Note: It is difficult to determine when exactly the Roman Empire ends and the Byzantine Empire begins; Diocletian split the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves for administrative purposes in 284. Candidates for the "first" Byzantine emperor include Constantine I (the first Christian emperor, who moved the capital to Constantinople), Valens (the Battle of Adrianople (378) provides one of the traditional cut-off events to mark the start of the medieval period), Arcadius (treating Theodosius I as the last emperor of a single Roman Empire), and Zeno I (as the last western emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed during his reign). Others date the beginning of the Empire even as late as Heraclius (who replaced the traditional Roman imperial title of "Augustus" with "Basileus", the Greek word for "Emperor", and discontinued the use of Latin by making Greek the official language). Numismatists note the monetary reforms of Anastasius I in 498, which used the Greek numbering system. Of course, the Byzantines themselves continued to think of their empire as "Roman" for over a millennium.
The Byzantine science of military tactics rested on the basic assumption that there was a repetitiveness in warfare and that therefore, by mastery of various alternative patterns, one could avoid being surprised and overcome by the unexpected knowledge of military discipline and order in battle would help to overcome any surprises and unexpected enemy tactics.
Various Byzantineemperors encouraged the writing or actually wrote manuals themselves of tactics and strategy, some of the great families influenced the tone and content of such manuals, which therefore must be read with appropriate caution and discounting of biases and self-interest and self-glorification.
Byzantine commanders and emperors were usually mindful of the difficulty of replacing losses among the soldiers, who were relatively expensive and difficult to recruit and train in that era of relatively small armies.
The greatest of these emperors was Justinian I (reigned 527-565), who with his able wife Theodora prepared for the reconquest by defeating the Persians on the eastern frontier and extirpating various heresies that had alienated the Roman Catholic church.
Byzantine art is generally taken to include the arts of the Byzantine Empire from the foundation of the new capital of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in AD 330 in ancient BYZANTIUM to the capture of the city by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Byzantine art could play this role because, throughout its long history, it maintained a connection with the artistic heritage of Greek and Roman art and architecture; it preserved and transmitted much of this heritage to the West until Western artists were able to approach antiquity directly.
Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Want to know more? Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:
Press Releases |
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m