus.[43] St Demetrios with children: one of several Byzantine mosaics that escaped destruction from the hands of the Iconoclasts. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Santa Maria Antiqua, in the Forum Romanum. ... The basilica of SantAgnese fuori le mura is a church in Rome, in which Saint Agness bones are reputed to rest. ... Late Baroque façade of the Basilica, completed, after a competition for the design, by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 St. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ...


Important works of luxury art from this period include the silver David Plates, produced during the reign of Heraclius, and depicting scenes from the life of the Hebrew king David.[44] The most notable surviving manuscripts are Syriac gospel books, such as the so-called Syriac Bible of Paris.[45] However, the London Canon Tables bear witness to the continuing production of lavish gospel books in Greek.[46] Heraclius or Herakleios or (Latin: ; Greek: , HÄ“rakleios), (c. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Folio 8r of the Syriac Bible of Paris shows Moses before Pharaoh. ... The London Canon Tables are from an early Byzantine manuscript. ...


The period between Justinian and iconoclasm saw major changes in the social and religious roles of images within Byzantium. The veneration of acheiropoieta, or holy images "not made by human hands," became a significant phenomenon, and in some instances these images were credited with saving cities from military assault. By the end of the seventh century, certain images of saints had come to be viewed as "windows" through which one could communicate with the figure depicted. Proskynesis before images is also attested in texts from the late seventh century. These developments mark the beginnings of a theology of icons.[47] Image of the Saviour Not Made by Hand: a traditional Orthodox iconography in the interpretation of Simon Ushakov (1658). ... A Persian king (centre) and the courtiers doing proskynesis (right). ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


At the same time, the debate over the proper role of art in the decoration of churches intensified. Three canons of the Quinisext Council of 692 addressed controversies in this area: prohibition of the representation of the cross on church pavements (Canon 73), prohibition of the representation of Christ as a lamb (Canon 82), and a general injunction against "pictures, whether they are in paintings or in what way so ever, which attract the eye and corrupt the mind, and incite it to the enkindling of base pleasures" (Canon 100). Both the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council failed to produce disciplinary norms, for which reason the emperor Justinian II convoked an assembly in 692 to meet in Constantinople in the same domed hall where the Sixth Council had been held, called in Trullo (= under the dome). ... Events The Quinisext Council (also said in Trullo), held in Constantinople, laid the foundation for the Orthodox Canon Law The Arabs conquer Armenia. ...


Iconoclasm

Helios in his chariot, surrounded by symbols of the months and of the zodiac. From Vat. Gr. 1291, the "Handy Tables" of Ptolemy, produced during the reign of Constantine V.
Helios in his chariot, surrounded by symbols of the months and of the zodiac. From Vat. Gr. 1291, the "Handy Tables" of Ptolemy, produced during the reign of Constantine V.

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Greek mythology the sun was personified as Helius (Greek Ἥλιος / ἥλιος). Homer often calls him Titan and Hyperion. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Constantine V Copronymus (The Dung-named) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. ... Image File history File links COA_of_Greece. ...


History of Greek art Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilisations and the new religion...

Prehistoric Greece
Cycladic art - Minoan art -

Mycenean art - Protogeometric Art - Cycladic art is the art and sculpture of the ancient Cycladic civilization, existing in the islands of the Aegean Sea from 3300 - 2000 BCE. Art mainly manifested itself in the form of marble idols, often used as offerings to the dead. ... The Minoan Civilisation was a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization which arose on Crete, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... The Mycenean Period covers the latter part of the Bronze Age on the Greek mainland. ... The Protogeometric style is a pottery type associated with the Greek Dark Ages. ...


Geometric art Dipylon Vase Geometric Art is a phase of Greek art, characterised largely by geometric motives in vase painting, that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages, circa 900 BCE to 800 BCE. Its centre was in Athens, and it was diffused amongst the trading cities of the Aegean...

Art in Ancient Greece
Archaic Greek art - Classical Greek Art -

Hellenistic Art - Greco-Buddhist art - The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century...


Greek Art in Roman times Roman Greece is the period of Greek history following the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC until the reestablishment of the city of Byzantium and the naming of the city by Emperor Constantine I as the capital of the Roman Empire (as Nova...

Medieval Greece
Byzantine art - Macedonian art
Post-Byzantine Greece
Art in Ottoman Greece - Cretan School -

Heptanese School An example of Macedonian ivorywork: the Harbaville Triptych, now in the Louvre, Paris. ... Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the fifteenth, sixteenth and... The Heptanese School of painting (Greek: ) or Ionian Island School is the first artistic movement in Greece that was shaped by Western European artistic influences which appeared in the Ionian islands in the middle of the 17th century until the middle of the 19th century[1]. // The Ionian islands or...

Modern Greece
Art in modern Greece - Munich School

Contemporary Greek Art Modern Greek Art is the term used to describe Greek art during the period between the emergence of the new independent Greek state and the 20th century. ... The Munich School (Greek: ) or academic realism is the most important artistic movement of Greek Art in the 19th century with strong influences from the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Munich (German: )[1]. // The creation of romantic art in Greece can be explained mainly due to the particular relationships... Contemporary Greek Art is defined as the art produced by Greek artists after World War II. // Theodoros Stamos (1922-1997) was a great abstract expressionism art from Lefkas that lived and worked in New York in the 40s and 50s. ...

Intense debate over the role of art in worship led eventually to the period of "Byzantine iconoclasm."[48] Sporadic outbreaks of iconoclasm on the part of local bishops are attested in Asia Minor during the 720s. In 726, an underwater earthquake between the islands of Thera and Therasia was interpreted by Emperor Leo III as a sign of God's anger, and may have led Leo to remove a famous icon of Christ from the Chalke Gate outside the imperial palace.[49] However, iconoclasm probably did not become imperial policy until the reign of Leo's son, Constantine V. The Council of Hieria, convened under Constantine in 754, proscribed the manufacture of icons of Christ. This inaugurated the Iconoclastic period, which lasted, with interruptions, until 843. Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Events City of Jarash (in present-day Jordan) suffers a major earthquake First annual Sumo tournament held by Emperor Seibu. ... Leo the Isaurian and his son Constantine V. Leo III the Isaurian or the Syrian (Greek: Λέων Γ΄, Leōn III ), (c. ... Constantine V Copronymus (The Dung-named) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. ... The iconoclast Council of Hieria was a Christian council which viewed itself as ecumenical, but was later rejected by the (still united) Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ...


While iconoclasm severely restricted the role of religious art, and led to the removal of some earlier apse mosaics and (possibly) the sporadic destruction of portable icons, it never constituted a total ban on the production of figural art. Ample literary sources indicate that secular art (i.e. hunting scenes and depictions of the games in the hippodrome) continued to be produced,[50] and the few monuments that can be securely dated to the period (most notably the manuscript of Ptolemy's "Handy Tables" today held by the Vatican[51]) demonstrate that metropolitan artists maintained a high quality of production.[52]


Major churches dating to this period include Hagia Eirene in Constantinople, which was rebuilt in the 760s following its destruction by an earthquake in 740. The interior of Hagia Eirene, which is dominated by a large mosaic cross in the apse, is one of the best-preserved examples of iconoclastic church decoration.[53] The church of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki was also rebuilt in the late 8th century.[54] The Church of St. ...


Certain churches built outside of the empire during this period, but decorated in a figural, "Byzantine," style, may also bear witness to the continuing activities of Byzantine artists. Particularly important in this regard are the original mosaics of the Palatine Chapel in Aachen (since either destroyed or heavily restored) and the frescoes in the Church of Maria foris portas in Castelseprio. Charlemagnes chapel in Aachen. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Province of Varese (VA) Mayor Elevation m Area 3. ...


Macedonian Art

Main article: Macedonian art
An example of Macedonian ivorywork: the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, now in the Bode Museum, Berlin.
An example of Macedonian ivorywork: the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, now in the Bode Museum, Berlin.

The rulings of the Council of Hieria were reversed by a new church council in 843, celebrated to this day in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the "Triumph of Orthodoxy." In 867, the installation of a new apse mosaic in Hagia Sophia depicting the Virgin and Child was celebrated by the Patriarch Photios in a famous homily as a victory over the evils of iconoclasm. Later in the same year, the Emperor Basil I, called "the Macedonian," acceded to the throne; as a result the following period of Byzantine art has sometimes been called the "Macedonian Renaissance," although the term is doubly problematic (it was neither "Macedonian," nor, strictly speaking, a "Renaissance"). An example of Macedonian ivorywork: the Harbaville Triptych, now in the Louvre, Paris. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1700 × 2346 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1700 × 2346 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Forty Martyrs of Sebaste or the Holy Forty (Ancient/Katharevousa Greek Ἃγιοι Τεσσεράκοντα, Demotic Άγιοι Σαράντα) were a group of Roman soldiers in the Legio XII Fulminata who became martyrs for their Christian faith in 320 A.D. Category: ... The Bode Museum The Bode Museum belongs to the group of museums on Museum Island in Berlin and is a historically preserved building. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Events September - Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, emperess Eudoxia Ingerina. ... Macedonian Renaissance is a label sometimes used to describe the period of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire (867-1056) which some scholars have seen as a time of increased interest in classical scholarship and the assimilation of classical motifs into Christian themes. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


In the 9th and 10th centuries the Empire's military situation improved, and patronage of art and architecture increased. New churches were commissioned, and the standard architectural form (the "cross-in-square") and decorative scheme of the Middle Byzantine church were standardised. Major surviving examples include Hosios Loukas in Boeotia, the Daphni Monastery near Athens and Nea Moni on Chios. The monastery of St. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Dafni or Daphni (Greek Δάφνι before the spelling change, Dafnion Δάφνιον or Daphnion) is a monastery 11 km north-west of downtown Athens in Chaidari, south of Athinon Avenue (GR-8A). ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios, see also List of traditional Greek place names; Ottoman Turkish: صاقيز Sakız; Genoese: Scio) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea five miles off the Turkish coasts. ...


There was a revival of interest in the depiction of subjects from classical mythology (as on the Veroli Casket) and in the use of a "classical" style to depict religious, and particularly Old Testament, subjects (of which the Paris Psalter and the Joshua Roll are important examples). Prophet Isaiah and Nyx, a female figure whose inverted torch and drapery blown over her head follow Hellenistic conventions. ... The Joshua Roll is a 10th century[1] illuminated manuscript created in the Byzantine empire by artists of the Imperial Court School[2]. It has heavy Greco-Roman influences[1] and is rendered in grisaille. ...


The Macedonian period also saw a revival of the late antique technique of ivory carving. Many ornate ivory triptychs and diptychs survive, such as the Harbaville Triptych and a triptych at Luton Hoo, dating from the reign of Nicephorus Phocas). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Raising of the Cross, Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp A triptych (from the Greek tri- three + ptychē fold) is a work of art (usually a panel painting) which is divided into three sections, or three carved panels which are hinged together. ... Ivory consular diptych of Areobindus, Byzantium, 506 AD, Louvre museum A diptych is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge. ... Middle leaf, top panel: Deesis, Christ, Mary and John the Baptist Recto, full view. ... South-west facade of Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire. ... Nicephorus II Phocas, Byzantine emperor 963-969, belonged to a Cappadocian family which had produced several distinguished generals. ...


Comnenian Age

The Macedonian emperors were followed by the Komnenian dynasty, beginning with the reign of Alexios I Komnenos in 1081. Byzantium had recently suffered a period of severe dislocation following the battle of Manzikert in 1071 and the subsequent loss of Asia Minor to the Turks. However, the Komnenoi brought stability to the empire, (1081-1185), and during the course of the twelfth century their energetic campaigning did much to restore the fortunes of the empire. The Komnenoi were great patrons of the arts, and with their support Byzantine artists continued to move in the direction of greater humanism and emotion, of which the Theotokos of Vladimir, the cycle of mosaics at Daphni, and the murals at Nerezi yield important examples. Ivory sculpture and other expensive mediums of art gradually gave way to frescoes and icons, which for the first time gained widespread popularity across the Empire. Apart from painted icons, there were other varieties - notably the mosaic and ceramic ones. Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus or Komnenos family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Emperor Alexios I Komnenos depicted in a mosaic in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces... Theotokos of Vladimir The Theotokos of Vladimir, also known as Our Lady of Vladimir, the Virgin of Vladimir or Vladimirskaya (Russian: ), is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons. ... Daphne - From the painting by Deverial. ... Nerezi is a small town in the Republic of Macedonia, approximately fifteen minutes drive from the capital, Skopje, and at an altitude of 771 meters (2532 feet). ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ...

The Annunciation from Ohrid, one of the most admired icons of the Paleologan Mannerism, bears comparison with the finest contemporary works by Italian artists.

Some of the finest Byzantine work of this period may be found outside the Empire: in the mosaics of Gelati, Kiev, Torcello, Venice, Monreale, Cefalù and Palermo. For instance, Venice's Basilica of St Mark, begun in 1063, was based on the great Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, now destroyed, and is thus an echo of the age of Justinian. The acquisitive habits of the Venetians mean that the basilica is also a great museum of Byzantine artworks of all kinds (e.g., Pala d'Oro). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x614, 378 KB)The icon of Annunciation from the Church of St Climent in Ochrid (first quarter of the 14th century). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x614, 378 KB)The icon of Annunciation from the Church of St Climent in Ochrid (first quarter of the 14th century). ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 46 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Torcello is a quiet island at the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... The apse of the cathedral of Monreale Monreale is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... The Cathedral of Cefalù by night Lungomare Boardwalk beach in Cefalù Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cefalù Cefalù is an ancient city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of... The Pala d’Oro Development and elements of the Pala d’Oro Pala d’Oro (literally, Golden Pall) is a high altar retable of the Basilica di San Marco in Venice. ...


Palaeologan Age

Eight hundred years of continuous Byzantine culture were brought to an abrupt end in 1204 with the sacking of Constantinople by the knights of the Fourth Crusade, a disaster from which the Empire never recovered. Although the Byzantines regained the city in 1261, the Empire was thereafter a small and weak state confined to the Greek peninsula and the islands of the Aegean. [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Nevertheless the Palaeologan Dynasty, beginning with Michael VIII Palaeologus in 1259, was a last golden age of Byzantine art, partly because of the increasing cultural exchange between Byzantine and Italian artists. Byzantine artists developed a new interest in landscapes and pastoral scenes, and the traditional mosaic-work (of which the Chora Church in Constantinople is the finest extant example) gradually gave way to detailed cycles of narrative frescoes (as evidenced in a large group of Mystras churches). The icons, which became a favoured medium for artistic expression, were characterized by a less austere attitude, new appreciation for purely decorative qualities of painting and meticulous attention to details, earning the popular name of the Paleologan Mannerism for the period in general. The Double-headed eagle, emblem of the Paleologus dynasty and the Byzantine Empire. ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Chora Church The Chora Church (Turkish Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, or Kariye Kilisesi — the Chora Museum, Mosque or Church) is considered to be one of the most beautiful examples of a Byzantine church. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Mystras (also Mistra, Mystra and Mistras Greek: Μυστράς, Μυζηθράς Mizithras or Myzithras in the chronicle of Morea ) was a fortified town in Morea (the Peloponnesus), on Mt. ...


Crete had been ruled by the Venetians since 1211, and the Cretan school of icon-painting gradually introduced Western elements into its style, and exported large numbers of icons to the West. After the fall of the Empire, Crete became the centre of Greek art, until it too fell to the Turks in 1669. Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration Krētē, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin Crēta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the fifteenth, sixteenth and...


Legacy

The Byzantine era properly defined came to an end with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, but by this time the Byzantine cultural heritage had been widely diffused, carried by the spread of Orthodox Christianity, to Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania and, most importantly, to Russia, which became the centre of the Orthodox world following the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. Even under Ottoman rule, Byzantine traditions in icon-painting and other small-scale arts survived, especially in the Venetian-ruled Crete and Rhodes, where a "post-Byzantine" style under increasing Western influence survived for a further two centuries, producing El Greco and other significant artists. Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †,[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Deer statues in Mandraki harbor, where the Colossus of Rhodes once stood This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ...


The influence of Byzantine art in western Europe, particularly Italy was seen in ecclesiastical architecture, through the development of the Romanesque style in the 10th century and 11th centuries. This influence was transmitted through the Frankish and Salic emperors, primarily Charlemagne, who had close relations with Byzantium. The contribution of the migrated Byzantine scholars in Renaissance is also very important. Romanesque St. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The migration of Byzantine-Greek scholars or Byzantine emigres from Byzantium during the decline of the Byzantine empire (1203-1453) and mainly after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 until the 16th century, is considered by modern scholars as crucial in the revival of Greek and Roman studies, arts and...


Notes

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  8. ^ C. Mango, "Antique statuary," 65.
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  38. ^ D. Wright, "Justinian and an archangel," Studien zur spätantiken Kunst Friedrich Wilhelm Deichmann gewidmet, (Mainz 1986), III.75-79.
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  45. ^ J. Leroy, Les manuscrits syriaques à peintures conservés dans les bibliothèques d'Europe et d'Orient; contribution à l'étude de l'iconographie des Églises de langue syriaque (Paris, 1964).
  46. ^ C. Nordenfalk, Die spätantiken Kanontafeln (Göteborg, 1938).
  47. ^ L. Brubaker, "Icons before iconoclasm?," Morfologie sociali e culturali in europa fra tarda antichita e alto medioevo, Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di Studi sull’ Alto Medioevo 45 (1998), 1215-54.
  48. ^ A. Bryer and J. Herrin, eds., Iconoclasm (Birmingham, 1977); L. Brubaker and J. Haldon, Byzantium in the iconoclast era (ca. 680-850): the sources (Birmingham, 2001).
  49. ^ D. Stein, Der Beginn des byzantinischen Bilderstreites und seine Entwicklung bis in die 40er Jahre des 8. Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1980). The story of the Chalke Icon may be a later invention: M.-F. Auzépy, “La destruction de l’icône du Christ de la Chalcé par Léon III : propagande ou réalité?", Byzantion 60 (1990), 445-492.
  50. ^ A. Grabar, L’iconoclasme byzantin: le dossier archéologique, 2nd ed., (Paris, 1984).
  51. ^ D. Wright, “The date of the Vatican illuminated handy tables of Ptolemy and of its early additions,” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 78 (1985).
  52. ^ R. Cormack, “The arts during the age of iconoclasm,” in A. Bryer and J. Herrin, eds., Iconoclasm (Birmingham, 1977).
  53. ^ U. Peschlow, Die Irenenkirche in Istanbul (Tübingen, 1977).
  54. ^ K. Theocharidou, The architecture of Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki, from its erection up to the Turkish Conquest (Oxford, 1988).

Further reading

  • J. Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine art (New Haven, 1993).
  • R. Cormack, Byzantine art (Oxford, 2000).
  • H.C. Evans, ed., Byzantium: faith and power (1261-1557) (New York, 2004).
  • H.C. Evans, ed., The glory of Byzantium (New York, 1997).
  • Sharon E. J. Gerstel and Julie A. Lauffenburger, ed., A Lost Art Rediscovered (Penn State, 2001) ISBN 0-271-02139-X
  • C. Mango, ed., The art of the Byzantine Empire, 312-1453: sources and documents (Englewood Cliffs, 1972).
  • K. Weitzmann, ed., Age of spirituality (New York, 1979).

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Byzantine Art (1035 words)
Byzantine; that is, between the art of Byzantium, or
Constantine was accompanied in the domain of art by the appearances of extraordinary gorgeousness and pomp, expressed, however, with stiffness and formality.
Byzantine reliquaries, ivory triptychs, chalices, costly fabrics, and specimens of pictorial art.
Byzantine art - Academic Kids (1462 words)
Byzantine art is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Eastern Roman Empire from about the 5th century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Byzantine art grew from the art of Ancient Greece (see Greek art), and at least before 1453 never lost sight of its classical heritage, but was distinguished from it in a number of ways.
Although the Byzantines recovered the city in 1261, the Empire was thereafter a small and weak state confined to the Greek peninsula and the islands of the Aegean.
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