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Encyclopedia > Byzantine Emperors

This is a list of Byzantine Emperors.


Note: It is difficult to determine when exactly the Roman Empire ends and the Byzantine Empire begins; Diocletian split the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves for administrative purposes in 284. Candidates for the "first" Byzantine emperor include Constantine I (the first Christian emperor, who moved the capital to Constantinople), Valens (the Battle of Adrianople (378) provides one of the traditional cut-off events to mark the start of the medieval period), Arcadius (treating Theodosius I as the last emperor of a single Roman Empire), and Zeno I (as the last western emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed during his reign). Others date the beginning of the Empire even as late as Heraclius (who replaced the traditional Roman imperial title of "Augustus" with "Basileus", the Greek word for "Emperor", and discontinued the use of Latin by making Greek the official language). Numismatists note the monetary reforms of Anastasius I in 498, which used the Greek numbering system. Of course, the Byzantines themselves continued to think of their empire as "Roman" for over a millennium.

Contents

Constantinian dynasty

  • Constantine I the Great (AD 272 - 337, ruled 306 - 337)
  • Constantius II (317 - 361, ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
  • Julian the Apostate (331 - 363, ruled 361 - 363) – son in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Non-dynastic

  • Jovian (332 - 364, ruled 363 - 364) – soldier under Julian

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty

Dynasty of Leo

  • Leo I the Great (401-474, ruled 457 - 474)
  • Leo II (467-474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I
  • Zeno Tarasius (425-491, ruled 474 - 491) – son-in-law of Leo I (first husband of Ariadne), father of Leo II
  • Basiliscus (rival emperor) (???-476, ruled 475 - 476) – brother-in-law of Leo I
  • Anastasius I (430-518, ruled 491 - 518) – son-in-law of Leo I (second husband of Ariadne)

Justinian dynasty

Non-dynastic

  • Phocas the Tyrant (???-610, ruled 602 - 610) – overthrew Maurice

Heraclian dynasty

  • Heraclius (575-641, ruled 610 - 641)
  • Constantine III Heraclius (612-641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius
  • Heraclonas Constantine (626-641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius, step-brother of Constantine III
  • Constans II Heraclius Pogonatus (the Bearded) (630-668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III
  • Constantine IV (649-685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
  • Justinian II Rhinotmetus (the Slit-nosed) (668-711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV

Non-dynastic

Isaurian dynasty

  • Leo III the Isaurian (675-741, ruled 717 - 741)
  • Constantine V Copronymus (the Dung-named) (718-745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III
  • Artabasdus (rival emperor, ruled 741 - 743) – son-in-law of Leo III, brother-in-law of Constantine V
  • Constantine V Copronymus (restored, second rule 743 - 775)
  • Leo IV the Khazar (750-780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
  • Constantine VI the Blinded (771-797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV
  • Irene the Athenian (755-803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI

Non-dynastic

  • Nicephorus I the General Logothete (ruled 802 - 811) – logothete under Irene
  • Stauracius (ruled 811) – son of Nicephorus I
  • Michael I Rhangabe (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nicephorus I, brother-in-law of Stauracius
  • Leo V the Armenian (775-820, ruled 813 - 820) – general under Michael I

Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty

  • Michael II the Amorian (770-829, ruled 820 - 829) – son-in-law of Constantine VI
  • Theophilus (813-842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
  • Michael III the Drunkard (840-867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilus

Macedonian dynasty

  • Basil I the Macedonian (811-886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow
  • Leo VI the Wise (866-912, ruled 886 - 912) – supposed son of Basil I; probably son of Michael III
  • Alexander III (870-913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I
  • Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (the Purple-born) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
  • Romanus I Lecapenus (co-emperor), (870-948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII
  • Romanus II Porphyrogentius (939-963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
  • Nicephorus II Phocas (912-969, ruled 963 - 969) – married Romanus II's widow; step-father of Basil II and Constantine VIII
  • John I Tzimisces (925-976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II
  • Basil II Bulgaroktonus (the Bulgar-slayer) (958-1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanus II
  • Constantine VIII Porphyrogenitus (960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanus II, brother of Basil II
  • Romanus III Argyrus (968-1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – son-in-law of Constantine VIII (Zoe's first husband)
  • Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1010-1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – married Romanus III's widow (Zoe's second husband)
  • Michael V Calaphates (the Caulker) (1015-1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's cousin
  • Zo Porphyrogenita (the Purple-born) (978-1050, regent 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
  • Constantine IX Monomachus (1000-1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – married Michael IV's widow (Zoe's third husband)
  • Theodora Porphyrogenita, (980-1056, ruled 1055 - 1056) – daughter of Constantine VIII (Zoe's sister)

Non-dynastic

Ducaian-Comnenan dynasty

Angelan dynasty

Lascaran dynasty (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea during the time of the Latin Empire)

Palaeologan Dynasty (restored at Constantinople)

In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Caesar; his successors continued this claim. See Osmanli for the complete list of Ottoman sultans.


See also:


  Results from FactBites:
 
Byzantine warfare (2595 words)
The Byzantine science of military tactics rested on the basic assumption that there was a repetitiveness in warfare and that therefore, by mastery of various alternative patterns, one could avoid being surprised and overcome by the unexpected knowledge of military discipline and order in battle would help to overcome any surprises and unexpected enemy tactics.
Various Byzantine emperors encouraged the writing or actually wrote manuals themselves of tactics and strategy, some of the great families influenced the tone and content of such manuals, which therefore must be read with appropriate caution and discounting of biases and self-interest and self-glorification.
Byzantine commanders and emperors were usually mindful of the difficulty of replacing losses among the soldiers, who were relatively expensive and difficult to recruit and train in that era of relatively small armies.
Byzantine Empire (4092 words)
The greatest of these emperors was Justinian I (reigned 527-565), who with his able wife Theodora prepared for the reconquest by defeating the Persians on the eastern frontier and extirpating various heresies that had alienated the Roman Catholic church.
Byzantine art is generally taken to include the arts of the Byzantine Empire from the foundation of the new capital of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in AD 330 in ancient BYZANTIUM to the capture of the city by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Byzantine art could play this role because, throughout its long history, it maintained a connection with the artistic heritage of Greek and Roman art and architecture; it preserved and transmitted much of this heritage to the West until Western artists were able to approach antiquity directly.
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