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Encyclopedia > Byzantine architecture
The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily. Built with Byzantine architectural conventions and with mosaics attributed to Byzantine artists.
The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily. Built with Byzantine architectural conventions and with mosaics attributed to Byzantine artists.

Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. The empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from what is today referred to as the Roman Empire after AD 330, when the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to Byzantium. Byzantium, "New Rome", was later renamed Constantinople and is now called Istanbul. The empire endured for more than a millennium, dramatically influencing Medieval and Renaissance era architecture in Europe and, following the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, leading directly to the architecture of the Ottoman Empire. Saracene arches and Byzantine mosaics complement each other within the Palatine Chapel. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... A millennium (pl. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Overview of extant monuments

Early Byzantine architecture was simply a continuation of Roman architecture. Stylistic drift, technological advancement, and political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually emerged which imbued certain influences from the Near East and used the Greek cross plan in church architecture. Buildings increased in geometric complexity, brick and plaster were used in addition to stone in the decoration of important public structures, classical orders were used more freely, mosaics replaced carved decoration, complex domes rested upon massive piers, and windows filtered light through thin sheets of alabaster to softly illuminate interiors. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... // 250 years 1000 years - The last 250 years (fine grid) is detailed above 8000 years - The last 1000 years (fine grid) is detailed above Voorthuis - Timelines Categories: | | ... The pendentive (painted yellow) Pendentive in the Hagia Sophia A pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. ... A simple cross: example of iconoclast art in the Hagia Irene Church in Istanbul Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the cultures own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... A refined canonic version of the Orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... For the type of foundation, see Deep foundation. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ...


Early architecture

The basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo
The basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo

Prime examples of early Byzantine architecture date from Justinian I's reign and survive in Ravenna and Constantinople, as well as in Sofia (the Church of St Sophia). One of the great breakthroughs in the history of Western architecture occurred when Justinian's architects invented a complex system providing for a smooth transition from a square plan of the church to a circular dome (or domes) by means of squinches or pendentives. Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... The Church of St. ... A squinch in architecture is a piece of construction used for filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a proper base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome. ... The pendentive (painted yellow) Pendentive in the Hagia Sophia A pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. ...


In Ravenna, we have the longitudinal basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, and the octagonal, centralized structure of the church of San Vitale, commissioned by Emperor Justinian but never seen by him. Justinian's monuments in Constantinople include the domed churches of Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene, but there is also an earlier, smaller church of Sts Sergius and Bacchus (sometimes referred to as "Little Hagia Sophia"), which might have served as a model for both in that it combined the elements of a longitudinal basilica with those of a centralized building. Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... San Vitale is the Italian name for Saint Vitalis. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... The Church of St. ... The Apse of the former Church with the Mihrab. ...

The 6th-century church of Hagia Irene in Constantinople is a superb sample of the early Byzantine architecture
The 6th-century church of Hagia Irene in Constantinople is a superb sample of the early Byzantine architecture

Secular structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the innovative walls of Constantinople (with 192 towers) and Basilica Cistern (with hundreds of recycled classical columns). A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an early Byzantine palace. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2284x1504, 442 KB) Summary Longitudinal section of the Saint Irene church in Constantinople. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2284x1504, 442 KB) Summary Longitudinal section of the Saint Irene church in Constantinople. ... The Church of St. ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... Basilica Cistern The second Medusa head pillar The Basilica Cistern, also called the Yerebatan Sarayı or Yerebatan Sarnıcı, is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that still lie beneath the city of Istanbul, former Constantinople, Turkey. ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), along with the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths) were branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Roman Empire. ...


Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki, St Catherine Monastery on Mount Sinai, Djvari in present-day Georgia, and three Armenian churches of Echmiadzin all date primarily from the 7th century and provide a glimpse on architectural developments in the Byzantine provinces following the age of Justinian. St Demetrios with children: one of several Byzantine mosaics that escaped destruction from the hands of the Iconoclasts. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... St. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... Jvari Monastery Jvari or Jvari Monastery (Georgian: ჯვარი, ჯვრის მონასტერი) is a Georgian Orthodox monastery of the 6th century near Mtskheta (World Heritage site), Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, eastern Georgia. ... Echmiadzin or Ejmiatsin (Armenian: Էջմիածին) is the holiest town in Armenia and the headquarters of the katholikos, the head of the Armenian Apostolic Church. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Middle period

The Middle period of Byzantine history saw no ambitious architectural undertaking. From the years of Iconoclasm we have only the Church of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki. Another major building, the Assumption church in Nicaea, was destroyed in the 1920s, although the photographs survive. Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... The Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom) in Thessaloniki, Greece, is one of the oldest churches in that city still standing today. ... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne İznik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


The period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a lasting legacy in architecture. It is presumed that Basil I's votive church of the Theotokos of Phoros (no longer extant) served as a model for most cross-in-square sanctuaries of the period, including the monastery church of Hosios Lukas in Greece (ca. 1000), Nea Moni of Chios (a pet project of Constantine IX), and the Daphni Monastery near Athens (ca. 1050). Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α) (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael IIIs widow; died in hunting accident Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III; Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew... Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, emperess Eudoxia Ingerina. ... Panagia Chalkeon, an 11th-century cross-in-square church in Thessaloniki. ... The monastery of St. ... Nea Moni (Greek: , lit. ... Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ... Dafni or Daphni (Greek Δάφνι before the spelling change, Dafnion Δάφνιον or Daphnion) is a monastery 11 km north-west of downtown Athens in Chaidari, south of Athinon Avenue (GR-8A). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...

The 11th-century monastery of Hosios Lukas in Greece is representative of the Byzantine art during the rule of the Makedonioi.
The 11th-century monastery of Hosios Lukas in Greece is representative of the Byzantine art during the rule of the Makedonioi.

The cross-in-square type also became predominant in the Slavic countries which were Christianized by Greek missionaries during the Macedonian period. The Hagia Sophia church in Ochrid (present-day Macedonia) and the eponymous cathedral in Kiev (present-day Ukraine) testify to a vogue for multiple subsidiary domes set on drums, which would gain in height and narrowness with the progress of time. Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α) (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael IIIs widow; died in hunting accident Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III; Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew... Ohrid is a city in western Macedonia, on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid. ... Much of the original Byzantine interior remains intact. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


Comnenan and Paleologan periods

In Constantinople and Asia Minor the architecture of the Comnenan period is almost non-existent, with the notable exceptions of the Elmali Kilise and other rock sanctuaries of Cappadocia, and of the Churches of the Pantokrator and of the Theotokos Kyriotissa in Constantinople. Much architecture survives on the outskirts of the Byzantine world, where the national forms of architecture came into being: in the Transcaucasian countries, in Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, and other Slavic lands; and also in Sicily (Cappella Palatina) and Veneto (St Mark's Basilica, Torcello Cathedral). Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus or Komnenos family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... The Mosque viewed from north east. ... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Saracene arches and Byzantine mosaics complement each other within the Palatine Chapel. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia), the cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of the citys churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ...


The Paleologan period is well-represented in a dozen churches of Constantinople, notably St Saviour at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures. As a result, there is little grandeur in the late medieval architecture of Byzantium (barring the Hagia Sophia of Trapezunt). The Palaeologus family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Chora Church The Chora Church (Turkish Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, or Kariye Kilisesi — the Chora Museum, Mosque or Church) is considered to be one of the most beautiful examples of a Byzantine church. ... The Ayasofya museum is a former church and mosque located in the city of Trabzon in Turkey. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ...


The church of Holy Apostles in Thessaloniki is often cited as an archetypal structure of the late period, when the exterior walls were intricately decorated with complex brickwork patterns or with glazed ceramics. Other churches from the years immediately predating the fall of Constantinople survive on Mount Athos and in Mistra (e.g. Brontocheion monastery). Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... For a village in the prefecture of Ioannina, see Ioannina The Vale of Laconia seen from the battlements of Mystras Mystras (also Mistra, Mystra and Mistras Greek: Μύστρας ) was a fortified town in Morea (the Peloponnesus), on Mt. ...


Structural evolution

As early as the building of Constantine's churches in Palestine there were two chief types of plan in use: the basilican, or axial, type, represented by the basilica at the Holy Sepulchre, and the circular, or central, type, represented by the great octagonal church once at Antioch. Those of the latter type we must suppose were nearly always vaulted, for a central dome would seem to furnish their very raison d'etre. The central space was sometimes surrounded by a very thick wall, in which deep recesses, to the interior, were formed, as at the noble church of St George, Salonica (5th century), or by a vaulted aisle, as at Sta Costanza, Rome (4th century); or annexes were thrown out from the central space in such a way as to form a cross, in which these additions helped to counterpoise the central vault, as at the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna (5th century). The most famous church of this type was that of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople. Vaults appear to have been early applied to the basilican type of plan; for instance, at Hagia Irene, Constantinople (6th century), the long body of the church is covered by two domes. A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Look up annex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...

Interior of the Hagia Sophia under renovation, showing many features of the grandest Byzantine architecture.
Interior of the Hagia Sophia under renovation, showing many features of the grandest Byzantine architecture.

At St Sergius, Constantinople, and San Vitale, Ravenna, churches of the central type, the space under the dome was enlarged by having apsidal additions made to the octagon. Finally, at Hagia Sophia (6th century) a combination was made which is perhaps the most remarkable piece of planning ever contrived. A central space of 100 ft (30 m) square is increased to 200 ft (60 m) in length by adding two hemicycles to it to the east and the west; these are again extended by pushing out three minor apses eastward, and two others, one on either side of a straight extension, to the west. This unbroken area, about 260 ft (80 m) long, the larger part of which is over 100 ft (30 m) wide, is entirely covered by a system of domical surfaces. Above the conchs of the small apses rise the two great semi-domes which cover the hemicycles, and between these bursts out the vast lome over the central square. On the two sides, to the north and south of the dome, it is supported by vaulted aisles in two storeys which bring the exterior form to a general square. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1294 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1294 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... A semicircle is a two-dimensional geometric shape that forms half of a circle. ... Species Strombus gigas Strombus luhuanus Strombus pugilis Strombus tricornis Strombus canarium Strombus dolomena Strombus gibberulus Strombus conomurex Strombus lentigo Strombus doxander Strombus urceus Strombus fragilis Strombus gallus Strombus dentatus Strombus marginatus Strombus raninus Strombus buvonius A conch (pronounced in the U.S.A. as konk or conch, IPA: or ) [1... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ...

The apse of the church with cross at Hagia Irene
The apse of the church with cross at Hagia Irene

At the Holy Apostles (6th century) five domes were applied to a cruciform plan; the central dome was the highest. After the 6th century there were no churches built which in any way competed in scale with these great works of Justinian, and the plans more or less tended to approximate to one type. The central area covered by the dome was included in a considerably larger square, of which the four divisions, to the east, west, north and south, were carried up higher in the vaulting and roof system than the four corners, forming in this way a sort of nave and transepts. Sometimes the central space was square, sometimes octagonal, or at least there were eight piers supporting the dome instead of four, and the nave and transepts were narrower in proportion. The Church of St. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Cathedral ground plan. ...


If we draw a square and divide each side into three so that the middle parts are greater than the others, and then divide the area into nine from these points, we approximate to the typical setting out of a plan of this time. Now add three apses on the east side opening from the three divisions, and opposite to the west put a narrow entrance porch running right across the front. Still in front put a square court. The court is the atrium and usually has a fountain in the middle under a canopy resting on pillars. The entrance porch is the narthex. Directly under the center of the dome is the ambo, from which the Scriptures were proclaimed, and beneath the ambo at floor level was the place for the choir of singers. Across the eastern side of the central square was a screen which divided off the bema, where the altar was situated, from the body of the church; this screen, bearing images, is the iconostasis. The altar was protected by a canopy or ciborium resting on pillars. Rows of rising seats around the curve of the apse with the patriarch's throne at the middle eastern point formed the synthronon. The two smaller compartments and apses at the sides of the bema were sacristies, the diaconicon and prothesis. The ambo and bema were connected by the solea, a raised walkway enclosed by a railing or low wall. Looking up inside the 32-story atrium of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt, part of the Jin Mao Building. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons... A canopy (building) is an architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration, and is supported by the building to which it is attached and a ground mounting, by not less than two stanchions (upright support posts). ... The narthex of a church is the entrance or lobby area. ... Look up ambo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 17th-century iconostasis of Prophet Elias church, Yaroslavl. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Ciborium is a container, used in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and related Churches rituals to store Holy Communion. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Diaconicon is, in the Greek Church, the name given to a chamber on the south side of the central apse, where the sacred utensils, vessels, etc, of the church were kept. ... It has been suggested that Altar of Prothesis be merged into this article or section. ...



The continuous influence from the East is strangely shown in the fashion of decorating external brick walls of churches built about the 12th century, in which bricks roughly carved into form are set up so as to make bands of ornamentation which it is quite clear are imitated from Cufic writing. This fashion was associated with the disposition of the exterior brick and stone work generally into many varieties of pattern, zig-zags, key-patterns &c.; and, as similar decoration is found in many Persian buildings, it is probable that this custom also was derived from the East. The domes and vaults to the exterior were covered with lead or with tiling of the Roman variety. The window and door frames were of marble. The interior surfaces were adorned all over by mosaics or frescoes in the higher parts of the edifice, and below with incrustations of marble slabs, which were frequently of very beautiful varieties, and disposed so that, although in one surface, the coloring formed a series of large panels. The better marbles were opened out so that the two surfaces produced by the division formed a symmetrical pattern resembling somewhat the marking of skins of beasts. For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... This article is about a decorative art. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ...


Byzantine legacy

Ultimately, Byzantine architecture in the West gave way to Romanesque and Gothic architecture. In the East it exerted a profound influence on early Islamic architecture, with notable examples including the Umayyad Great Mosque of Damascus and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which required Byzantine craftsmen and mosaicists to decorate. In Bulgaria, Russia, Romania, Georgia, Ukraine, and other Orthodox countries the Byzantine architecture persisted even longer, finally giving birth to local schools of architecture. South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) in the center The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ...

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Neo-Byzantine architecture had a small following in the wake of the 19th-century Gothic revival, resulting in such jewels as Westminster Cathedral in London, and in Bristol from about 1850 to 1880 a related style known as Bristol Byzantine was popular for industrial buildings which combined elements of the Byzantine style with Moorish architecture. It was developed on a wide-scale basis in Russia by Konstantin Thon and his numerous disciples, who designed St. Volodymyr's Cathedral in Kiev, St Nicholas Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia, and the New Athos Monastery in New Athos near Sukhumi. The largest Neo-Byzantine project of the 20th century was the Temple of Saint Sava in Belgrade. Image File history File links Window_St_Nicholas. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... Painting of Emperor Basil II, exemplifying the Imperial Crown handed down by Angels. ... The Byzantine Army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine Navy. ... Anastasius 40 nummi (M) and 5 nummi (E) Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins. ... Byzantine cuisine was marked by a merger of Greek and Roman gastronomy. ... // History Greek Dance in Antiquity was originally held to have some kind of educational value, as evidenced in Platos dialogues on this point in The Laws. ... Olga, ruler of Kievan Rus, along with her escort in Constantinople (Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid) Byzantine diplomacy concerns the principles and methods, the mechanisms the ideals and techniques that the Byzantine empire espoused and used in order to negotiate with the other states and to promote... // Overview Byzantine Dress changed vastly over the centuries. ... Byzantium undoubtedly occupies an important place in the history of garden design. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Byzantine literature refers to literature written in the Greek language during the Middle Ages, although certain works written in Latin, like the Corpus Juris Civilis may also be included. ... Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) and by extension the music of its culture(s) as they continued in the Orthodox Christian parts of the population after the fall of the empire to the rule of the Ottoman Empire. ... A gallery of birds from the Vienna Dioscurides Byzantine manuscript. ... The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire. ... The frontispiece of the Vienna Dioscurides shows a set of seven famous physicians. ... Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Westminster Cathedral from Victoria Street Westminster Cathedral in London, England, is the mother church of the Roman Catholic community in England and Wales and the Metropolitan Church and Cathedral for the Archbishop of Westminster. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the English city. ... Bristol Byzantine was an architectural style popular in the city of Bristol from about 1850 to 1880. ... Interior of the Mezquita, Cordoba Moorish architecture is a term used to describe the Islamic architecture of North Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal where the Moors were dominant from 711C.E. to 1492C.E.. The best surviving examples are La Mezquita in Cordoba and the Alhambra palace[1... Annunciation church in St. ... St. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... The St. ... The New Athos Monastery New Athos (Russian: ) is a town in Gudauta raion of Abkhazia, Georgia some 22 km from Sukhumi by the shores of the Black Sea. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... The Temple of Saint Sava (Serbian: Храм Светог Саве or Hram Svetog Save) in Belgrade, Serbia is one of the largest Orthodox churches currently in use. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Cite error: No <ref> tags found Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


See also

Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Saint Basils Cathedral (1555-61) is a showcase of medieval Russian architecture. ... Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // 250 years 1000 years - The last 250 years (fine grid) is detailed above 8000 years - The last 1000 years (fine grid) is detailed above Voorthuis - Timelines Categories: | | ... Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. ... For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world which developed a vast array of structures known as Ancient Egyptian architecture. ... Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt. ... Dravidian architecture, as unique and spectacular as any Greek, Roman or Egyptian architecture, spans many thousands of years. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, executed to considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... A wall in the fortress of Ollantaytambo Inca architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Sassanid architecture. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Stupa at Swayambhunath Newari architecture is the architecture developed by Newars. ... Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism: stupas and viharas. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Profile of a Hoysala temple at Somanathapura Hoysala architecture (Kannada: ) is the distinctive building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire, in the region known today as Karnataka, India, between the 11th and 14th centuries. ... Vijayanagar Raya Gopura Belur, Karnataka The Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565CE) was a unique building idiom evolved by the imperial Vijayanagar Empire that ruled the whole of South India from their regal capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka, India. ... Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal, a unique 24 pointed, uninterrupted stellate (star shaped), 7 tiered dravida plan, 12th c. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Architecture - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta (2515 words)
Byzantine architecture has its early prototypes in San Vitale (526-547) in Ravenna and in Saint Sergius and Saint Bacchus (527) in Constantinople, both domed churches on an octagonal plan with surrounding aisles.
Byzantine figurative art developed a characteristic style; its architectural application took the form of mosaics, great mural compositions executed in tiny pieces (tesserae) of colored marble and gilded glass, a technique presumed to have been borrowed from Persia.
Byzantine churches, each with a central dome opening into surrounding semidomes and other vault forms, and accompanied by the characteristic iconography, proliferated throughout the Byzantine Empire—Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, and parts of North Africa and Italy—and also influenced the design of churches in Western Christendom.
Architecture - MSN Encarta (1208 words)
While Byzantine architecture developed on the concept called the central church, assembled around a central dome like the Pantheon, the Western or Roman Church—more concerned with congregational participation in the Mass—preferred the Roman basilica.
Early prototypes of Byzantine architecture are San Vitale (526-547) in Ravenna and in St Sergius and St Bacchus (527) in Constantinople, both domed churches on an octagonal plan with surrounding aisles.
Byzantine figurative art developed a characteristic style; its architectural application took the form of mosaics, great mural compositions executed in coloured marble and gilt glass cut into tiny pieces (tesserae), a technique presumed to have been borrowed from Persia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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