FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Byte" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Byte
Prefixes for bit and byte
Decimal
Value SI
10001 k kilo-
10002 M mega-
10003 G giga-
10004 T tera-
10005 P peta-
10006 E exa-
10007 Z zetta-
10008 Y yotta-
Binary
Value IEC JEDEC
10241 Ki kibi- K kilo-
10242 Mi mebi- M mega-
10243 Gi gibi- G giga-
10244 Ti tebi-
10245 Pi pebi-
10246 Ei exbi-
10247 Zi zebi-
10248 Yi yobi-

In computer science a byte (pronounced "bite", IPA: /baɪt/) is a unit of measurement of information storage, most often consisting of eight bits. In many computer architectures it is a unit of memory addressing. This article is about the unit of information. ... An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ... Kilo (symbol: k) is a prefix in the SI system denoting 103 or 1,000. ... Mega (symbol M) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 106, i. ... Look up giga- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tera (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... This article describes the SI prefix peta. ... Exa (symbol E) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1018 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000. ... Zetta (symbol Z) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1021 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000. ... Yotta (symbol Y) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1024 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000. ... In information technology there is sometimes confusion about measurement of bits and bytes. ... JEDEC stands for Joint Electron Device Engineering Council and is the semiconductor engineering standardization body of the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA), a trade association that represents all areas of the electronics industry. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... Byte addressing refers to hardware architectures which support accessing individual bytes of data rather than only larger units called words. ... In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a physical or virtual memory register, a network host, peripheral device, disk sector or other logical or physical entity. ...


Originally, a byte was a small group of bits of a size convenient for data such as a single character from a Western character set. Its size was generally determined by the number of possible characters in the supported character set and was chosen to be a divisor of the computer's word size; historically, bytes have ranged from five to twelve bits. The popularity of IBM's System/360 architecture starting in the 1960s and the explosion of microcomputers based on 8-bit microprocessors in the 1980s has made eight bits by far the most common size for a byte. The term octet is widely used as a more precise synonym where ambiguity is undesirable (for example, in protocol definitions). A character encoding is a code that pairs a set of characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. ... In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular computer design. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... In computing, an octet is a grouping of eight bits. ... For other senses of this word, see protocol. ...


There has been considerable confusion about the meanings of SI prefixes used with the word "byte", such as kilo- (k or K) and mega- (M), as shown in the chart Quantities of bytes. Since computer memory comes in powers of 2 rather than 10, the industry used binary estimates of the SI-prefixed quantities. Because of the confusion, a contract specifying a quantity of bytes must define what the prefixes mean in terms of the contract (i.e., the alternative binary equivalents or the actual decimal values, or a binary estimate based on the actual values). An SI prefix is a prefix which can be applied to any unit of the International System of Units (SI) to give subdivisions and multiples of that unit. ...


A byte is one of the basic integral data types in some programming languages, especially system programming languages. In computer science, the term integer is used to refer to any data type which can represent some subset of the mathematical integers. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... System programming languages (otherwise known as applications languages) are programming languages that are statically typed, allow arbitrarily complex data structures, compiled, and meant to operate largely independently of other programs. ...


To make the meaning of the table absolutely clear: A kibibyte is made up of 1,024 bytes. A mebibyte is made up of 1,024 × 1,024 bytes. The figures in the column using 1,024 raised to powers of 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on are in units of bytes.

Contents

Meanings

The word "byte" has two closely related meanings:

  1. A contiguous sequence of a fixed number of bits (binary digits). The use of a byte to mean 8 bits has become nearly ubiquitous.
  2. A contiguous sequence of bits within a binary computer that comprises the smallest addressable sub-field of the computer's natural word-size. That is, the smallest unit of binary data on which meaningful computation, or natural data boundaries, could be applied. For example, the CDC 6000 series scientific mainframes divided their 60-bit floating-point words into 10 six-bit bytes. These bytes conveniently held Hollerith data from punched cards, typically the upper-case alphabet and decimal digits. CDC also often referred to 12-bit quantities as bytes, each holding two 6-bit display code characters, due to the 12-bit I/O architecture of the machine. The PDP-10 used assembly instructions LDB and DPB to extract bytes — these operations survive today in Common Lisp. Bytes of six, seven, or nine bits were used on some computers, for example within the 36-bit word of the PDP-10. The UNIVAC 1100/2200 series computers (now Unisys) addressed in both 6-bit (Fieldata) and 9-bit (ASCII) modes within its 36-bit word.

This article is about the unit of information. ... In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular computer design. ... CDC 6000 series were a family of mainframe computers manufactured by Control Data Corporation in the 1960s. ... The punch card (or Hollerith card) is a recording medium for holding information for use by automated data processing machines. ... Display code is the character set used by many computer systems manufactured by the Control Data Corporation, notably the CDC 6600 in 1964. ... The PDP-10 was a computer manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the late 1960s on; the name stands for Programmed Data Processor model 10. It was the machine that made time-sharing common; it looms large in hacker folklore because of its adoption in the 1970s by many... Common Lisp, commonly abbreviated CL, is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard X3. ... The PDP-10 was a computer manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the late 1960s on; the name stands for Programmed Data Processor model 10. It was the machine that made time-sharing common; it looms large in hacker folklore because of its adoption in the 1970s by many... The UNIVAC 1100/2200 series is a series of compatible 36-bit computer systems, beginning with the UNIVAC 1107 in 1962, initially made by Sperry Rand. ... Unisys Corporation (NYSE: UIS), based in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania, United States, and incorporated in Delaware[3], is a global provider of information technology services and solutions. ... Fieldata was a pioneering computer project run by the US Army Signal Corps in the late 1950s that intended to create a single standard for collecting and distributing battlefield information. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...

History

The term byte was coined by Dr. Werner Buchholz in July 1956, during the early design phase for the IBM Stretch computer.[1][2][3] Originally it was defined in instructions by a 4-bit byte-size field, allowing from one to sixteen bits (the production design reduced this to a 3-bit byte-size field, allowing from one to eight bits to be represented by a byte); typical I/O equipment of the period used six-bit bytes. A fixed eight-bit byte size was later adopted and promulgated as a standard by the System/360. The term "byte" comes from "bite," as in the smallest amount of data a computer could "bite" at once. The spelling change not only reduced the chance of a "bite" being mistaken for a "bit," but also was consistent with the penchant of early computer scientists to make up words and change spellings. A byte was also often referred to as "an 8-bit byte", reinforcing the notion that it was a tuple of n bits, and that other sizes were possible. The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBMs first attempt at building a supercomputer. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ...

  1. A contiguous sequence of binary bits in a serial data stream, such as in modem or satellite communications, or from a disk-drive head, which is the smallest meaningful unit of data. These bytes might include start bits, stop bits, or parity bits, and thus could vary from 7 to 12 bits to contain a single 7-bit ASCII code.
  2. A datatype or synonym for a datatype in certain programming languages. C and C++, for example, defines byte as "addressable unit of data storage large enough to hold any member of the basic character set of the execution environment" (clause 3.6 of the C standard). Since the C char integral data type must contain at least 8 bits (clause 5.2.4.2.1), a byte in C is at least capable of holding 256 different values (signed or unsigned char does not matter). Various implementations of C and C++ define a "byte" as 8, 9, 16, 32, or 36 bits[1][2]. The actual number of bits in a particular implementation is documented as CHAR_BIT as implemented in the limits.h file. Java's primitive byte data type is always defined as consisting of 8 bits and being a signed data type, holding values from −128 to 127.

Early microprocessors, such as Intel 8008 (the direct predecessor of the 8080, and then 8086) could perform a small number of operations on four bits, such as the DAA (decimal adjust) instruction, and the "half carry" flag, that were used to implement decimal arithmetic routines. These four-bit quantities were called "nybbles," in homage to the then-common 8-bit "bytes." In computer science, a datatype or data type (often simply a type) is a name or label for a set of values and some operations which one can perform on that set of values. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... . The initial letter is shown capitalized due to technical restrictions. ... Java language redirects here. ... Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April, 1972. ... The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel and introduced on the market in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... A nibble (or less commonly, nybble) is the computing term for the aggregation of four bits, or half an octet (an octet being an 8-bit byte). ... In computing, a nibble (often spelled nybble) is 4 bits, or half an octet (an 8-bit byte). ...


Alternative words

Following "bit," "byte," and "nybble," there have been some analogical attempts to construct unambiguous terms for bit blocks of other sizes.[4] All of these are strictly jargon, and not very common. For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ...

  • 2 bits: crumb, quad, quarter, tayste, tydbit
  • 4 bits: nibble, nybble
  • 5 bits: nickle, nyckle
  • 10 bits: deckle
  • 16 bits: plate, playte, chomp, chawmp (on a 32-bit machine)
  • 18 bits: chomp, chawmp (on a 36-bit machine)
  • 32 bits: dinner, dynner, gawble (on a 32-bit machine)
  • 48 bits: gobble, gawble (under circumstances that remain obscure)

For other uses, see Nibble (disambiguation). ...

Abbreviation/Symbol

IEEE 1541 and Metric-Interchange-Format specify "B" as the symbol for byte (e.g. MB means megabyte), whilst IEC 60027 seems silent on the subject. Furthermore, B means bel (see decibel), another (logarithmic) unit used in the same field. The use of B to stand for bel is consistent with the metric system convention that capitalized symbols are for units named after a person (in this case Alexander Graham Bell); usage of a capital B to stand for byte is not consistent with this convention. There is little danger of confusing a byte with a bel because the bel's sub-multiple the decibel (dB) is usually preferred, while use of the decibyte (dB) is extremely rare. IEEE 1541 is a standard issued by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) concerning the use of prefixes for binary multiples of units of measurement related to digital electronics and computing. ... IEC 60027 (formerly IEC 27) is the International Electrotechnical Commissions standard on Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ...


The unit symbol "kb" with a lowercase "b" is a commonly used abbreviation for "kilobyte". Use of this abbreviation leads to confusion with the alternative use of "kb" to mean "kilobit". IEEE 1541 specifies "b" as the symbol for bit; however the IEC 60027 and Metric-Interchange-Format specify "bit" (e.g. Mbit for megabit) for the symbol, achieving maximum disambiguation from byte. A kilobit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated kbit or sometimes kb. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ...


French-speaking countries sometimes use an uppercase "o" for "octet". This is not consistent with SI because of the risk of confusion with the zero, and the convention that capitals are reserved for unit names derived from proper names, such as the ampere (whose symbol is A) and joule (symbol J), versus the second (symbol s) and metre (symbol m). Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Ampere (disambiguation). ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


Lowercase "o" for "octet" is a commonly used symbol in several non-English-speaking countries, and is also used with metric prefixes (for example, "ko" and "Mo"). In computing, an octet is a grouping of eight bits. ...


Names for different units

The prefixes used for byte measurements are usually the same as the SI prefixes used for other measurements, but have slightly different values. The former are based on powers of 1,024 (210), a convenient binary number, while the SI prefixes are based on powers of 1,000 (103), a convenient decimal number. The table below illustrates these differences. See binary prefix for further discussion. An SI prefix is a prefix which can be applied to any unit of the International System of Units (SI) to give subdivisions and multiples of that unit. ... // In computing, binary prefixes can be used to quantify large numbers where powers of two are more useful than powers of ten (such as computer memory sizes). ...

Prefix Name SI Meaning Binary meaning Size difference
k kilo 103   = 10001 210 = 10241 2.40%
M mega 106   = 10002 220 = 10242 4.86%
G giga 109   = 10003 230 = 10243 7.37%
T tera 1012 = 10004 240 = 10244 9.95%
P peta 1015 = 10005 250 = 10245 12.59%
E exa 1018 = 10006 260 = 10246 15.29%

Sometime "K" is used intead of "k". The use of "K" has as a prefix no meanings for the SI. An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ... // In computing, binary prefixes can be used to quantify large numbers where powers of two are more useful than powers of ten (such as computer memory sizes). ...


In 1998, the IEC, then the IEEE, published a new standard describing binary prefixes: The initials IEC can stand for: Network Institute of Exterior Cleaning Information, Education, and Communication Independent Electoral Commission Independent Electrical Contractors Industrial Emergency Council Inertial electrostatic confinement (in fusion energy) Institut des Experts-comptables et des Conseils fiscaux Institut dEstudis Catalans, Catalan Studies Institute Interactive Evolutionary Computation International Education... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... // In computing, binary prefixes can be used to quantify large numbers where powers of two are more useful than powers of ten (such as computer memory sizes). ...

Prefix Name
kibi binary kilo 1 kibibyte (KiB) 210 bytes 1024 B
mebi binary mega 1 mebibyte (MiB) 220 bytes 1024 KiB
gibi binary giga 1 gibibyte (GiB) 230 bytes 1024 MiB
tebi binary tera 1 tebibyte (TiB) 240 bytes 1024 GiB
pebi binary peta 1 pebibyte (PiB) 250 bytes 1024 TiB
exbi binary exa 1 exbibyte (EiB) 260 bytes 1024 PiB

Fractional information is usually measured in bits, nibbles, nats, or bans, where the later two are used especially in the context of information theory and not usually with computing in general. A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... MiB redirects here. ... A gibibyte is a unit of information or computer storage. ... A tebibyte is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated TiB. 1 tebibyte = 240 bytes = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes The tebibyte is closely related to the terabyte, which can either be a synonym for tebibyte, or refer to 1012 bytes = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes... A pebibyte is a unit of information or computer storage. ... An exbibyte (a contraction of exa binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated EiB. 1 exbibyte = 260 bytes = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes = 1,024 pebibytes The exbibyte is closely related to the exabyte, which can either be a synonym for exbibyte, or... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... For other uses, see Nibble (disambiguation). ... A nat (sometimes also nit or even nepit) is a logarithmic unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of e, rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms which define the bit. ... A ban, sometimes called a hartley, is a logarithmic unit which measures information or entropy, based on base 10 logarithms and powers of 10, rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms which define the bit. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ...


See also

This article is about the unit of information. ... In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular computer design. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Origins of the Term "BYTE" Bob Bemer, accessed 2007-08-12
  2. ^ TIMELINE OF THE IBM STRETCH/HARVEST ERA (1956-1961) computerhistory.org, '1956 July ... Werner Buchholz ... Werner's term "Byte" first popularized'
  3. ^ byte catb.org, 'coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956'
  4. ^ nybble reference.com sourced from Jargon File 4.2.0, accessed 2007-08-12
This article is about the unit of information. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... This article is about a unit of data. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... This article is about a measurement term for data storage capacity. ... A petabyte (derived from the SI prefix peta- ) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one quadrillion bytes. ... An exabyte (derived from the SI prefix exa-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one quintillion bytes. ... A zettabyte (derived from the SI prefix zetta-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one sextillion (one long scale trilliard) bytes. ... A yottabyte (derived from the SI prefix yotta-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one septillion (one long scale quadrillion or 1024) bytes. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... MiB redirects here. ... A gibibyte is a unit of information or computer storage. ... A tebibyte is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated TiB. 1 tebibyte = 240 bytes = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes The tebibyte is closely related to the terabyte, which can either be a synonym for tebibyte, or refer to 1012 bytes = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes... A pebibyte is a unit of information or computer storage. ... An exbibyte (a contraction of exa binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated EiB. 1 exbibyte = 260 bytes = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes = 1,024 pebibytes The exbibyte is closely related to the exabyte, which can either be a synonym for exbibyte, or... A zettabyte (derived from the SI prefix zetta-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one sextillion (one long scale trilliard) bytes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Byte Technology - Website, Graphic Design and Online Marketing Services (80 words)
We're changing the way people view your website.
At Byte Technology, we help companies that want to market online by building high-end, clean website designs that are Google-friendly.
Every design we produce infuses your advertising campaign with cutting-edge strategy, expertise, execution, and support to help your customers connect with you.
Byte (magazine) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1019 words)
Byte magazine was probably the most influentual microcomputer magazine in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.
Byte started in 1975, shortly after the first personal computers appeared as kits in the back of electronics magazines.
Byte was able to attract advertising and articles from many well-knowns, soon-to-be-well-knowns, and ultimately-to-be-forgottens in the growing microcomputer hobby.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m