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Encyclopedia > Byblos
The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos.
The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos.

Byblos (βύβλος) is the Greek name of the Phoenician city Gebal (earlier Gubla); Its current Arabic name is Jbeil (جبيل Ǧubayl), it's a mediterranean city in the present-day Lebanon. It is believed by many to be the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the world; see List of oldest continually-inhabited cities for further information. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 642 KB) Summary en: Byblos, Lebanon - the Crusader Castle sl: Biblos, Libanon - križarski grad I took the photo myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 642 KB) Summary en: Byblos, Lebanon - the Crusader Castle sl: Biblos, Libanon - križarski grad I took the photo myself. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what is now Lebanon. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... This is a list of the twenty oldest, still surviving, towns and cities in the world - there are some points of contention here and care should be taken when using the list below. ...

Contents


Ancient history

It was known to the ancient Egyptians as Keben and Kepen (probably pronounced */g-b-l/). The Greeks apparently called it Byblos because it was through Gebal that bublos (βύβλος ["Egyptian papyrus"]) was imported into Greece. Although it is still referred to as Byblos by scholars, the city is now known by the Arabic name Jubayl (جبيل), a direct descendant of the Canaanite name. Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Å¢ For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, including Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and eventually Philistines. ...


Byblos is located on the Mediterranean coast of present-day Lebanon, about 26 miles (42 kilometers) north of Beirut. It is attractive to archaeologists because of the successive layers of debris resulting from centuries of human habitation. In 1860, the French writer, Ernest Renan carried out an excavation here, but systematic archaeological investigation did not take place until the 1920s. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Excavation is the best-known and most commonly used technique within the science of archaeology. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Social issues of the 1920s. ...



The site first appears to have been settled during the Neolithic period, approximately 5000 BC; according to the writer Philo, Byblos had the reputation of being the oldest city in the world. During the 3rd millennium BC, the first signs of a town can be observed, with the remains of well-built houses of uniform size. This was the period when the Phoenician civilisation began to develop, and archaeologists have recovered Egyptian-made artifacts dated as early as the Fourth dynasty of Egypt. The growing city was evidently a wealthy one. An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) // Events The 3rd millennium BC represents the beginning of factual history, since it is the first time we do have real names to name and detailed stories to tell. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what is now Lebanon. ... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ...


By about 1200 BC, archaeological evidence at Byblos shows clear evidence of an alphabetic script which consisted of twenty-two characters; an important example of this script is the sarcophagus of king Ahiram. One of the most important monuments of this period is the temple of Resheph, a Canaanite war god, but this had fallen into ruins by the time of Hellenistic rule and the arrival of Alexander the Great in the area in 332 BC. Coinage was already in use, and there is abundant evidence of trade with other Mediterranean countries. (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah Detail of a stone sarcophagus in the Istanbul Archeological Museum showing a hunting scene Anthropoid sarcophagus discovered at Cádiz A sarcophagus is a stone container for a coffin or body. ... In Chaldean mythology, Resheph was a god of plague and war. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Αλέξανδρος[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC - 332 BC - 331 BC 329 BC 328... A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. ...


It is interesting to note that Greek has a second word for papyrus, βύβλος bublos (said to derive from the name of the Phoenician city of Byblos). The word Bible is believed to derive from the city's name. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what is now Lebanon. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hÄ“ biblos, the book) (sometimes The Holy Bible, Scripture, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their differing (and overlapping) canons of sacred texts. ...


Roman period

During the Roman period, the temple of Resheph was elaborately rebuilt, and the city, though smaller than its neighbours such as Tyre and Sidon, was a centre for the cult of Adonis. In the 3rd century, a small but impressive theatre was constructed. The coming of the Byzantine Empire resulted in the establishment of a bishop's seat in Byblos, and the town grew rapidly. Although a Persian colony is known to have been established in the region following the Muslim conquest of 636, there is little archaeological evidence for it. Trade with the rest of Europe effectively dried up, and it was not until the coming of the Crusaders in 1098 that prosperity returned to Byblos. The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... For a wheel tyre, see the article under the US English spelling of the word, tire. ... Sidon, Zidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا Ṣaydā is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ... A 19th-century reproduction of a Greek bronze of Adonis found at Pompeii. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... It has been suggested that Drama (art form) be merged into this article or section. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... Events First Crusade: end of the siege of Antioch. ...


Byblos, under the name of Gibelet or Giblet, was an important military base in the 11th century, and the remains of its Crusader castle are among the most impressive architectural structures now visible at its centre. The town was taken by Saladin in 1187, re-taken by the Crusaders, and eventually conquered by Beibars in 1266. Its fortifications were subsequently restored. From 1516, the town and the whole region came under Turkish domination and formed part of the Ottoman Empire. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... A castle (from the Latin castellum) is a structure that is fortified for defence against an enemy and generally serves as a military headquarters dominating the surrounding countryside[1]. The term is most often applied to a small self-contained fortress, usually of the Middle Ages. ... Saladin. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Ruk al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (b. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


Bibliography

  • Nina Jidéjian, Byblos through the ages, Dar al Machreq, Beyrouth, 1968
  • Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Je m'appelle Byblos, H & D, Paris, 2005 (ISBN 2 914 266 04 9)

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Byblos

  Results from FactBites:
 
Byblos - definition of Byblos in Encyclopedia (518 words)
Byblos is located on the Mediterranean coast of present-day Lebanon about 26 miles north of Beirut, and is now known by the Arabic name Jbail, although it is still referred to as Byblos.
Byblos, under the name of Gibelet or Giblet, was an important military base in the 11th century, and the remains of its castle are among the most impressive architectural structures now visible at its centre.
The town was taken by Saladin in 1187, re-taken by the Crusaders, and eventually conquered by Beibars in 1266.
Byblos - Free Encyclopedia (421 words)
Byblos was a city of Phoenicia in ancient times, famous for its writing and books.
Byblos is located on the Mediterranean coast of present-day Lebanon, and is attractive to archaeologists because of the successive layers of debris resulting from centuries of human habitation.
Byblos, under the name of Giblet, was an important military base in the 11th century, and the remains of its castle are among the most impressive architectural structures now visible at its centre.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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