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Encyclopedia > Byzantine

The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire during the Middle Ages by region Medieval Britain Medieval France Medieval Germany Medieval Italy Medieval Spain Byzantine Empire by topic Art Literature Poetry Music Architecture Philosophy Universities Technology Warfare Fortifications The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of... Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Modern Greek is the present vernacular language of Greece (also... Constantinople. In certain specific contexts, usually referring to the centuries that marked the fall of the The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. This part had significant social difference with the Eastern Roman Empire; whereas the East was Greek-speaking and (later) followed Orthodoxy and Monophysitism, the West was Latin-speaking and... Western Roman Empire, it is also often referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire. There is no consensus on the starting date of the Byzantine period. Some place it during the reign of Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian (245-313 AD/CE), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. Emperor Diocletian on a period coin An Illyrian of low birth, born in the city that for a long time carried his name- Dioclea (todays Podgorica, Serbia and... Diocletian (284-305) due to the administrative reforms he introduced, dividing the empire into a pars Orientis and a pars Occidentis. Others place it during the reign of Flavius Theodosius (Cauca [Coca-Segovia], Spain, January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. He was the son of a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder. Theodosius was the last ruler of a united Roman Empire - after the division... Theodosius I (379-395) and Christendom's triumph over paganism, or, following his death in 395, with the division of the empire into Western and Eastern halves. Others place it yet further in 476, when the last western emperor, Romulus Augustus (460s/470s - after 511) was the last of the Western Roman Emperors. He was born Flavius Romulus to Flavius Orestes, a Roman politician considered to be at least partly of Germanic descent. Orestes was appointed master of soldiers by Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos in 475. On August... Romulus Augustus, was forced to abdicate, thus leaving to the emperor in the Greek East sole imperial authority. In any case, the changeover was gradual and by 330, when Constantine. Head of the colossal statue. Musei Capitolini, Rome Flavius Valerius Constantinus (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I or Constantine the Great, was proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306 and ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire to his... Constantine the Great inaugaurated his new capital, the process of The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Hellenization and The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Christianization was well underway.

Contents

The term "Byzantine Empire"

The term "Byzantine Empire" is a modernist construction and would have appeared alien to its contemporaries. The term was invented in 1557, about a century after the The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453. This marked not only the final destruction of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the death of... fall of Constantinople by German historian Hieronymus Wolf, who introduced a system of Byzantine historiography in his work Corpus Historiae Byzantinae in order to distinguish ancient Roman from medieval Greek history. Standardization of the term did not occur until the 17th century when French authors such as Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Montesquieu began to popularize it. Hieronymus himself was influenced by the rift caused by the 9th century dispute between Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune. Contents // 1 Roman 1.1 See also 2 Geometry 3 Typography 4 Christianity 5 Geography Roman The noun Roman means a citizen of For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation... Romans (Byzantines as we render them today) and History of France Series - This is a timeline of French history. 1850s: 1850 - 1851 - 1852 - 1853 - 1854 - 1855 - 1856 - 1857 - 1858 - 1859 1860s: 1860 - 1861 - 1862 - 1863 - 1864 - 1865 - 1866 - 1867 - 1868 - 1869 1870s: 1870 - 1871 - 1872 - 1873 - 1874 - 1875 - 1876 - 1877 - 1878 - 1879 1880s: 1880 - 1881 - 1882 - 1883 - 1884... Franks, who, under Statue of Charlemagne (Karl dem Großen, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt. Photographed in 2002 by Flups. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation... Charlemagne's newly formed empire, and in concert with the For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. The Pope is the Catholic bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches (note that the name within the communion is simply the one Holy Catholic... Pope, attempted to legitimize their conquests by claiming inheritance of Roman rights in Italy thereby renouncing their eastern neighbours as true Romans. The The Donation of Constantine (Latin, Constitutum Donatio Constantini) is a fraudulent Roman imperial edict, supposedly issued by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 324, which purported to grant Pope Sylvester I and his successors sovereignty and spiritual authority over Rome, Italy, and the entire Western Roman Empire. The legend... Donation of Constantine, one of the most famous forged documents in history, played a crucial role in this. Henceforth, it was fixed policy in the West to refer to the emperor in Constantinople not by the usual "Imperator Romanorum" (Emperor of the Romans) which was now reserved for the Frankish monarch, but as "Imperator Graecorum" (Emperor of the Greeks) and the land as "Imperium Graecorum", "Graecia", "Terra Graecorum" or even "Imperium Constantinopolitanus".


This served as a precedent for Hieronymus who was motivated, at least partly, to re-interpret Roman history in different terms. Nevertheless, this was not intended in a demeaning manner since he ascribed his changes to historiography and not history itself.


Identity

" Byzantium was the original name of the modern city of Istanbul. Byzantium was originally settled by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. The name Byzantium is a Latinization of the original Greek name Byzantion (Βυζάντιον... Byzantium may be defined as a multi-ethnic empire that emerged as a Christian empire, soon comprised the Hellenized empire of the East and ended its thousand year history, in 1453, as a Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of Full communion is a kind of relationship between two or more organizations of Christians. It implies a unity between them unbroken by heresy or schism. Complete uniformity in theology and usage is not necessary... Greek Orthodox state: An empire that became a A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. Added to this is usually the idea that a national (a person of the national ideology) should speak a certain language. The language itself might however be a... nation, almost by the modern meaning of the word".1


In the centuries following the For other uses, see The words Arab and Arabian have multiple meanings: Arab - pertaining to the people/language/politics of West Asia Arab - 1 billion in the Indian numbering system. Arab, a short-lived English automobile. Arab, Alabama The Arabian horse. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Arab and The Lombards were a Germanic tribe in history. Their name, Lombard, has been given to some places such as: Lombard, Illinois Lombard Street, in the City of London Lombard Street, in Philadelphia Lombard Street, in San Francisco Lombard, Doubs, a commune of the Doubs département in France Lombardy is... Lombard conquests in the ( (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the... 7th century, its multi-ethnic (albeit not multi-national) nature remained even though its constituent parts in the The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² and a population of around 53 million. The countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, mainland Greece, the (Former Yugoslav) Republic of... Balkans and Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Asia Minor contained an overwhelmingly Greek population. Ethnic minorities and sizeable communities of religious heretics often lived on or near the borderlands, the The Armenians are a nation or ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor. A large concentration remain there, especially in Armenia, but almost as many are scattered elsewhere throughout the world. This article covers the Armenians as an ethnic group, not Armenians in the sense of citizens... Armenians being the only sizeable one.


Byzantines identified themselves as Ρωμαίοι (Rhomaioi - Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune. Contents // 1 Roman 1.1 See also 2 Geometry 3 Typography 4 Christianity 5 Geography Roman The noun Roman means a citizen of For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation... Romans) which had already become a synonym for a Έλλην ( This article or section should include material from Greeks According to Thucydides, Hellenes were the people of Hellas. Greek mythology states that they were named after Hellen. A more scientific approach places the origin of the name in Epirus, the land of the Dorians, where people were called Selloi or... Hellene - The word Greek has a number of meanings relating to Greece, including: Architecture of Ancient Greece Art in Ancient Greece Greek alphabet Greek colonies Cuisine of Greece Ethnic Greek Greco-Turkish relations Greece Hellenes History of Greece History of Mycenaean Greece History of Ancient Greece History of Hellenistic Greece History... Greek), and more than ever before were developing a national consciousness, as residents of Ρωμανία (Romania, as the Byzantine state and its world were called). This nationalist awareness is reflected in literature, particularily in the acritic songs, where frontiersmen (ακρίτες) are praised for defending their country against invaders, of which most famous is the heroic or In mathematics, see epic morphism. In comics, see Epic comics. In Computer Architecture, see Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing. The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, which retells in a continuous narrative the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. In the West... epic poem Digenis Acritas.


The official dissolution of the Byzantine state in the (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Renaissance affects philosophy, science and art... 15th century did not immediately undo Byzantine society. During the Ottoman occupation Greeks continued to identify themselves as both Ρωμαίοι (Romans) and Έλληνες (Hellenes), a trait that survived into the early (20th century - 21st century - 22nd century - other centuries) Contents // 1 Definition 2 Important developments, events, achievements 2.1 Five overall largest mass killings of the 21st century as of 2005 3 Influential people in politics as of 2005 4 Influential people in technology as of 2005 5 Influential people in... 21st century and still persists today in modern For other uses, see Greece may be: Ancient Greece Greece, country in southeast Europe, also known as Hellas or Ellas Greece (CDP), New York Greece (town), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an... Greece, albeit the former has now retreated to a secondary folkish name rather than a national synonym as in the past.


Origin

Map of Roman empire after Diocletian's reforms

Caracalla's decree in 212, the Constitutio Antoniniana, extended citizenship outside of Italy to all free adult males in the entire Roman Empire, effectively raising provincial populations to equal status with the city of For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign... Rome itself. The importance of this decree is historical rather than political. It set the basis for integration where the economic and judicial mechanisms of the state could be applied around the entire Mediterranean as was once done from Regione Lazio Capital Rome President Francesco Storace (House of Freedoms) Provinces Frosinone Latina Rieti Rome Viterbo Municipalities 377 Area 17,208 km²  - Ranked 9th (5.7 %) Population (2001)  - Total  - Ranked  - Density 5,112,413 3rd (9.0 %) 297/km² Map higlighting the location of Lazio in... Latium into all of Italy. Of course, integration did not take place uniformly. Societies already integrated with Rome such as For other uses, see Greece may be: Ancient Greece Greece, country in southeast Europe, also known as Hellas or Ellas Greece (CDP), New York Greece (town), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an... Greece were favored by this decree, compared with those far away, too poor or just too alien such as The word Britain is used to refer to the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a This article describes a type of political entity. Country is also a short form for the Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and... Britain, Palestine (Latin: Syria Palæstina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina, ארץ־ישראל Eretz Yisrael; Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn), is a region in the Middle East extending inland from the eastern shore of... Palestine or For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation). The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes... Egypt.


The division of the Empire began with the The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204 CE, Treasury of St. Marks, Venice The Tetrarchy (Greek: leadership of four; aka the Latin Quadrumuirate, government by four men) was a system of government created in 293 CE by the Roman Emperor Diocletian in order to solve... Tetrarchy (quadrumvirate) in the late (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. (230 - 232 AD). Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire... 3rd century with Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to the ruler of the Roman Empire. It was not actually used, and there was never actually any single office corresponding to it. Rather, the title Roman Emperor is a convenient shorthand for a complicated collection of offices and powers. In... Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian (245-313 AD/CE), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. Emperor Diocletian on a period coin An Illyrian of low birth, born in the city that for a long time carried his name- Dioclea (todays Podgorica, Serbia and... Diocletian, as an institution intended to more efficiently control the vast Roman Empire. He split the Empire in half, with two emperors ruling from Italy and Greece, each having a co-emperor of their own. This division continued into the (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Definitive declaration of biblical canon: Council... 4th century until Years: 320 321 322 323 - 324 - 325 326 327 328 Decades: 290s 300s 310s - 320s - 330s 340s 350s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. End of the Tetrarchy as the Roman mode of government. St Peters Church, Rome... 324 when Constantine. Head of the colossal statue. Musei Capitolini, Rome Flavius Valerius Constantinus (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I or Constantine the Great, was proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306 and ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire to his... Constantine the Great managed to become the sole Emperor of the Empire. Constantine decided to found a new capital for himself and chose Byzantium for that purpose. The rebuilding process was completed in Years: 326 327 328 329 - 330 - 331 332 333 334 Decades: 300s 310s 320s - 330s - 340s 350s 360s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. It is later... 330.


Constantine renamed the city New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. It can be used to express connection with or discontinuity from the old Rome, depending upon context. New Rome has been a cultural, historical, and theological concept within much of Western culture (as far east... Nova Roma but in popular use it was called Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Modern Greek is the present vernacular language of Greece (also... Constantinople (in Greek, Κωνσταντινούπολις, meaning Constantine's City). This new capital became the centre of his administration. Constantine was also the first For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended... Christian emperor. Although the empire was not yet "Byzantine" under Constantine, Christianity would become one of the defining characteristics of the Byzantine Empire, as opposed to the Paganism is a catch-all term which has come to bundle together (by extension from its original classical meaning of a pre-Christian religion) a very broad set of not necessarily compatible religious beliefs and practices that are usually, but not necessarily, characterized by polytheism and, less commonly, animism. Contents... pagan Roman Empire.


Another defining moment in the history of the Roman/Byzantine Empire was the For other uses, see Battle of Adrianople (disambiguation). Battle of Adrianople Conflict Roman_Barbarian wars Date August 9, 378 Place Near Adrianople Result Gothic victory Combatants Roman Empire Goths Commanders Valens† Fritigern Alatheus Saphrax Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties About 40 000 Unknown The second Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378... Battle of Adrianople in Years: 374 375 376 377 - 378 - 379 380 381 382 Decades: 340s 350s 360s - 370s - 380s 390s 400s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. Later that year they are defeated by Gratianus. August 9 - Battle of Adrianople: A large... 378. This defeat, along with the death of Emperor Valens (AD 328 - August 9, 378) was Roman emperor (364 - 378) after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. During his reign he had to solve the theological problems introduced during the reign of Julian. He removed the Arian bishops and reaffirmed the... Valens, is one possible date for dividing the ancient and medieval worlds. The Roman empire was divided further by Valens' successor Flavius Theodosius (Cauca [Coca-Segovia], Spain, January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. He was the son of a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder. Theodosius was the last ruler of a united Roman Empire - after the division... Theodosius I (also called "the great"), who had ruled both beginning in Years: 388 389 390 391 - 392 - 393 394 395 396 Decades: 360s 370s 380s - 390s - 400s 410s 420s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Roman Emperor. Theodosius issues an edict reinforcing the prohibition of prayers or sacrifices at non-Christian temples in... 392. In Years: 391 392 393 394 - 395 - 396 397 398 399 Decades: 360s 370s 380s - 390s - 400s 410s 420s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. The eastern half is centered... 395 he gave the two halves to his two sons See also: Arcadius of Antioch, Greek grammarian of the 2nd century Flavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death. Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Flacilla, and brother of Honorius, who... Arcadius and Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius... Honorius; Arcadius became ruler in the East, with his capital in Constantinople, and Honorius became ruler in the west, with his capital in For other places named Ravenna, see Ravenna (disambiguation). Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, population 134,631 (2001). The city is inland, but is connected to the Adriatic Sea by a canal. Ravenna once served as the seat of the Roman Empire and later the... Ravenna. At this point it is common to refer to the empire as "Eastern Roman" rather than "Byzantine."


Early history

The Eastern Empire was largely spared the difficulties of the west in the (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. (230 - 232 AD). Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire... 3rd and (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Definitive declaration of biblical canon: Council... 4th centuries (see The Crisis of the Third Century is a commonly applied name for the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 275. During this period, Rome was ruled by more than 35 individuals, most of them prominent generals who assumed Imperial power over all or part of... Crisis of the Third Century), in part because urban culture was better established there and the initial invasions were attracted to the wealth of For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign... Rome. Throughout the ( (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Definitive declaration of biblical canon: Council... 5th century various invasions conquered the western half of the empire, but at best could only demand tribute from the eastern half. Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. He was heavily influenced by his eldest sister Pulcheria who pushed him towards orthodox Christianity. Pulcheria was the primary driving... Theodosius II expanded the walls of Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Modern Greek is the present vernacular language of Greece (also... Constantinople, leaving the city impenetrable to attacks. Imperator Caesar Flavius Zeno Augustus or Tarasicodissa or Trascalissaeus (c. 425 -491), Eastern Roman or Byzantine emperor (February 9, 474 - April 9, 491) was one of the more prominent of the early Byzantine emperors. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign... Zeno I ruled the east as the empire in the west finally collapsed in Years: 472 473 474 475 - 476 - 477 478 479 480 Decades: 440s 450s 460s - 470s - 480s 490s 500s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. September 4 - Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western... 476. Zeno negotiated with the This article is about the Germanic tribes. For the late 20th century youth subculture, see This article is about the contemporary goth subculture. For the Germanic peoples, see the Goths. Goth is a modern subculture that gained visibility during the early 1980s within the gothic rock scene, a sub-genre... Goths, ending their threats to the east but leaving them in control of the west.

Enlarge
Map of the Byzantine Empire around Years: 546 547 548 549 - 550 - 551 552 553 554 Decades: 520s 530s 540s - 550s - 560s 570s 580s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events End of the Eastern Wei Dynasty and beginning of the Northern Qi Dynasty in northern China. Northern Qi Wen Xuan Di is the first... 550. Green indicates the conquests during the reign of Justinian I.

The (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the... 6th century saw the beginning of the conflicts with the Byzantine Empire's traditional early enemies, the Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persians, The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. They speak Slavic languages and reside chiefly in the east of that continent, but are also found in Asia. Contents // 1 Ethno-cultural subdivisions 2 The Slavic homeland debates 3 Naming and etymologies 4 Early... Slavs and Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) a people of Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. There are 42 landlocked countries... Bulgars. Theological crises, such as the question of Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. There are three major doctrines that can be called monophysite: Eutychianism... Monophysitism, also dominated the empire. However, the Eastern Empire had not forgotten its western roots. Under Justinian I, depicted on a contemporary coin Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from AD August 1, 527 until his death. One of the most important rulers of the Byzantine Empire, he is best remembered for his... Justinian I, and the brilliant general Belisarius, by Jacques-Louis David (1781); the depiction is now believed to be fictionalized. Flavius Belisarius (505-565) was probably the greatest general of the Byzantine Empire. He is not very well known today, but this is due more to a lack of attention to Byzantine history than to his... Belisarius, the empire temporarily regained some of the lost Roman provinces in the west, conquering much of For other uses, see Italy is the name of: a European country: Italy places in the United States Italy, New York - a town in Yates County Italy, Texas - a town in Ellis County, Texas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Italy, north ... World map showing location of Africa Download high resolution version (741x800, 113 KB) This image page contains items that originally came from a NASA website or publication. All works created by NASA are in the public domain, with the exception of the usage-restricted NASA logo, because works created by... Africa, and The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish (espa ol or castellano) Spoken in: Mexico, Colombia, Spain, Argentina, Nicaragua, Chile, USA, Venezuela, Costa Rica , Cuba, Peru, and 34 other countries. Region: Total speakers: 417 million (including second language speakers) Ranking: 2 (first language speakers, may vary based on metric) Genetic classification... Spain.


Justinian updated the ancient Roman legal code in the new The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil law has at least three meanings. It may connote an entire legal system, or either of two different bodies of law within a legal system: a legal system the set of rules governing relations between persons (either humans or legal personalities such as... Corpus Juris Civilis, although it is notable that these laws were still written in Latin, a language which was becoming archaic and poorly understood even by those who wrote the new code. Under Justinian's reign, the Church of For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, Turkey, June 1994 The Church of the Holy Wisdom, variously known as Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία) in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, is a former Christian church, now a... Agía Sofía (Holy Wisdom) was constructed in the Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 480s - 490s _ 500s - 510s - 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s Years: 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 Events and Trends Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, built (532_537) General Belisarius defeats the Vandals in North Africa, and brings... 530s. This church would become the centre of Byzantine religious life and the centre of the Eastern Orthodoxy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Eastern Orthodoxy From Wikipedia The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of This article is about the continent... Eastern Orthodox form of Christianity. The sixth century was also a time of flourishing culture (although Justinian closed the university at Athens), producing the epic poet Nonnus, the lyric poet Paul the Silentiary, the historian Procopius and the natural philosopher John Philoponos, among other notable talents.


Justinian left his successors an empty treasury, however, and they were unable to deal with the sudden appearance of new invaders on all fronts. The The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. They were known to the Romans from as early as AD 98, when the historian Tacitus mentioned them in his Germania. Their... Lombards invaded and conquered much of Italy, the Avars and later the Bulgars overwhelmed much of the The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² and a population of around 53 million. The countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, mainland Greece, the (Former Yugoslav) Republic of... Balkans, and in the early 7th century the Persians invaded and conquered Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Armenia. The Persians were defeated and the territories were recovered by the emperor Flavius Heraclius Augustus (plural Augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. Although the use of the cognomen Augustus as part of ones name is generally understood to identify the Roman Emperor, this is somewhat misleading; Augustus was the most significant name associated with the Emperor, but it did not actually... Heraclius in Years: 623 624 625 626 - 627 - 628 629 630 631 Decades: 590s 600s 610s - 620s - 630s 640s 650s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths... 627, but the unexpected appearance of the newly converted and united This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem... Muslim For other uses, see The words Arab and Arabian have multiple meanings: Arab - pertaining to the people/language/politics of West Asia Arab - 1 billion in the Indian numbering system. Arab, a short-lived English automobile. Arab, Alabama The Arabian horse. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Arabs took by surprise an empire exhausted by the titanic effort against Persia, and the southern provinces were all overrun. Mesopotamia, Syria, Egypt, and the Exarchate of Africa were permanently incorporated into the Muslim Empire in the ( (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the... 7th century, a process which was completed with the fall of Carthage to the Caliphate in Years: 694 695 696 697 - 698 - 699 700 701 702 Decades: 660s 670s 680s - 690s - 700s 710s 720s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Tiberius III deposes Leontius II and becomes Byzantine Emperor. Arabs capture Carthage from the Byzantine Empire. Zhen (predecessor of the kingdom of Bohai) is... 698. The The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. They were known to the Romans from as early as AD 98, when the historian Tacitus mentioned them in his Germania. Their... Lombards continued to expand in northern Italy, taking Ligura in 640 and conquering most of the The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. The Western emperors had abandoned Rome first for Milan and... Exarchate of Ravenna in Years: 747 748 749 750 - 751 - 752 753 754 755 Decades: 720s 730s 740s - 750s - 760s 770s 780s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Pippin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility, marking the end of the Merovingian and beginning of the... 751, leaving the Byzantines with control only of small areas around the toe and heel of Italy.


Hellenizing era

What the empire lost in territory, though, it made up in uniformity. Heraclius fully Hellenized the empire by making Greek the official language. The empire was by now noticeably different in religion from the former imperial lands in western Europe, although the southern Byzantine provinces differed significantly from the north in culture and practiced Monophysitism (from the For other uses, see Greece may be: Ancient Greece Greece, country in southeast Europe, also known as Hellas or Ellas Greece (CDP), New York Greece (town), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Monophysite (rather than Eastern Orthodoxy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Eastern Orthodoxy From Wikipedia The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of This article is about the continent... Chalcedonian Orthodox) For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended... Christianity. The loss of the southern provinces to the Arabs made Orthodoxy stronger in the remaining provinces.


Constans II on a contemporary coin Constans II Heraclius Pogonatus (November 7, 630–September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. He was the son of Constantine III, and due to the rumours that Heraclonas and Martina had poisoned Constantine III he was named co-emperor in... Constans II (reigned Years: 637 638 639 640 - 641 - 642 643 644 645 Decades: 610s 620s 630s - 640s - 650s 660s 670s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. Revolt against Byzantine emperor Heraclonas; he is deposed and his brother Constans II becomes... 641 - Years: 664 665 666 667 - 668 - 669 670 671 672 Decades: 630s 640s 650s - 660s - 670s 680s 690s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. Goguryeo... 668) divided the empire into a system of military provinces called Themes (singular thema) were administrative units of land in the Byzantine Empire. During the late sixth and early seventh centuries AD, the Byzantine Empire was under assault. The Persian Empire was pressing it from the south and east, assaulting Syria, Egypt, and Anatolia. Slavs and Avars raided Greece and disputed... thémata (themes) to face permanent assault, with urban life declining outside the capital while Constantinople grew to become the largest city in the Christian world. Attempts by the Arabs to conquer Constantinople failed in the face of the Byzantines' superior navy, their monopoly of the still mysterious incendiary weapon Depiction of Greek fire in the Madrid Skylitzes manuscript Greek fire (also called Byzantine fire and liquid fire) was a weapon used by the Byzantine Empire, said to have been invented by a Syrian Christian refugee named Kallinikos of Heliopolis. It was capable of discharging a stream of burning fluid... Greek fire, the city's strong walls, and the skill of warrior emperors such as For other uses, see Leo III the Isaurian (c. 680 - June 18, 741) was a Byzantine emperor (717-741). Pope Leo III, 795-816 Leo III or Leo A a type IBm V irregular galaxy in Leo This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Leo III the Isauria, in ancient geography, is a district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now south-central Turkey. The permanent nucleus of Isauria was north of the Taurus range which lies directly to south of Iconium... Isaurian (reign Years: 713 714 715 716 - 717 - 718 719 720 721 Decades: 680s 690s 700s - 710s - 720s 730s 740s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events March 25 - Leo III usurps the throne of Byzantium August 15 - Muslama begins the Second Arab siege of Constantinople. The siege lasts for three... 717 - Years: 737 738 739 740 - 741 - 742 743 744 745 Decades: 710s 720s 730s - 740s - 750s 760s 770s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events June 18 - Constantine V succeeds Leo III as emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Pope Zacharias succeeds Pope Gregory III. Carloman, Pippin the Short and... 741). After repelling the Arab assaults, the empire began to recover.


Although falsely depicted as effete by the historian Edward Gibbon. Edward Gibbon (April 27, 1737 (O.S.) (May 8, 1737 (N.S.)) - January 16, 1794) was arguably the most influential historian since the time of Tacitus. His magnum opus, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, first published in 1776, is a groundbreaking work... Edward Gibbon in the (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. Historians will sometimes specifically refer to the 18th century as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death... 18th century, the Byzantine Empire was the closest thing to a military A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a wide scale. In modern terms, this may imply an entity with a strong economy, a large population, and strong armed forces, including air power and satellite capabilities, and a huge arsenal of weapons of... superpower in the early Middle Ages, thanks to its heavy cavalry (the The cataphract was a type of heavy cavalryman used primarily in eastern and southeastern Europe, in Anatolia and Iran from late antiquity up through the High Middle Ages. The term is Greek, with a basic meaning of covered or protected, and a specific military meaning of armored. Nations deploying cataphracts... cataphracts), its subsidization (albeit inconsistently) of a well-to-do free peasant class as the basis for cavalry recruitment, its extraordinary defense in depth (the thematic system), its use of subsidies to play its enemies against one another, its intelligence gathering prowess, its development of a system of logistics based on mule trains, its navy (often tragically underfunded), and its rational military doctrines (not dissimilar to those of Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). He is also one of the earliest realists in political science... Sun Tzu) that emphasized stealth, surprise, swift maneuver and the marshalling of overwhelming force at the time and place of the Byzantine commander's choosing.


After the siege of 717 in which the Arabs suffered horrific casualties, the An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph ( This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. To play the audio file do not click on the -image. Look for a Listen-link near this... Caliphate was never a serious threat to the Byzantine heartland. It would take a different civilization, that of the The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Seljuk Turks, to finally drive the imperial forces out of eastern and central Anatolia.


The (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there... 8th century was dominated by the controversy over Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other sacred images or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. People who engage in such practices are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be applied to any person who breaks or disdains established dogmas or conventions. Conversely, people... iconoclasm. The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) For other uses, see Icon (disambiguation). An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. An icon could be... Icons were banned by Emperor For other uses, see Leo III the Isaurian (c. 680 - June 18, 741) was a Byzantine emperor (717-741). Pope Leo III, 795-816 Leo III or Leo A a type IBm V irregular galaxy in Leo This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Leo III, leading to revolts by iconophiles within the empire. Thanks to the efforts of Saint Irene (c. 752 - August 9, 803) was a Byzantine empress (although she called herself basileus, the male form of the word emperor, rather than basilissa, empress) from 797 to 802. She was the wife of Leo IV. Originally a poor but beautiful Athenian orphan, she speedily gained the love... Empress Irene, the Second Council of Nicaea Date 787 Accepted by Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy Previous Council (Catholic) Third Council of Constantinople Previous Council (Orthodox) Council in Trullo Next Council Fourth Council of Constantinople Convoked by Empress Irene Presided by Irene Attendance 350 (two papal legates) Topics of discussion Iconoclasm Documents and statements veneration... Second Council of Nicaea met in This article is about the year 787. For the aircraft, see Boeing 787. Years: 783 784 785 786 - 787 - 788 789 790 791 Decades: 750s 760s 770s - 780s - 790s 800s 810s Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Events Second Council of Nicaea ends the first iconoclastic period in the... 787 and affirmed that icons could be venerated but not worshipped. Irene also attempted a marriage alliance with Statue of Charlemagne (Karl dem Großen, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt. Photographed in 2002 by Flups. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation... Charlemagne, which would have united the two empires, but these plans came to nothing. The iconoclast controversy returned in the early ( (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there... 9th century, but was resolved once more in Years: Years: 835 836 837 838 - 839 - 840 841 842 843 Decades: 800s 810s 820s - 830s - 840s 850s 860s Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Events Louis the Pious attempts to divide his empire among his sons. Ethelwulf succeeds Egbert as king of Wessex. Uen is succeeded by Uurad... 843. These controversies did not help the disintegrating relations with the This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. See Catholicism (disambiguation) for alternative meanings Catholicism has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: a) the whole orthodox christian church, or adherence thereto; and b) the doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence thereto... Roman Catholic Church and the History of Germany series Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (WWII) Germany since 1945 The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. As a nation-state, Germany did not exist until 1871. Before... Holy Roman Empire, which were both beginning to gain more power of their own.


Golden era

Manuscript painting of Basil II, obtained from http://www.historyofmacedonia.org  ©  This image is copyrighted. The copyright holder allows anyone to use it for any purpose. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on...
Manuscript painting of Basil II, obtained from http://www.historyofmacedonia.org  ©  This image is copyrighted. The copyright holder allows anyone to use it for any purpose. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on... Enlarge
Painting of Basil II, from an (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant... 11th century manuscript.

The empire reached its height under the For other uses, see Macedonia (disambiguation). The huge equestrian statue of Alexander the Great, king of ancient Macedon, on the waterfront at Thessaloniki, capital of Greek Macedonia Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe with an area of around 67,000 square... Macedonian emperors of the late ( (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there... 9th, ( ( (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there... 10th and early (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant... 11th centuries. During these years the Empire held out against pressure from the Roman church to remove Patriarch Photius (b. Constantinople ca. 820 - Bordi (Armenia), February 6, 891) was the Christian patriarch of Constantinople during 858-861 and 878-886, later recognized as a Saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church. (Photius is a westernized spelling, especially in its use of the letter u, resulting from adaptation of... Photios, and gained control over the The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. The western coast is Italian, while the eastern coast runs along the countries of Slovenia... Adriatic Sea, parts of Italy, and much of the land held by the The Republic of Bulgaria is a There is presently an editing dispute over two versions of this page. One version is below; you may also view the other version (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Republic&oldid={{{1}}}) or the difference (http://en.wikipedia.org... Bulgarians. The Bulgarians were completely defeated by Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. Basil II Bulgaroktonus (in Greek Basilios Bulgaroktonos, written Βασίλειος Βουλγαροκτόνος, lived 958_ December 15, 1025), Byzantine emperor (January 10, 976... Basil II in Years: 1011 1012 1013 - 1014 - 1015 1016 1017 Decades: 980s 990s 1000s - 1010s - 1020s 1030s 1040s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century 1014 state leaders Events February 14 - Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent... 1014. The Empire also gained a new ally (yet sometimes also an enemy) in the new Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth... Ruthenian state in For other uses, see Kiev (disambiguation). Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine... Kiev, from which the empire received an important mercenary force, the This article is part of the Scandinavia series Viking Age Ting Kalmar Union Denmark-Norway Sweden-Norway Monetary Union Defense union Languages Mountains Peninsula Varangian Viking History of Sweden History of Norway History of Denmark The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. Promoting trade... Varangian Guard.


In 1054 relations between Greek-speaking Eastern and Latin-speaking Western traditions within the Christian Church reached a terminal crisis. There was never a formal declaration of institutional separation, and the so-called In Christianity, the East-West Schism, usually called the Great Schism (though this latter term sometimes refers to the Western Schism of 1378), was the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism in 1054. The two churches split along doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographic lines. They remain, for... Great Schism actually was the culmination of centuries of gradual separation. From this split, the modern (Roman) Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches arose.


Like Rome before it, though, Byzantium soon fell into a period of difficulties, caused to a large extent by the growth of the landed aristocracy, which undermined the theme system. Facing its old enemies, the Holy Roman Empire and the ( The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles, assert that if this image is not copyrighted, then it is in the public domain, and that... Abbasid caliphate, it might have recovered, but around the same time new invaders appeared on the scene who had little reason to respect its reputation. The This article talks about the Norman people. There is also a city named Norman, Oklahoma in the United States. The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were Scandinavian invaders (especially Danish Vikings) who began to occupy the northern area of France now known as Normandy in the latter... Normans finally completed the Byzantine expulsion from Italy in 1071, and the The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Seljuk Turks, who were mainly interested in defeating For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation). The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes... Egypt under the The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. The term Fatimite is sometimes used to refer to citizens of the Empire/Caliphate. The name Fatimid is derived from the name of daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, Fatima az-Zahra. The dynasty and its... Fatimids, still made moves into Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Asia Minor, the main recruiting ground for the Byzantine armies. With the defeat at Manzikert (in Turkish Malazgirt) is a town in Muş in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23 697 (year 2000). of 68 990. Manzikert was an important trading post of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia. In 1071, Manzikert was the site of one of historys most decisive battles... Manzikert of emperor Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, when he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting execution he was summoned into the presence of the empress regent... Romanus IV in Years: 1068 1069 1070 - 1071 - 1072 1073 1074 Decades: 1040s 1050s 1060s - 1070s - 1080s 1090s 1100s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. Control of much of Asia Minor passes to the Turks. The last Byzantine-controlled... 1071 by Muhammed ben Daud (1029-December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. He assumed the name of Muhammed when he embraced Islam, and on account of his military prowess he obtained the surname... Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, most of that province was lost. The final split between the Roman and Orthodox churches occurred at this time as well, with their mutual excommunication in Years: 1051 1052 1053 - 1054 - 1055 1056 1057 Decades: 1020s 1030s 1040s - 1050s - 1060s 1070s 1080s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. Some historians look to this act as... 1054.


End of empire

Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 296 KB) This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing...
Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 296 KB) This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing... Enlarge
Sections of the Theodosian walls of Constantinople as they appear today in suburban Istanbul

A partial recovery was made possible after Manzikert by the rise to power of the Comnenian dynasty. The first emperor of this line, Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). His father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was accordingly succeeded by four emperors... Alexius Comnenus, whose life and policies would be described by his daughter Anna in The Alexeid, began to reestablish the army on the basis of feudal grants ( Pronoia (plural pronoiai, Greek for provisions) refers to a system of land grants in the Byzantine Empire. Contents // 1 The Early Pronoia System 2 Pronoia in the 12th Century 3 Pronoia Under the Palaeologan Dynasty 4 Sources The Early Pronoia System By the 11th century, Byzantine aristocrats had ceased to... próniai) and made significant advances against the Seljuk Turks. His plea for western aid against the Seljuk advance brought about the Crusade Series First Crusade Peoples Crusade German Crusade, 1096 Crusade of 1101 Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Albigensian Crusade Childrens Crusade Fifth Crusade Sixth Crusade Seventh Crusade Shepherds Crusade Eighth Crusade Ninth Crusade Northern Crusades The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to... First Crusade, which helped him reclaim Nicaea is also the ancient name of the French city Nice. Nicaea (now İznik) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. Description The city lies... Nicaea but soon distanced itself from imperial aid. Later crusades grew increasingly antagonistic. Although Alexius' grandson Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? - September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. He was the fourth son of John II Comnenus. Having distinguished himself in his fathers war against the Seljuk Turks, he was nominated emperor in preference to his... Manuel I Comnenus was a friend of the Crusaders, neither side could forget that the other had excommunicated them, and the Byzantines were very suspicious of the intentions of the Roman Catholic Crusaders who continually passed through their territory.

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Map of the Byzantine Empire around year 1180.

The Germans of the Holy Roman Empire and the Normans of Sicily and Italy continued to attack the empire in the 11th and 12th centuries. The Italian city states, who had been granted trading rights in Constantinople by Alexius, became the targets of anti-Western sentiments as the most visible example of Western "Franks" or "Latins." The For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). Venice is known for its waterways and gondolas Gondola. Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto, population 274,000 (2003). The city stretches across numerous small islands in a marshy lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in... Venetians were especially disliked, even though their ships were the basis of the Byzantine navy. To add to the empire's concerns, the Seljuks remained a threat, defeating Manuel at Battle of Myriokephalon Conflict Byzantine-Seljuk wars Date September 17, 1176 Place Near Ankara, Turkey Result Seljuk victory Combatants Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rüm Commanders Manuel I Comnenus Baldwin of Antioch † John Cantacuzenus Andronicus Vatatzes † Kilij Arslan II Strength About 25 000 (possibly 50 000?) Unknown Casualties... Myriokephalon in Years: 1173 1174 1175 - 1176 - 1177 1178 1179 Decades: 1140s 1150s 1160s - 1170s - 1180s 1190s 1200s Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in... 1176.


Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. He was also Duke of Swabia (1147-1152, as Frederick... Frederick Barbarossa attempted to conquer the empire during the Crusade Series First Crusade Peoples Crusade German Crusade, 1096 Crusade of 1101 Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Albigensian Crusade Childrens Crusade Fifth Crusade Sixth Crusade Seventh Crusade Shepherds Crusade Eighth Crusade Ninth Crusade Northern Crusades The Third Crusade began in 1189 as an attempt to reconquer the... Third Crusade, but it was the Crusade Series First Crusade Peoples Crusade German Crusade, 1096 Crusade of 1101 Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Albigensian Crusade Childrens Crusade Fifth Crusade Sixth Crusade Seventh Crusade Shepherds Crusade Eighth Crusade Ninth Crusade Northern Crusades The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204), originally designed to conquer Egypt, instead, in... Fourth Crusade that had the most devastating effect on the empire. Although the intent of the crusade was to conquer Egypt, the Venetians took control of the expedition, and under their influence the crusade captured Constantinople in Years: 1201 1202 1203 - 1204 - 1205 1206 1207 Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. April 12 - The Fourth Crusade take Constantinople by storm, and... 1204. As a result a short-lived feudal kingdom was founded (the The knights of the Fourth Crusade set up a Crusader kingdom known as the Latin Empire or Romania based on Constantinople after sacking the city in 1204. They intended it to be a Roman Catholic successor of the Byzantine Empire. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first emperor... Latin Empire), and Byzantine power was permanently weakened. At this time the Serbian Kingdom under the Nemanjić (Serbian Немањић; also Nemanjid) was a medieval Serb ruling dynasty. The dynasty was named after Stefan Nemanja, though it began shortly before him. It gave sixteen Serbian monarchs between 1166 and 1371. The family crest was a bicephalic argent eagle on a... Nemanjic dynasty grew stronger with the collapse of Byzantium, forming a Serbia was formerly a principality (1817-1882), kingdom (1882-1918) and part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1945, until 1929 the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes). Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/Raška... Serbian Empire in 1346.

Download high resolution version (1144x900, 272 KB)Map, The Byzantine Empire, 1265. The Historical Atlas, William R. Shepherd, 1911. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. copyright expired. Public Domain File...
Download high resolution version (1144x900, 272 KB)Map, The Byzantine Empire, 1265. The Historical Atlas, William R. Shepherd, 1911. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. copyright expired. Public Domain File... Enlarge
The Byzantine Empire in Years: 1262 1263 1264 - 1265 - 1266 1267 1268 Decades: 1230s 1240s 1250s - 1260s - 1270s 1280s 1290s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1265 state leaders Events January 20 - In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting. Fire destroys parts of Old Cairo. Battle of Evesham - August 4... 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911 is a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). Years: 1908 1909 1910 - 1911 - 1912 1913 1914 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1911 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail... 1911)
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The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. The borders are very uncertain.

Three Byzantine successor states were left - the The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. It lasted from 1204 to 1261. Contents // 1 Foundation 2 Expansion 3 Recapture of Constantinople 4 Emperors of Nicaea Foundation In 1204, Byzantine emperor Alexius... Empire of Nicaea, the The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond was a successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 after the Fourth Crusade. When Constantinople fell to European armies in 1204... Empire of Trebizond, and the The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. It claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond. The Despotate of Epirus... Despotate of Epirus. The first, controlled by the The Palaeologus family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire. After the Fourth Crusade members of the family escaped to Nicaea and eventually gained control of the empire-in-exile there. Michael VIII Palaeologus became emperor in 1259 and recaptured Constantinople in 1261. Michaels descendents ruled until the... Palaeologan dynasty, managed to reclaim Constantinople in Years: 1258 1259 1260 - 1261 - 1262 1263 1264 Decades: 1230s 1240s 1250s - 1260s - 1270s 1280s 1290s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1261 state leaders Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael... 1261 and defeat Epirus, reviving the empire but giving too much attention to Europe when the Asian provinces were the primary concern. For a while the empire survived simply because the A Muslim is a believer in or follower of This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia... Muslims were too divided to attack, but eventually the Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Devlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniye Ottoman Coat of Arms Small This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with... Ottomans overran all but a handful of port cities.


The empire appealed to the west for help, but they would only consider sending aid in return for reuniting the churches. Church unity was considered, and occasionally accomplished by law, but the Orthodox citizens would not accept Roman Catholicism. Some western mercenaries arrived to help, but many preferred to let the empire die, and did nothing as the Ottomans picked apart the remaining territories.

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The Byzantine Empire around year 1400.

Constantinople was initially not considered worth the effort of conquest, but with the advent of cannons, the walls, which had been impenetrable except by the Crusaders for over 1000 years, no longer offered adequate protection from the Ottomans. The The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453. This marked not only the final destruction of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the death of... Fall of Constantinople finally came after a two-month siege by Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. He was also the first Ottoman ruler to claim the titles of caliph... Mehmed II on May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). There are 216 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... May 29, Years: 1450 1451 1452 - 1453 - 1454 1455 1456 Decades: 1420s 1430s 1440s - 1450s - 1460s 1470s 1480s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). July 17 - Battle of... 1453. Mehmed II also conquered For a village in the prefecture of Ioannina, see Ioannina Statistics Prefecture: Laconia Province: Province of Lacedaemonia Seat: Magoula Location: Latitude: Longitude: 37.506/37°359 N lat. 22.06/22°2235 E long. Dwellings: --> Population: (1991)  - Total  - Density¹  - Rank  -4,582  ... Mistra in Years: 1457 1458 1459 - 1460 - 1461 1462 1463 Decades: 1430s 1440s 1450s - 1460s - 1470s 1480s 1490s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. March 5 - King Christian I of Denmark declares the unity of the two provinces of... 1460 and Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. It is the capital of Trabzon Province. It lies astride the road from Istanbul to Iraq and was an important meeting point for international trade. It formed the basis for several empires over... Trebizond in Years: 1458 1459 1460 - 1461 - 1462 1463 1464 Decades: 1430s 1440s 1450s - 1460s - 1470s 1480s 1490s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl... 1461. Mehmed styled himself the proper successor to the Eastern Roman Emperors and by the end of the century the Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Devlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniye Ottoman Coat of Arms Small This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with... Ottoman Empire had established its firm rule over Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Asia Minor and most of the The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). The region has a combined area of 550,000 km and a population of around 53 million. The countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, mainland Greece, the (Former... Balkan peninsula.


Meanwhile, the role of the Emperor as patron of Eastern Orthodoxy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Eastern Orthodoxy From Wikipedia The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of This article is about the continent... Eastern Orthodoxy had started being claimed by the The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). The feminine... Grand Dukes of This article is about Muscovite Russia. For the duck see Muscovy Duck Muscovy Duck Muscovy Duck Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae Genus: Cairina Species: moschata Binomial name Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) The Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata is a large perching duck. It breeds... Muscovy starting with Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand... Ivan III. His grandson Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. He is also known as Ivan the Terrible (Ива́н Гро́зный, Ivan Grozny). This tsar retains his place in... Ivan IV would become the first Tsar ( Bulgarian (Български, Bulgarski) Spoken in: Bulgaria and surrounding areas Region: The Balkans Total speakers: 12 million Ranking: 88 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   South    Eastern     Bulgarian Official status Official language of... Tsar of The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russia. Their successors supported the idea that For other uses, see Moscow can refer to the following locations: Moscow - the capital of Russia Moscow, Idaho - a city in Idaho, in the United States Moscow, Kansas - a city in Kansas, in the United States Moscow, Maine - a city in Maine, in the United States Moscow, Ohio - a city... Moscow was the proper heir to For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign... Rome and Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Modern Greek is the present vernacular language of Greece (also... Constantinople, a New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. It can be used to express connection with or discontinuity from the old Rome, depending upon context. New Rome has been a cultural, historical, and theological concept within much of Western culture (as far east... Third Rome. Both the Ottoman and the History of Russia History of Russia History of Russia History of Russia -1... Early East Slavs History of Russia History of Russia History of Russia History of Russia series, History of Ukraine, and History of Belarus Early East Slavs Kievan Rus’ Volga Bulgaria Khazaria Mongol invasion Golden Horde Muscovy... Russian Empires would continue to consider themselves proper heirs to the Byzantines until their own demises early in the (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century.


In addition Byzantium played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the The Islamic world is the world-wide community of all believers in Islam, who are known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. Many Muslims live in: Southwest Asia: Arab nations such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq and non-Arab countries like Turkey, Iran Africa: Arab... Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy. The influence of its theologians on medieval Western thought (and especially on Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. He is considered by the Catholic church to be its greatest theologian... Thomas Aquinas) was profound, and their removal from the "canon" of Western thought in subsequent centuries has only served to impoverish the canon.


Byzantium's influence on Western art and architecture is so well-known as to scarcely need mentioning. Its most lasting effect, though, lies in its spreading of Orthodoxy to surrounding peoples (the so-called "Byzantine commonwealth," a term coined by 20th century historians). Early Byzantine missionary work spread Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Orthodox Christianity to various The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. They speak Slavic languages and reside chiefly in the east of that continent, but are also found in Asia. Contents // 1 Ethno-cultural subdivisions 2 The Slavic homeland debates 3 Naming and etymologies 4 Early... Slavic peoples, and it is still predominant among the Russians and many other Slavic peoples as well as among the Greeks. Less well known is the influence of the Byzantine style of religion on the millions of Christians in Ethiopia, the Egyptian Coptic Christians, and the Christians of Georgia and Armenia. The start and end dates of the Empire's independence, 395 to 1453, are one of the traditional dates for the period of the Middle Ages by region Medieval Britain Medieval France Medieval Germany Medieval Italy Medieval Spain Byzantine Empire by topic Art Literature Poetry Music Architecture Philosophy Universities Technology Warfare Fortifications The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of... Middle Ages. It was 1177 years from the original split of the Roman Empire under Diocletian in 284 until the fall of Trebizond in 1461; whatever the measurement, the Empire certainly lasted for over a millennium.


"Byzantine"

The Byzantine Empire acquired a negative reputation among historians of the 18th and 19th century not only for the complexity of the organization of its ministries and the elaborateness of its court ceremonies (from this came the term still in modern use, "Byzantine", often used pejoratively to describe any work, law, or organization that is excessively complex and/or difficult to understand; see also Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint The Baroque was a style in art that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce... Baroque), but also for their alleged lack of courage and military ability. This prejudice originated, according to the medievalist Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. He was born in Northumberland. Both of his parents were Members of Parliament for the Liberal Party, and his paternal grandfather, Lord Runciman, was a shipping magnate... Steven Runciman, from the impressions of medieval Europe with this mighty power. "Ever since our rough crusading forefathers first saw Constantinople and met, to their contemptuous disgust, a society where everyone read and wrote, ate food with forks and preferred diplomacy to war, it has been fashionable to pass the Byzantines by with scorn and to use their name as synonymous with decadence."2 However, many of the emperors of the Middle and Late Empire were full-time military commanders, and several were men of letters as well. They may have had little patience with elaborate court ceremonies.


By the 18th century refinement and polite manners were no longer considered effeminate, so writers like Gibbon and Montesquieu searched after a new justification for their prejudice against this civilization. Gibbon found it in the scholarly works of the emperor Constantine VII The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy. Most of the offices and titles were honorifics only, as the emperor was the sole ruler. Over the more than 1000 years of the empires existence, different titles were adopted and discarded, and many lost or gained... Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos, and seized upon the bookish style of this invalid and bookish ruler, who was forced to pass most of his reign as a figurehead. Exploiting this source to confirm his own preconceptions 3, Gibbon thus gave new life to an oversimplified view of a "decadent" Byzantium, which lives in the public mind by the poetry of A 1907 engraving of Yeats. William Butler Yeats June 13, 1865–January 28, 1939), often referred to as W.B. Yeats, was an Irish poet, dramatist, mystic and public figure. Yeats was one of the driving forces behind the Irish Literary Revival and was co-founder of the Abbey... William Butler Yeats.


Likewise, the term "Byzantine" also suggests a penchant for intrigue, plots and assassinations. In fact, the Empire was among the more stable political entities of its own or any other time. Its famous intrigue and turmoil was far less than that of Western Europe's unruly feudal states, and occurred most often during relatively brief interregnums between strong (and sometimes brilliantly led) dynasties. The very stability of the imperial state, however, probably undermined the creative impulses and innovativeness that characterized the early centuries of the remarkable Byzantine civilization, thus contributing to its eventual downfall.


See also

  • The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. This part had significant social difference with the Eastern Roman Empire; whereas the East was Greek-speaking and (later) followed Orthodoxy and Monophysitism, the West was Latin-speaking and... Western Roman Empire
  • This is a list of people, places, things, and concepts related to or originating from the Byzantine Empire. Feel free to add more, and create missing pages. Contents: Top - 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S... List of Byzantine Empire-related topics
  • The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire
  • Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to the ruler of the Roman Empire. It was not actually used, and there was never actually any single office corresponding to it. Rather, the title Roman Emperor is a convenient shorthand for a complicated collection of offices and powers. In... Roman Emperors
  • This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. Note: It is difficult to determine when exactly the Roman Empire ends and the Byzantine Empire begins; Diocletian split the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves for administrative purposes in 284. Candidates for the first Byzantine emperor include Constantine I (the first... Byzantine Emperors
  • History of Greece series Aegean Civilization before 1600 BC Mycenaean Greece ca. 1600–1200 BC Greek Dark Ages ca. 1200–800 BC Ancient Greece 776–323 BC Hellenistic Greece 323 BC–146 BC Roman and Byzantine Greece 146 BC–1453 AD Ottoman Greece 1453–... History of Greece
  • History of Greece series Aegean Civilization before 1600 BC Mycenaean Greece ca. 1600–1200 BC Greek Dark Ages ca. 1200–800 BC Ancient Greece 776–323 BC Hellenistic Greece 323 BC–146 BC Roman and Byzantine Greece 146 BC–1453 AD Ottoman Greece 1453–... History of Byzantine Greece
  • This page is about the history of the Balkans. Contents // Categories: Historical stubs | Balkans ... History of the Balkans
  • This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. History of Europe Chronological Prehistoric Europe Classical antiquity Middle Ages Renaissance Early Modern Europe Modern Europe Contents // 1 The origins 2 The Greeks 3 Rome 4 Early Middle Ages 5 Later Middle Ages 6 Renaissance and Reformation 7 Colonial expansion... History of Europe
  • This article is a general overview of the history of the Middle East. For more detailed information, see articles on the histories of individual countries. Contents // 1 The Ancient Middle East 2 The Arab Middle East 3 Turks, Crusaders and Mongols 4 The Ottoman era 5 European domination of the... History of the Middle East
  • The knights of the Fourth Crusade set up a Crusader kingdom known as the Latin Empire or Romania based on Constantinople after sacking the city in 1204. They intended it to be a Roman Catholic successor of the Byzantine Empire. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first emperor... Latin Empire
  • The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. It lasted from 1204 to 1261. Contents // 1 Foundation 2 Expansion 3 Recapture of Constantinople 4 Emperors of Nicaea Foundation In 1204, Byzantine emperor Alexius... Empire of Nicaea
  • The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond was a successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 after the Fourth Crusade. When Constantinople fell to European armies in 1204... Empire of Trebizond
  • The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. It claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond. The Despotate of Epirus... Despotate of Epirus
  • Anastasius 40 nummi and 5 nummi Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins. The start of what is viewed as Byzantine currency by numismatics... Byzantine currency
  • The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sofia) in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) _ the image of Christ on the walls of the upper southern gallery. Christ is flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. The mosaics were made in... Byzantine art
  • The 11th-century monastery of Hosios Lukas in Greece is representative of the Byzantine art during the rule of Macedonian dynasty. Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine empire. The empire emerged gradually after AD 330, when Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire to Byzantium, which was... Byzantine architecture
  • The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy. Most of the offices and titles were honorifics only, as the emperor was the sole ruler. Over the more than 1000 years of the empires existence, different titles were adopted and discarded, and many lost or gained prestige... Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy
  • Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus family was an important family in the history of the Byzantine Empire. The Comneni originated in Paphlagonia, perhaps from the Kastamonu castle, which is possibly a corruption of Castra Comnenus. The Comnenus dynasty of Byzantine emperors was founded by Isaac I Comnenus, a... Comnenus
  • The Palaeologus family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire. After the Fourth Crusade members of the family escaped to Nicaea and eventually gained control of the empire-in-exile there. Michael VIII Palaeologus became emperor in 1259 and recaptured Constantinople in 1261. Michaels descendents ruled until the... Palaeologus
  • Eastern Orthodox Church Calendar

External links

Bibliography

  • G. Ostrogorsky. "History of the Byzantine State", 2nd edition, New Brunswick (NJ) 1969.
  • Warren Treadgold. "A History of the Byzantine State and Society", Stanford, 1997.
  • Helene Ahrweiler, "Studies on the Internal Diaspora of the Byzantine Empire", Harvard University Press, 1998.

References

  1. Helene Ahrweiler, "Les Europeens", pp.150, Herman (Paris), 2000.
  2. Steven Runciman, The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and his Reign, p.9. University Press (Cambridge), 1990.
  3. Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chapter 53.

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