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Encyclopedia > Butterfly
Butterflies
Cairns Birdwing, the largest butterfly in Australia (Melbourne Zoo).
Cairns Birdwing, the largest butterfly in Australia (Melbourne Zoo).
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
(unranked) Rhopalocera
Superfamilies and families

A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. Like all Lepidoptera, butterflies are notable for their unusual life cycle with a larval caterpillar stage, an inactive pupal stage, and a spectacular metamorphosis into a familiar and colourful winged adult form. Most species are day-flying so they regularly attract attention. The diverse patterns formed by their brightly coloured wings and their erratic yet graceful flight have made butterfly watching a popular hobby. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 425 KB) Cairns Birdwing, the largest butterfly in Australia. ... Binomial name Ornithoptera euphorion (G.R. Gray 1852) Female Cairns Birdwing, females lack the green colouration. ... The Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens, commonly known as the Melbourne Zoo, contains more than 350 animal species from Australia and around the world. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Diversity Roughly 40 species Hedyloidea is the superfamily of American butterfly moths. ... Genera See text. ... Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Families Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae Libytheidae The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea. ... Type species Papilio machaon (Old World Swallowtail) Subfamilies and genera There are 26 genera and about 605 species: Subfamily Baroniinae Baronia Subfamily Parnassiinae Allancastria Archon Bhutanitis Hypermnestra Luehdorfia Parnassius Sericinus Subfamily Papilioninae Atrophaneura Battus Byasa Chilasa Cressida Euryades Eurytides Graphium Iphiclides Lamproptera Losaria Meandrusa Mimoides Ornithoptera Pachliopta Papilio Parides Pharmacophagus... Type species Pieris brassicae (Large White) Diversity 76 genera 1,051 species Subfamilies Dismorphiinae Pseudopontiinae Pierinae Coliadinae The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies. ... Diversity 633 genera 5,698 species Type Species Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) Subfamilies Biblidinae Calinaginae Charaxinae Cyrestinae Danainae Heliconiinae Libytheinae Limenitidinae Morphinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae The Nymphalidae is a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies. ... Subfamilies Curetinae - Sunbeams Liphyrinae Lipteninae Lycaeninae - Coppers Miletinae - Harvesters Polyommatinae - Blues Poritiinae Styginae (disputed) Theclinae - Hairstreaks, Elfins and see text The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. ... Categories: Animal stubs | Butterflies ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... This article is about a form of an insect. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ... A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ... Butterfly watching (also called butterflying) is a hobby concerned with the observation and study of butterflies. ...


Butterflies comprise of the true butterflies (superfamily Papilionoidea), the skippers (Superfamily Hesperioidea) and the moth-butterflies (Superfamily Hedyloidea). Butterflies exhibit polymorphism, mimicry and aposematism. Some are known to migrate over large distances. Some butterflies have evolved symbiotic and parasitic relationships with social insects such as ants. Economically, butterflies are important by virtue of their being one of the major agents of pollination, in addition to a number of species which are pests on domestic crops and trees. Families Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae Libytheidae The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea. ... Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Diversity Roughly 40 species Hedyloidea is the superfamily of American butterfly moths. ... In general, polymorphism describes multiple possible states for a single property (it is said to be polymorphic). ... Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row). ... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ...


Culturally, butterflies are a popular motif in the visual and literary arts.

Contents

Origin and distribution

Butterflies are nested within the evolutionary tree of moths. Their origins may date back to the Cretaceous Period, ending 65 million years ago.[1] Unfortunately, the fossil record is very limited. The oldest known fossil is an unnamed possible skipper butterfly from the Upper Palaeocene (around 57 million year old) of Fur, Denmark [2]. One of the most beautifully preserved is a Metalmark butterfly (Voltinia dramba) from 25 million year old Dominican amber[3]. This article is about biological evolution. ... The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period (about 135 mya) to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65 mya). ... Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... The Paleocene epoch (65-56 MYA) (early dawn of the recent) is the first geologic epoch of the Palaeogene period in the modern Cenozoic era. ... Genera Subfamily Euselasiinae Euselasia Hades Subfamily Riodininae Abisara Ancyluris Anteros Apodemia Baeotis Calephelis Calephilis Caliocasma Calosphila Calydna Caria Charis Emesis Esthemopsis Eurybia Hypophila Isapis Juditha Lasaia Lemonias Lepricornis Leucochimona Lyropteryx Melanis Mesene Mesosemia Napaea Nymphidium Pachythone Pandemos Perophthalma Rhetus Sarota Symmachia Theope Thisbe The Riodinidae (or Metalmarks) are a family... Dominican Amber differentiates itself from Baltic amber by the fact that it is nearly always transparent and has the highest amount of fossil enclosures. ...


Butterflies are today distributed throughout the world except in the very cold and arid regions. There are an estimated 17,500 species of butterflies (Papilionoidea) out of about 180,000 species of Lepidoptera.[4]


Classification

 
Rhopalocera
Papilionoidea

Papilionidae Rhopalocera and Heterocera are non-standard divisions in the taxonomy of Lepidopterans, used in an attempt to formalize the popular schoolyard distinction between butterflies and moths. ... Families Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae Libytheidae The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea. ... Author: Latreille, 1802 Type species: Papilio machaon (Common Yellow Swallowtail) Diversity: 26 genera 605 species Genera Subfamily Baroniinae Baronia Subfamily Parnassiinae Archon Hypermnestra Parnassus Luehdorfia Bhutantis Alancastria Serecinus Subfamily Papilioninae Eurytides Graphium Iphiclides Lamproptera Mimoides Protesilaus Protographium Teinopalpus Atrophaneura Battus Byasa Cressida Euryades Losaria Ornithoptera Pachliopta Parides Pharmacophagus Trogonoptera Troides...



 

Pieridae Type species Pieris brassicae (Large White) Diversity 76 genera 1,051 species Subfamilies Dismorphiinae Pseudopontiinae Pierinae Coliadinae The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies. ...


 


Riodinidae Categories: Animal stubs | Butterflies ...



Lycaenidae Subfamilies Curetinae - Sunbeams Liphyrinae Lipteninae Lycaeninae - Coppers Miletinae - Harvesters Polyommatinae - Blues Poritiinae Styginae (disputed) Theclinae - Hairstreaks, Elfins and see text The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. ...




Nymphalidae Subfamilies Apaturinae Argynninae Biblidinae Calinaginae Charaxinae Cyrestinae Danainae Heliconiinae Libytheinae Limenitidinae Morphinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae Author: Swainson, 1827 Type species: Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) Diversity: 633 genera, 5,698 species The Nymphalidae are a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies. ...





Hesperiidae
 

Coeliadinae Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Species Allora Badamia Bibasis Burara Choaspes Coeliades Hasora Pyrrhiades Pyrrhochalcia Coeliadinae is a subfamily of the Hesperiidae (skippers) family of butterflies. ...




Euschemoninae




Eudaminae



 

Pyrginae Genera See text. ...


 

Heteropterinae Genera see text Skipperlings are butterflies in the subfamily Heteropterinae. ...




Trapezitinae



Hesperiinae Genera see text Grass Skippers is the English name for butterflies of the subfamily Hesperiinae, part of the Skipper family. ...









Hedylidae Genera See text. ...



Phylogeny of the group.[5]
Blue Morpho, Family Nymphalidae
Blue Morpho, Family Nymphalidae
Meadow Argus, a common species of Australia
Meadow Argus, a common species of Australia

Presently butterflies are classified in three superfamilies, Hedyloidea, consisting of the 'American moth-butterflies', Hesperioidea, consisting of the 'skippers' and Papilionoidea or 'true butterflies'. The last two superfamilies are probably sister taxa, so the butterflies collectively are thought to constitute a natural group or clade. Download high resolution version (807x730, 119 KB)Photograph of a Blue Morpho butterfly (Morpho menelaus) by Gregory Phillips. ... Download high resolution version (807x730, 119 KB)Photograph of a Blue Morpho butterfly (Morpho menelaus) by Gregory Phillips. ... Species M. achilleana M. adonis Sunset Morpho, M. helena M. menelaus M. peleides White Morpho, … A Morpho butterfly may be one of over 80 described species of the genus Morpho. ... Download high resolution version (1098x885, 166 KB)Meadow Argus Butterfly (full-on shot). ... Download high resolution version (1098x885, 166 KB)Meadow Argus Butterfly (full-on shot). ... Binomial name Junonia villida Godart, 1819 The Meadow Argus Butterfly (Junonia villida) is a butterfly commonly found in Australia. ... Diversity Roughly 40 species Hedyloidea is the superfamily of American butterfly moths. ... Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Families Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae Libytheidae The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


The scope of the term butterfly depends on how far the concept is extended. Currently, most experts include the superfamilies Hedyloidea (the American moth-butterflies), Hesperioidea (the skippers) and Papilionoidea (the so-called 'true' butterflies). This concept of butterflies including the Hedyloidea is a recently expanded one, but it makes the group a natural clade, the Rhopalocera.[6] For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Diversity Roughly 40 species Hedyloidea is the superfamily of American butterfly moths. ... Type species Hesperia comma Silver-spotted skipper Diversity 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Families Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae Libytheidae The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


Butterfly families

The five families of true butterflies usually recognized in the Papilionoidea are:- Families Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae Libytheidae The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea. ...

The superfamily Hesperioidea comprises one family only, albeit a large one, the skippers of family Hesperiidae, whereas the superfamily Hedyloidea also consists of a single family Hedylidae but with a monotypic genus Macrosoma comprising 35 species. Author: Latreille, 1802 Type species: Papilio machaon (Common Yellow Swallowtail) Diversity: 26 genera 605 species Genera Subfamily Baroniinae Baronia Subfamily Parnassiinae Archon Hypermnestra Parnassus Luehdorfia Bhutantis Alancastria Serecinus Subfamily Papilioninae Eurytides Graphium Iphiclides Lamproptera Mimoides Protesilaus Protographium Teinopalpus Atrophaneura Battus Byasa Cressida Euryades Losaria Ornithoptera Pachliopta Parides Pharmacophagus Trogonoptera Troides... Author: Latreille, 1802 Type species: Papilio machaon (Common Yellow Swallowtail) Diversity: 26 genera 605 species Genera Subfamily Baroniinae Baronia Subfamily Parnassiinae Archon Hypermnestra Parnassus Luehdorfia Bhutantis Alancastria Serecinus Subfamily Papilioninae Eurytides Graphium Iphiclides Lamproptera Mimoides Protesilaus Protographium Teinopalpus Atrophaneura Battus Byasa Cressida Euryades Losaria Ornithoptera Pachliopta Parides Pharmacophagus Trogonoptera Troides... Species Many; see article Birdwings are large, tropical papilionid butterflies native to mainland and archipelagic Southeast Asia and Australasia (with one Indian species), and are usually regarded as belonging to three genera: Ornithoptera, Trogonoptera and Troides. ... Type species Pieris brassicae (Large White) Diversity 76 genera 1,051 species Subfamilies Dismorphiinae Pseudopontiinae Pierinae Coliadinae The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies. ... Subfamilies Curetinae - Sunbeams Liphyrinae Lipteninae Lycaeninae - Coppers Miletinae - Harvesters Polyommatinae - Blues Poritiinae Styginae (disputed) Theclinae - Hairstreaks, Elfins and see text The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. ... Categories: Animal stubs | Butterflies ... Categories: Animal stubs | Butterflies ... Subfamilies Apaturinae Argynninae Biblidinae Calinaginae Charaxinae Cyrestinae Danainae Heliconiinae Libytheinae Limenitidinae Morphinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae Author: Swainson, 1827 Type species: Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) Diversity: 633 genera, 5,698 species The Nymphalidae are a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies. ... Diversity 633 genera 5,698 species Type Species Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) Subfamilies Biblidinae Calinaginae Charaxinae Cyrestinae Danainae Heliconiinae Libytheinae Limenitidinae Morphinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae The Nymphalidae is a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies. ... Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ... Diversity Roughly 40 species Hedyloidea is the superfamily of American butterfly moths. ... Genera See text. ... Currently Monotype Imaging, Inc, a typesetting and typeface design company responsible for many developments in printing technology — in particular the Monotype machine which was the first fully mechanical typesetter — and the design and production of typefaces in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... Diversity 35 currently recognised species Type species Macrosoma tipulata Hübner, 1818 Genus and synonymy Macrosoma Hübner, 1818 =Epirrita Hübner, 1808 [unavailable name] =Hedyle Guenée, 1857, type species Hedyle heliconiaria Guenée, 1857 =Phellinodes Guenée, 1857, type species Phellinodes satellitiata Guenée, 1857 =Venodes Guenée...


Taxonomic issues

A study combining morphological and molecular data concluded that Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae could all be strongly supported as monophyletic groups, but the monophyletic status of Nymphalidae is uncertain. Lycaenidae and Riodinidae were confirmed as sister taxa, and Papilionidae as the outgroup to the rest of the true butterflies, but the location of Pieridae within the pattern of descent was unclear, with different lines of evidence suggesting different conclusions. The data suggested that the Hedyloidea are indeed more closely related to the butterflies than to other moths.[7] In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Subfamilies Apaturinae Argynninae Biblidinae Calinaginae Charaxinae Cyrestinae Danainae Heliconiinae Libytheinae Limenitidinae Morphinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae Author: Swainson, 1827 Type species: Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) Diversity: 633 genera, 5,698 species The Nymphalidae are a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies. ...


Some older classifications recognize additional families, for example Danaidae, Heliconiidae, Libytheidae and Satyridae, but modern classifications treat these as subfamilies within the Nymphalidae. American or Common Snout Butterfly Family Nymphalidae (Brush-footed Butterflies) / Subfamily Libytheinae (Snouts)/ Species: Libytheana carinenta also known as Libytheana bachmanii Snout butterflies have prominent elongated mouthparts (labial palpi) which, in concert with the antennae, give the appearance of the petiole (stem) of a dead leaf. ...


Butterflies and moths

The dichotomous classification of lepidopterans into butterflies and moths is one that is popular but not used in taxonomy. The folk groups of butterflies and moths can be distinguished using several features but there are exceptions to most of these rules. A common classification of the Lepidoptera involves their differentiation into butterflies and moths. ...


The four stages in the lifecycle of a butterfly

Mating Common Buckeye Butterflies
Mating Common Buckeye Butterflies

Unlike many insects, butterflies do not experience a nymph period, but instead go through a pupal stage which lies between the larva and the adult stage (the imago). Butterflies are termed as holometabolous insects, and go through complete metamorphosis. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2422 × 1615 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mating Common Buckeyes, found in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2422 × 1615 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mating Common Buckeyes, found in the United States. ... Praying mantis nymphs, approximately 4mm long, clustered on a leaf In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some insect species, which undergoes incomplete metamorphosis (Hemimetabolism) before reaching its adult stage; unlike a larva, a nymphs overall form already resembles that of an adult. ... The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ... Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages - as an embryo, a larva, a pupa and an imago. ...

It is a popular belief that butterflies have very short life spans. However, butterflies in their adult stage can live from a week to nearly a year depending on the species. Many species have long larval life stages while others can remain dormant in their pupal or egg stages and thereby survive winters.[8] In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... This article is about a form of an insect. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ... The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ... Embryonic diapause, in mammals is a condition where pre-implantation blastocysts are maintained in a state of dormancy, often due to environmental cues, until such time as the environment improves. ...


Butterflies may have one or more broods per year. The number of generations per year varies from temperate to tropical regions with tropical regions showing a trend towards multivoltinism. Voltinism is a term used in biology to indicate the number of broods or generations of an organisms in a year. ...


Egg

Butterfly eggs consist of a hard-ridged outer layer of shell, called the chorion. This is lined with a thin coating of wax which prevents the egg from drying out before the larva has had time to fully develop. Each egg contains a number of tiny funnel-shaped openings at one end, called micropyles; the purpose of these holes is to allow sperm to enter and fertilize the egg. Butterfly and moth eggs vary greatly in size between species, but they are all either spherical or ovate. Image File history File linksMetadata Ariadne_merione_egg_sec. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ariadne_merione_egg_sec. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Butterfly eggs are fixed to a leaf with a special glue which hardens rapidly. As it hardens it contracts, deforming the shape of the egg. This glue is easily seen surrounding the base of every egg forming a meniscus. The nature of the glue is unknown and is a suitable subject for research. The same glue is produced by a pupa to secure the setae of the cremaster. This glue is so hard that the silk pad, to which the setae are glued, cannot be separated.


Eggs are usually laid on plants. Each species of butterfly has its own hostplant range and while some species of butterfly are restricted to just one species of plant, others use a range of plant species, often including members of a common family.


The egg stage lasts a few weeks in most butterflies but eggs laid close to winter, especially in temperate regions, go through a diapause stage, and the hatching may take place only in spring. Other butterflies may lay their eggs in the spring and have them hatch in the summer. These butterflies are usually northernly species (Mourning cloak, Tortoiseshells)


Caterpillars

Ant tending a lycaenid caterpillar
Ant tending a lycaenid caterpillar

Larvae, or caterpillars, are multi-legged eating machines. They consume plant leaves and spend practically all of their time in search of food. Although most caterpillars are herbivorous, a few species such as Spalgis epius and Liphyra brassolis are entomophagous (insect eating). Some larvae, especially those of the Lycaenidae form mutual associations with ants. They communicate with the ants using vibrations that are transmitted through the substrate as well as using chemical signals.[9][10] The ants provide some degree of protection to these larvae and they in turn gather honeydew secretions. Image File history File linksMetadata Lycaenid_ant_sec. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lycaenid_ant_sec. ... Subfamilies Curetinae - Sunbeams Liphyrinae Lipteninae Lycaeninae - Coppers Miletinae - Harvesters Polyommatinae - Blues Poritiinae Styginae (disputed) Theclinae - Hairstreaks, Elfins and see text The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. ... This article is about a form of an insect. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Spalgis epius (Westwood, 1851) The Apefly (Spalgis epius) is a small butterfly found in India that belongs to the Lycaenids or Blues family. ... Binomial name Liphyra brassolis Westwood 1864 The Moth Butterfly (Liphyra brassolis) is a butterfly found in Asia and Australia that belongs to the Lycaenids or Blues family. ... Entomophagy is the habit of eating insects as food. ... Subfamilies Curetinae - Sunbeams Liphyrinae Lipteninae Lycaeninae - Coppers Miletinae - Harvesters Polyommatinae - Blues Poritiinae Styginae (disputed) Theclinae - Hairstreaks, Elfins and see text The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky substance secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. ...


Caterpillars mature through a series of stages, called instars. Near the end of each instar, the larva undergoes a process called apolysis, in which the cuticle, a mixture of chitin and specialized proteins, is released from the epidermis and the epidermis begins to form a new cuticle beneath. At the end of each instar, the larva moults the old cuticle, and the new cuticle rapidly hardens and pigments. Development of butterfly wing patterns begins by the last larval instar. Eacles imperialis caterpillar undergoing apolysis Apolysis is the separation of the cuticula from the epidermis in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... Eponychium is the anatomical term for the human cuticle In biology, the term cuticle or cuticula is given to to a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or part of an organism, that provide prtoection. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eponychium is the anatomical term for the human cuticle In biology, the term cuticle or cuticula is given to to a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or part of an organism, that provide prtoection. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... Eponychium is the anatomical term for the human cuticle In biology, the term cuticle or cuticula is given to to a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or part of an organism, that provide prtoection. ... Eponychium is the anatomical term for the human cuticle In biology, the term cuticle or cuticula is given to to a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or part of an organism, that provide prtoection. ...


Butterfly caterpillars have three pairs of true legs from the thoracic segments and up to 6 pairs of prolegs arising from the abdominal segments. These prolegs have rings of tiny hooks called crochets that help them grip the substrate. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Some caterpillars have the ability to inflate parts of their head to appear snake-like. Many have false eye-spots to enhance this effect. Some caterpillars have special structures called osmeteria which are everted to produce smelly chemicals. These are used in defense.


Host plants often have toxic substances in them and caterpillars are able to sequester these substances and retain them into the adult stage. This helps making them unpalatable to birds and other predators. Such unpalatibility is advertised using bright red, orange, black or white warning colours. The toxic chemicals in plants are often evolved specifically to prevent them from being eaten by insects. Insects in turn develop countermeasures or make use of these toxins for their own survival. This "arms race" has led to the coevolution of insects and their host plants.[11] Sequestration, the act of removing, separating or seizing anything from the possession of its owner, particularly in law, of the taking possession of property under process of law for the benefit of creditors or the state. ...


Wing development

Close Up Detail of a Butterfly wing
Close Up Detail of a Butterfly wing
Last instar wing disk, Junonia coenia
Last instar wing disk, Junonia coenia

Wings or wing pads are not visible on the outside of the larva, but when larvae are dissected, tiny developing wing disks can be found on the second and third thoracic segments, in place of the spiracles that are apparent on abdominal segments. Wing disks develop in association with a trachea that runs along the base of the wing, and are surrounded by a thin peripodial membrane, which is linked to the outer epidermis of the larva by a tiny duct. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 618 KB) Close up detail of a Ulysses Butterfly wing. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 618 KB) Close up detail of a Ulysses Butterfly wing. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1475x1426, 3411 KB) On the last day of the last (fifth) larval instar, the wing disks of Junonia coenia grow at a tremendous rate and accumulate the soluble brown substance visible in this photo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1475x1426, 3411 KB) On the last day of the last (fifth) larval instar, the wing disks of Junonia coenia grow at a tremendous rate and accumulate the soluble brown substance visible in this photo. ...


Wing disks are very small until the last larval instar, when they increase dramatically in size, are invaded by branching tracheae from the wing base that precede the formation of the wing veins, and begin to develop patterns associated with several landmarks of the wing. Many terrestrial arthropods have evolved a closed respiratory system composed of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gasses to and from tissue. ...


Near pupation, the wings are forced outside the epidermis under pressure from the hemolymph, and although they are initially quite flexible and fragile, by the time the pupa breaks free of the larval cuticle they have adhered tightly to the outer cuticle of the pupa (in obtect pupae). Within hours, the wings form a cuticle so hard and well-joined to the body that pupae can be picked up and handled without damage to the wings. Hemolymph (or haemolymph) is the blood analogue used by all arthropods and most mollusks that have an open circulatory system. ...


Pupa

Pupation of Inachis io
Pupation of Inachis io
Chrysalis of Gulf Fritillary
Chrysalis of Gulf Fritillary

When the larva is fully grown, hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) are produced. At this point the larva stops feeding and begins "wandering" in the quest of a suitable pupation site, often the underside of a leaf. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 179 KB) Inachis io caterpillar, pupating; Steps: 60 seconds German Description: Verpuppung einer Raupe von Inachis io (Tagpfauenauge) in 60-Sekunden-Schritten Photo by: Mnolf Date: 10. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 179 KB) Inachis io caterpillar, pupating; Steps: 60 seconds German Description: Verpuppung einer Raupe von Inachis io (Tagpfauenauge) in 60-Sekunden-Schritten Photo by: Mnolf Date: 10. ... Binomial name Inachis io (Linnaeus, 1758) The European peacock, or simply Peacock (Inachis io) is a well-known colourful butterfly, found in temperate Europe and Asia. ... Chrysalis of Gulf Fritillary Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:36, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Chrysalis of Gulf Fritillary Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:36, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Agraulis vanillae (Linnaeus, 1758) The Gulf Fritillary, Agraulis vanillae, a striking, bright orange butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ...


The larva transforms into a pupa (or chrysalis) by anchoring itself to a substrate and moulting for the last time. The chrysalis is usually incapable of movement, although some species can rapidly move the abdominal segments or produce sounds to scare potential predators. Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ...


The pupal transformation into a butterfly through metamorphosis has held great appeal to mankind. To transform from the miniature wings visible on the outside of the pupa into large structures usable for flight, the pupal wings undergo rapid mitosis and absorb a great deal of nutrients. If one wing is surgically removed early on, the other three will grow to a larger size. In the pupa, the wing forms a structure that becomes compressed from top to bottom and pleated from proximal to distal ends as it grows, so that it can rapidly be unfolded to its full adult size. Several boundaries seen in the adult color pattern are marked by changes in the expression of particular transcription factors in the early pupa. A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ...


Adult or Imago

The adult, sexually mature, stage of the insect is known as the imago. As Lepidoptera, butterflies have four wings that are covered with tiny scales (see photo). The fore and hindwings are not hooked together, permitting a more graceful flight. An adult butterfly has six legs, but in the nymphalids, the first pair is reduced. After it emerges from its pupal stage, a butterfly cannot fly until the wings are unfolded. A newly-emerged butterfly needs to spend some time inflating its wings with blood and letting them dry, during which time it is extremely vulnerable to predators. Some butterflies wings may take up to 3 hours to dry while others take about 1 hour. Most butterflies and moths will excrete excess dye after hatching. This fluid may be white, red, orange, or in rare cases, blue. The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


External morphology

Morphology of a butterfly
Morphology of a butterfly



This article provides a list of terms used in the formal descriptions of butterfly species. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... “Human Head” redirects here. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... In general, a proboscis (from Greek pro before and boskein to feed) is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... Hindwings are the second (caudal) pair of insect wings. ... A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... A scorpion tail The tail is the section at the rear end of an animals body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. ... Look up apex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The more forward of the two pairs of wings of an insect. ... The costal margin is the medial margin formed by the false ribs -- specifically, from the seventh rib to the tenth rib. ...


Scales

Scales on the wing give the colours
Scales on the wing give the colours

Butterflies are characterized by their scale covered wings. The coloration of butterfly wings is created by minute scales. These scales are pigmented with melanins that give them blacks and browns, but blues, greens, reds and iridescence are usually created not by pigments but the microstructure of the scales. This structural coloration is the result of coherent scattering of light by the photonic crystal nature of the scales.[12][13][14] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1043x1019, 168 KB) Description: Butterfly wing, yellow part, scales Author, date of creation: selfmade by Shaddack, 22 October 2005 Source: self-made Copyright: GFDL Comments: Microphotography from a homemade rig File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1043x1019, 168 KB) Description: Butterfly wing, yellow part, scales Author, date of creation: selfmade by Shaddack, 22 October 2005 Source: self-made Copyright: GFDL Comments: Microphotography from a homemade rig File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... The opal in this bracelet contains a natural periodic microstructure responsible for its iridescent color. ...


Polymorphism

Many adult butterflies exhibit polymorphism, showing differences in appearance. These variations include geographic variants and seasonal forms. In addition many species have females in multiple forms, often with mimetic forms. Sexual dimorphism in coloration and appearance is widespread in butterflies. In addition many species show sexual dimorphism in the patterns of ultraviolet reflectivity, while otherwise appearing identical to the unaided human eye. Most of the butterflies have a sex-determination system that is represented as ZW with females being the heterogametic sex (ZW) and males homogametic (ZZ).[15] Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... The ZW sex-determination system is a system that birds, some fishes, and some insects (including butterflies and moths) use to determine the sex of their offspring. ...


Genetic abnormalities such as gynandromorphy also occur from time to time. In addition many butterflies are infected by Wolbachia and infection by the bacteria can lead to the conversion of males into females[16] or the selective killing of males in the egg stage.[17] A gynandromorph is an organism that contains both male and female characteristics. ... Wolbachia is a genus of inherited bacterium that infects arthropod species, including a high proportion of all insects. ...


Mimicry

The Heliconius butterflies from the tropics of the Western Hemisphere are the classical model for Müllerian mimicry.
The Heliconius butterflies from the tropics of the Western Hemisphere are the classical model for Müllerian mimicry.[18]

Batesian and Mullerian mimicry in butterflies is common. Batesian mimics imitate other species to enjoy the protection of an attribute they do not share, aposematism in this case. The Common Mormon of India has female morphs which imitate the unpalatable red-bodied swallowtails, the Common Rose and the Crimson Rose. Mullerian mimicry occurs when aposematic species evolve to resemble each other, presumably to reduce predator sampling rates, the Heliconius butterflies of the Americas being a good example. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 2107 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 2107 pixel, file size: 3. ... Species Many, including Heliconius charitonius Heliconius cydno Heliconius erato Heliconius hecale Heliconius ismenius Heliconius melpomene Heliconius nattereri Heliconius sara Heliconius comprise a colorful and widespread butterfly genus distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World. ... For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ... A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic. ... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ... Binomial name Papilio polytes (Linneaus, 1758) The Common Mormon Papilio polytes is a common species of swallowtail butterfly found in India , Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Malaysia, the Phillipines and the Moluccas. ... Binomial name Atrophaneura (Pachliopta) aristolochiae (Fabricius, 1775) The Common Rose (Atrophaneura (Pachliopta) aristolochiae) is a swallowtail butterfly belonging to the Pachliopta subgenus, the Roses, of the genus Atrophaneura or Red-bodied Swallowtails. ... Binomial name Pachliopta hector (Linneaus, 1758) Synonyms Atrophaneura hector Crimson Rose Pachliopta hector is a large swallowtail butterfly belonging to the Pachliopta genus, that is, the Roses or the Red-bodied Swallowtails, of Family Papilionidae. ... Species Many, including Heliconius charitonius Heliconius cydno Heliconius erato Heliconius hecale Heliconius ismenius Heliconius melpomene Heliconius nattereri Heliconius sara Heliconius comprise a colorful and widespread butterfly genus distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World. ...


Wing markings called eyespots are present in some species; these may have an automimicry role for some species. In others, the function may be intraspecies communication, such as mate attraction. In several cases, however, the function of butterfly eyespots is not clear, and may be an evolutionary anomaly related to the relative elasticity of the genes that encode the spots.[19][20] Eyespots on a peafowl. ... A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic. ...


Seasonal polyphenism

Many of the tropical butterflies have distinctive seasonal forms. This phenomenon is termed seasonal polyphenism and the seasonal forms of the butterflies are called the dry-season and wet-season forms. How the season affects the genetic expression of patterns is still a subject of research.[21] Experimental modification by ecdysone hormone treatment has demonstrated that it is possible to control the continuum of expression of variation between the wet and dry-season forms.[22] The dry-season forms are usually more cryptic and it has been suggested that the protection offered may be an adaptation. Some also show greater dark colours in the wet-season form which may have thermoregulatory advantages by increasing ability to absorb solar radiation.[23]

Habits

Butterflies feed primarily on nectar from flowers. Some also derive nourishment from pollen, tree sap, rotting fruit, dung, and dissolved minerals in wet sand or dirt. Butterflies play an important ecological role as pollinators. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 592 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of a Monarch Butterfly. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 592 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of a Monarch Butterfly. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a well-known North American butterfly. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ...


As adults, butterflies consume only liquids and these are sucked by means of their proboscis. They feed on nectar from flowers and also sip water from damp patches. This they do for water, for energy from sugars in nectar and for sodium and other minerals which are vital for their reproduction. Several species of butterflies need more sodium than provided by nectar. They are attracted to sodium in salt and they sometimes land on people, attracted by human sweat. Besides damp patches, some butterflies also visit dung, rotting fruit or carcasses to obtain minerals and nutrients. In many species, this Mud-puddling behaviour is restricted to the males and studies have suggested that the nutrients collected are provided as a nuptial gift along with the spermatophore during mating.[24] In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Mud-puddling is the phenomenon mostly seen in butterflies and involves their aggregation on wet soil, dung and carrion to obtain nutrients such as sodium and amino acids. ...


Butterflies sense the air for scents, wind and nectar using their antennae. The antennae come in various shapes and colours. The hesperids have a pointed angle or hook to the antennae, while most other families show knobbed antennae. The antennae are richly covered with sensillae. A butterfly's sense of taste is coordinated by chemoreceptors on the tarsi, which work only on contact, and are used to determine whether an egg-laying insect's offspring will be able to feed on a leaf before eggs are laid on it[25]. Many butterflies use chemical signals, pheromones, and specialized scent scales (androconia) and other structures (coremata or 'Hair pencils' in the Danaidae) are developed in some species. Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect the flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is any chemical produced by a living organism that transmits a message to other members of the same species. ...

Antennae shape in the lepidoptera from C. T. Bingham (1905)
Antennae shape in the lepidoptera from C. T. Bingham (1905)

Vision is well developed in butterflies and most species are sensitive to the ultraviolet spectrum. Many species show sexual dimorphism in the patterns of UV reflective patches.[26] Color vision may be widespread but has been demonstrated in only a few species.[27][28] Image File history File links Antennae_ctb. ... Image File history File links Antennae_ctb. ...

A butterfly of the Heliconius species
A butterfly of the Heliconius species

Some butterflies have organs of hearing and some species are also known to make stridulatory and clicking sounds.[29] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 649 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Heliconius Butterfly at the Cleveland Botanical Gardens. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 649 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Heliconius Butterfly at the Cleveland Botanical Gardens. ... Species Many, including Heliconius charitonius Heliconius cydno Heliconius erato Heliconius hecale Heliconius ismenius Heliconius melpomene Heliconius nattereri Heliconius sara Heliconius comprise a colorful and widespread butterfly genus distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World. ...


Many butterflies, such as the Monarch butterfly, are migratory and capable of long distance flights. They migrate during the day and use the sun to orient themselves. They also perceive polarized light and use it for orientation when the sun is hidden.[30] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a well-known North American butterfly. ... Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths. ...


Many species of butterfly maintain territories and actively chase other species or individuals that may stray into them. Some species will bask or perch on chosen perches. The flight styles of butterflies are often characteristic and some species have courtship flight displays. Basking is an activity which is more common in the cooler hours of the morning. Many species will orient themselves to gather heat from the sun. Some species have evolved dark wingbases to help in gathering more heat and this is especially evident in alpine forms.[31]


Flight

Large White in flight

Like many other members of the insect world, the lift generated by butterflies is more than what can be accounted for by steady-state, non-transitory aerodynamics. Studies using Vanessa atalanta in a windtunnel show that they use a wide variety of aerodynamic mechanisms to generate force. These include wake capture, vortices at the wing edge, rotational mechanisms and Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanisms. The butterflies were also able to change from one mode to another rapidly.[32] (See also Insect flight) Image File history File links Kaalip. ... Image File history File links Kaalip. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pieris brassicae Wikispecies has information related to: Pieris brassicae The Large White or Cabbage White (Pieris brassicae) is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Binomial name Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) is a well-known colourful butterfly, found in temperate Europe, Asia and North America. ... The Dragonfly Insect flight, In the past several million years, flying insects have evolved with amazing flight characteristics and abilities. ...


Migration

See also Insect migration

Many butterflies migrate over long distances. Particularly famous migrations being those of the Monarch butterfly from Mexico to North America, a distance of about 4,000 to 4,800 kilometres (2500-3000 miles). Other well known migratory species include the Painted Lady and several of the Danaine butterflies. Spectacular and large scale migrations associated with the Monsoons are seen in peninsular India.[33] Migrations have been studied in more recent times using wing tags and also using stable hydrogen isotopes.[34][35] Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a well-known North American butterfly. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article is about the butterfly. ... For the mythological fifty daughters of Danaus, see Danaides. ... A monsoon is a periodic wind, especially in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. ...


Butterflies have been shown to navigate using time compensated sun compasses. They can see polarized light and therefore orient even in cloudy conditions. The polarized light in the region close to the ultraviolet spectrum is suggested to be particular important.[36]


It is suggested that most migratory butterflies are those that belong to semi-arid areas where breeding seasons are short.[37] The life-histories of their host plants also influence the strategies of the butterflies.[38]


Defense

Butterflies are threatened in their early stages by parasitoids and in all stages by predators, diseases and environmental factors. They protect themselves by a variety of means. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Chemical defenses are widespread and are often based on chemicals of plant origin. In many cases the plants themselves have evolved these toxic substances to reduce attack to them. These defense mechanisms are effective only if they are also well advertised. Many unpalatable butterflies are brightly colored. This has led to unprotected butterflies evolving forms that appear like the unpalatable butterflies. These mimetic forms are usually restricted to the females.

Eyespots on the hind wing of this butterfly are part of the animal's defense
Eyespots on the hind wing of this butterfly are part of the animal's defense

Cryptic coloration is found in many butterflies. Some like the oakleaf butterfly are remarkable imitations of leaves.[39] As caterpillars, many defend themselves by freezing and appearing like sticks or branches. Some papilionid caterpillars resemble bird dropping in their early instars. Some caterpillars have hairs and bristly structures that provide protection while others are gregarious and form dense aggregations. Some species also form associations with ants and gain their protection (See Myrmecophile). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A myrmecophile is a type of organism, usually an insect, that habitually shares ant nests. ...


Behavioural defenses include perching and wing positions to avoid being conspicuous. Some female Nymphalid butterflies are known to guard their eggs from parasitoid wasps.[40]


Eyespots and tails are found in many lycaenid butterflies and these divert the attention of predators from the more vital head region. An alternative theory is that these cause ambush predators such as spiders to approach from the wrong end and allow for early visual detection.[41]


Some popular species

A Red Admiral butterfly
A Red Admiral butterfly

There are between 15,000 and 20,000 species of butterflies worldwide. Some well known species from around the world include: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1068x1100, 643 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1068x1100, 643 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

Author: Latreille, 1802 Type species: Papilio machaon (Common Yellow Swallowtail) Diversity: 26 genera 605 species Genera Subfamily Baroniinae Baronia Subfamily Parnassiinae Archon Hypermnestra Parnassus Luehdorfia Bhutantis Alancastria Serecinus Subfamily Papilioninae Eurytides Graphium Iphiclides Lamproptera Mimoides Protesilaus Protographium Teinopalpus Atrophaneura Battus Byasa Cressida Euryades Losaria Ornithoptera Pachliopta Parides Pharmacophagus Trogonoptera Troides... Species Many; see article Birdwings are large, tropical papilionid butterflies native to mainland and archipelagic Southeast Asia and Australasia (with one Indian species), and are usually regarded as belonging to three genera: Ornithoptera, Trogonoptera and Troides. ... Author: Latreille, 1802 Type species: Papilio machaon (Common Yellow Swallowtail) Diversity: 26 genera 605 species Genera Subfamily Baroniinae Baronia Subfamily Parnassiinae Archon Hypermnestra Parnassus Luehdorfia Bhutantis Alancastria Serecinus Subfamily Papilioninae Eurytides Graphium Iphiclides Lamproptera Mimoides Protesilaus Protographium Teinopalpus Atrophaneura Battus Byasa Cressida Euryades Losaria Ornithoptera Pachliopta Parides Pharmacophagus Trogonoptera Troides... Binomial name Papilio troilus Linnaeus, 1775 Categories: Stub | Papilio ... Binomial name Papilio demoleus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Lime or the Lemon Butterfly (Papilio demoleus) is a common and widespread Swallowtail butterfly. ... Species Many; see article Birdwings are large, tropical papilionid butterflies native to mainland and archipelagic Southeast Asia and Australasia (with one Indian species), and are usually regarded as belonging to three genera: Ornithoptera, Trogonoptera and Troides. ... Type species Pieris brassicae (Large White) Diversity 76 genera 1,051 species Subfamilies Dismorphiinae Pseudopontiinae Pierinae Coliadinae The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Female Male The Small White (Pieris rapae) is a small to mid-sized butterfly species of the Yellows-and-Whites family Pieridae. ... Binomial name Pieris napi (Linnaeus, 1758) Upperwing The Green-veined White (Pieris napi) is a well-known European butterfly, found in open country and woodland. ... Binomial name Delias eucharis (Drury, 1773) Delias eucharis, the Common Jezebel, is a medium sized butterfly of the Family Pieridae, that is, the Yellows and Whites. ... Subfamilies Curetinae - Sunbeams Liphyrinae Lipteninae Lycaeninae - Coppers Miletinae - Harvesters Polyommatinae - Blues Poritiinae Styginae (disputed) Theclinae - Hairstreaks, Elfins and see text The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. ... Binomial name Glaucopsyche xerces (Boisduval, 1852) The Xerces Blue butterfly (Glaucopsyche xerces) is an extinct species of butterfly. ... The Karner Blue, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, is a small, blue butterfly found in small areas of New Jersey, the Great Lakes region, and eastern upstate New York. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Categories: Animal stubs | Butterflies ... Categories: Animal stubs | Butterflies ... Binomial name Abisara echerius The Plum Judy (Abisara echerius) is a small but striking butterfly found in India that belongs to the Punches and Judies family. ... Diversity 633 genera 5,698 species Type Species Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) Subfamilies Biblidinae Calinaginae Charaxinae Cyrestinae Danainae Heliconiinae Libytheinae Limenitidinae Morphinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae The Nymphalidae is a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies. ... This article is about the butterfly. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a well-known North American butterfly. ... Species M. achilleana M. adonis Sunset Morpho, M. helena M. menelaus M. peleides White Morpho, … A Morpho butterfly may be one of over 80 described species of the genus Morpho. ... Binomial name Pararge aegeria (Linnaeus, 1758) The Speckled Wood (Pararge aegeria) is a butterfly found in and on the borders of woodlands throughout much of Europe. ...

In culture

Art

Der Schmetterlingsjäger (The butterfly hunter) by Carl Spitzweg (1840), a depiction from the era of butterfly collection.
Der Schmetterlingsjäger (The butterfly hunter) by Carl Spitzweg (1840), a depiction from the era of butterfly collection.

Artistic depictions of butterflies have been used in many cultures including Egyptian hieroglyphics 3500 years ago.[42] Today, butterflies are widely used in various objects of art. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2578, 712 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Butterfly User:Rl/Images ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2578, 712 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Butterfly User:Rl/Images ... The Poor Poet, 1839. ...


Symbolism

According to the “Butterflies” chapter in Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things, by Lafcadio Hearn, a butterfly is seen as the personification of a person's soul; whether they be living, dying, or already dead. One Japanese superstition says that if a butterfly enters your guestroom and perches behind the bamboo screen, the person whom you most love is coming to see you. However, large numbers of butterflies are viewed as bad omens. When Taira no Masakado was secretly preparing for his famous revolt, there appeared in Kyoto so vast a swarm of butterflies that the people were frightened — -thinking the apparition to be a portent of coming evil.[43] Lafcadio Hearn, aka Koizumi Yakumo. ... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Taira no Masakados tomb(Burial only his head). ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ...


The Russian word for butterflies, pronounced "bah' bch ka", it also means "bow tie". It is a diminutive of "baba" or "babka" (= "woman, grandmother, cake", whence also "babushka" = "grandmother" in English, "babushka" = "a grandma-style headkerchief") and in Greek it means soul.[44] According to Mircea Eliade's Encyclopedia of Religion, some of the Nagas of Manipur trace their ancestry from a butterfly.[45] Naga people The Naga people of about two and half million are found in Nagaland, parts of Manipur, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ...


In Chinese culture two butterflies flying together are a symbol of love. Also a famous Chinese folk story called Butterfly Lovers. The Taoist philosopher Zhuangzi once had a dream of being a butterfly flying without care about humanity, however when he woke up and realised it was just a dream, he thought to himself "Was I before a man who dreamt about being a butterfly, or am I now a butterfly who dreams about being a man?" Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... The Butterfly Lovers is a Chinese legend about the tragic romance between two lovers, Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, or Liang Zhu, from whom the name of the legend is known in Chinese (梁山伯與祝英台, pinyin: Liáng Shānbó yǔ Zhù Yīngtái, often abbreviated as 梁祝, Liáng-Zhù). The... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang Tzŭ, lit. ...


In some old cultures, butterflies also symbolize rebirth into a new life after being inside a cocoon for a period of time. Rebirth may refer the following spiritual/religious concepts: Reincarnation Buddhist Rebirth The experience of being born again in Christianity Rebirth may also refer to: Rebirth, an album by Pain Rebirth, an album by Jennifer Lopez Rebirth, an album by Gackt Rebirth, an album by Angra ReBirth RB-338, software synthesizer...


Some people say that when a butterfly lands on you it means good luck. The idiom "butterflies in the stomach" is used to describe a state of nervousness. Butterflies in the stomach means your getting extremely horny and you need to slap the turkey once more or it can be seen as a medical condition characterized by the physical sensation of a fluttery or tickling (hence butterflies) feeling in the stomach. ...


Technological inspiration

Studies on the reflection of light by the scales on wings of swallowtail butterflies have to led to the innovation of more efficient Light-emitting diodes.[46] “LED” redirects here. ...


The structural colouration of butterflies is inspiring nanotechnology research to produce paints that do not use toxic pigments and in the development of new display technologies.[47]


Gallery

Family Papilionidae- The Swallowtails Author: Latreille, 1802 Type species: Papilio machaon (Common Yellow Swallowtail) Diversity: 26 genera 605 species Genera Subfamily Baroniinae Baronia Subfamily Parnassiinae Archon Hypermnestra Parnassus Luehdorfia Bhutantis Alancastria Serecinus Subfamily Papilioninae Eurytides Graphium Iphiclides Lamproptera Mimoides Protesilaus Protographium Teinopalpus Atrophaneura Battus Byasa Cressida Euryades Losaria Ornithoptera Pachliopta Parides Pharmacophagus Trogonoptera Troides...

Family Pieridae - The Whites and Yellows Type species Pieris brassicae (Large White) Diversity 76 genera 1,051 species Subfamilies Dismorphiinae Pseudopontiinae Pierinae Coliadinae The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies. ...

Family Riodinidae - The Metalmarks, Punches and Judies Categories: Animal stubs | Butterflies ...

Family Nymphalidae - The Brush-footed Butterflies Subfamilies Apaturinae Argynninae Biblidinae Calinaginae Charaxinae Cyrestinae Danainae Heliconiinae Libytheinae Limenitidinae Morphinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae Author: Swainson, 1827 Type species: Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) Diversity: 633 genera, 5,698 species The Nymphalidae are a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies. ...

Family Lycaenidae - The Blues Subfamilies Curetinae - Sunbeams Liphyrinae Lipteninae Lycaeninae - Coppers Miletinae - Harvesters Polyommatinae - Blues Poritiinae Styginae (disputed) Theclinae - Hairstreaks, Elfins and see text The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. ...

Family Hesperiidae - The Skippers Author: Latreille, 1809 Type species: Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted skipper) Diversity: 550 genera 3,500 species Subfamilies Coeliadinae Pyrrhopyginae Hesperiinae Heteropterinae Pyrginae Trapezitinae The Skippers are a group of insects in the order Lepidoptera. ...

See also

A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. ... This is a list of British butterflies, past and present. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of U.S. state insects. ... // Butterflies of India Approximately 1439 species of butterfly have been described from India. ... At least 377 species of butterfly have been recorded in Taiwan, with some reports putting the number at over 400. ... Butterfly Zoo Monsanto Insectarium A butterfly zoo is a zoo which is specifically intended for the breeding and display of butterflies. ...

Cited references

  1. ^ American Museum of Natural History. Accessed November 2006
  2. ^ Kristensen, N. P. and Skalski, A.W. (1999). Phylogeny and paleontology. Page 19 in: Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. N. P. Kristensen, ed. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York
  3. ^ Hall, J.P.W., R.K. Robbins, and D. Harvey. 2004.Extinction and biogeography in the Caribbean: new evidence from a fossil riodinid butterfly in Dominican amber. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., Biol. sci. 271(1541):797-801
  4. ^ The Lepidoptera Taxome Project Draft Proposals and Information. Centre for Ecology and Evolution, University College London. Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  5. ^ Tree of Life Web Project. 2003. Ditrysia. Version 01 January 2003 (temporary). [1] in The Tree of Life Web Project, [2]
  6. ^ Scoble, M.J. (1986). The structure and affinities of the Hedyloidea: a new concept of the butterflies. Bull. Brit. Mus. (nat. Hist.) (Ent.), 53: 251-286
  7. ^ Wahlberg, N., M. F. Braby, A. V. Z. Brower, R. de Jong, M.-M. Lee, S. Nylin, N. E. Pierce, F. A. H. Sperling, R. Vila, A. D. Warren & E. Zakharov. 2005. Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B (Biological Sciences) 272, 1577-1586.
  8. ^ Powell, J. A. 1987. Records of prolonged diapause in Lepidoptera. J. Res. Lepid. 25: 83-109.
  9. ^ DeVries, P. J. 1988. The larval ant-organs of Thisbe irenea (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) and their effects upon attending ants. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 94:379-393.
  10. ^ DeVries, P. J. 1990. Enhancement of symbioses between butterfly caterpillars and ants by vibrational communication. Science 248:1104-1106.
  11. ^ Ehrlich, P. R., and P. H. Raven. 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18:586 – 608
  12. ^ Mason C. W., 1927 Structural colors in insects. II. Iridescent colors. J. Phys. Chem., 31, 321-354
  13. ^ Vukusic, P., J.R.Sambles, and H. Ghiradella (2000) Optical Classification of Microstructure in Butterfly Wing-scales. Photonics Science News, 6, 61-66 [3]
  14. ^ Prum, Richard O., Tim Quinn and Rodolfo H. Torres 2006. Anatomically diverse butterfly scales all produce structural colours by coherent scattering. Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 748-765 doi: 10.1242/jeb.02051 Full text
  15. ^ Traut W, Marec F (1997) Sex chromosome differentiation in some species of Lepidoptera (Insecta). Chromosome Research 5: 283-291.
  16. ^ Rousset, F., D. Bouchon, B. Pintureau, P. Juchault, and M. Solignac. 1992. Wolbachia endosymbionts responsible for various alterations of sexuality in arthropods. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, Biological Sciences 250:91 – 98.
  17. ^ Jiggins, Francis M, Gregory D D Hurst, J Hinrich G V D Schulenburg and Michael E N Majerus (2001) Two male-killing Wolbachia strains coexist within a population of the butterfly Acraea encedon. Heredity. 86(2):161-166
  18. ^ Meyer A (2006) Repeating Patterns of Mimicry. PLoS Biol 4(10): e341 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040341
  19. ^ Brunetti CR et al. (10 2001). "The generation and diversification of butterfly eyespot color patterns.". J. of Cell Biology 11 (20): 1578-85. PMID: 11676917. Retrieved on 2006-08-22. 
  20. ^ Brakefield, PM et al. (1996). "Development, plasticity and evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns.". Nature (384): 236-242. Retrieved on 2006-08-22. 
  21. ^ Brakefield, Paul M., Fanja Kesbeke, P. Bernhardt Koch (1998) The Regulation of Phenotypic Plasticity of Eyespots in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana. The American Naturalist. 152(6):853-860
  22. ^ Nijhout, H. F. (2003) Development and evolution of adaptive polyphenisms. Evolution and Development 5(1):9-18.
  23. ^ Brakefield, P. M. and Torben Larsen (1984) The evolutionary significance of dry and wet season forms in some tropical butterflies. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 22: 1-12 Full text
  24. ^ Molleman Freerk, Grunsven Roy H. A., Liefting Maartje, Zwaan Bas J., Brakefield Paul M. (2005) Is male puddling behaviour of tropical butterflies targeted at sodium for nuptial gifts or activity? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 86, (3):345-361
  25. ^ Article on San Diego Zoo website
  26. ^ Obara Y, Hidaki T. (1968). Recognition of the female by the male, on the basis of ultra-violet reflection, in the white cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval. Proc. Japan Acad., 44: 829-832.
  27. ^ Tadao Hirota and Yoshiomi Kato 2004 Color discrimination on orientation of female Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) Applied Entomology and Zoology Vol. 39:229-233 [4]
  28. ^ Michiyo Kinoshita, Naoko Shimada And Kentaro Arikawa (1999) Color vision of the foraging swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus. The Journal of Experimental Biology 202:95 – 102 [5]
  29. ^ Swihart, S. L (1967). Hearing in butterflies. J. Insect Physiol 13, 469
  30. ^ Reppert, Steven M.; Haisun Zhu; White, Richard H. (2004) Polarized light helps monarch butterflies navigate. Current biology 14(2):155-158
  31. ^ Ellers, J. and Carol L. Boggs (2002) The evolution of wing color in Colias butterflies: Heritability, Sex Linkage, and population divergence. Evolution, 56(4):836 – 840 [6]
  32. ^ Srygley, R. B. and A. L. R. Thomas (2002) Aerodynamics of insect flight: flow visualisations with free flying butterflies reveal a variety of unconventional lift-generating mechanisms. Nature 420: 660-664. PDF
  33. ^ Williams, C. B. 1927 A study of butterfly migration in south India and Ceylon, based largely on records by Messrs. G Evershed, E.E.Green, J.C.F. Fryer and W. Ormiston. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 75:1-33
  34. ^ Urquhart, F. A. & N. R. Urquhart. 1977. Overwintering areas and migratory routes of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus, Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in North America, with special reference to the western population. Can. Ent. 109: 1583-1589
  35. ^ Wassenaar L.I., Hobson K.A. 1998. Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: new isotopic evidence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95(26):15436-9. Full text
  36. ^ Ivo Sauman, Adriana D. Briscoe, Haisun Zhu, Dingding Shi, Oren Froy, Julia Stalleicken, Quan Yuan, Amy Casselman, and Steven M. Reppert (2005) Connecting the Navigational Clock to Sun Compass Input in Monarch Butterfly Brain. Neuron. 46:457-467 [7]
  37. ^ Southwood, T. R. E. 1962. Migration of terrestrial arthropods in relation to habitat. Biol. Rev. 37:171-214
  38. ^ Dennis, R L H, Tim G. Shreeve, Henry R. Arnold and David B. Roy (2005) Does diet breadth control herbivorous insect distribution size? Life history and resource outlets for specialist butterflies. Journal of Insect Conservation 9(3):187-200
  39. ^ Robbins, Robert K. (1981) The "False Head" Hypothesis: Predation and Wing Pattern Variation of Lycaenid Butterflies. American Naturalist 118(5):770-775
  40. ^ Nafus, D. M. and I. H. Schreiner (1988) Parental care in a tropical nymphalid butterfly Hypolimas anomala. Anim. Behav. 36: 1425- 143
  41. ^ William E. Cooper, Jr. (1998) Conditions favoring anticipatory and reactive displays deflecting predatory attack. Behavioral Ecology 9(6):598-604
  42. ^ Larsen, Torben (1994) Butterflies of Egypt. Saudi Aramco world. 45(5):24-27 Online
  43. ^ Hearn, Lafcadio (1904). Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Thing. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-21901-1. 
  44. ^ Hutchins, M., Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison and Neil Schlager (Eds) (2003) Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, 2003.
  45. ^ Rabuzzi, M. 1997. Butterfly etymology. Cultural Entomology November 1997 Fourth issue online
  46. ^ Vukusic, Pete and Ian Hooper. 2005. Directionally Controlled Fluorescence Emission in Butterflies Science. 310(5751):1151 DOI: 10.1126/science.1116612
  47. ^ Biomimetics at Qualcomm

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lafcadio Hearn, aka Koizumi Yakumo. ...

Other references

  • Boggs, C., Watt, W., Ehrlich, P. 2003. Butterflies: Evolution and Ecology Taking Flight. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
  • Heppner, J. B. 1998. Classification of Lepidoptera. Holarctic Lepidoptera, Suppl. 1.
  • Pyle, R. M. 1992. Handbook for Butterfly Watchers. Houghton Mifflin. First published, 1984. ISBN 0-395-61629-8

Field guides to butterflies

A blue or lycaenid butterfly
A blue or lycaenid butterfly
  • Butterflies of North America, Jim P. Brock and Kenn Kaufman (2003)
  • Butterflies through Binoculars: The East, Jeffrey Glassberg (1999)
  • Butterflies through Binoculars: The West, Jeffrey Glassberg (2001)
  • A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies, Paul Opler (1994)
  • A Field Guide to Western Butterflies, Paul Opler (1999)
  • Peterson First Guide to Butterflies and Moths, Paul Opler (1994)
  • Las Mariposas de Machu Picchu by Gerardo Lamas (2003)
  • The Millennium Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland by Jim Asher (Editor), et al.
  • Pocket Guide to the Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland by Richard Lewington
  • Butterflies of Britain and Europe (Collins Wildlife Trust Guides) by Michael Chinery
  • Butterflies of Europe by Tom Tolman and Richard Lewington (2001)
  • Butterflies of Europe New Field Guide and Key by Tristan Lafranchis (2004)
  • Field Guide to Butterlies of South Africa by Steve Woodhall (2005)
  • Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya and their Natural History by Meena Haribal (1994).
  • Butterflies of Peninsular India by Krushnamegh Kunte, Universities Press (2005).
  • Butterflies of the Indian Region by Col M. A. Wynter-Blyth, Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India (1957).
  • A Guide to Common Butterflies of Singapore by Steven Neo Say Hian (Singapore Science Centre)
  • Butterflies of West Malaysia and Singapore by W.A.Fleming. (Longman Malaysia)
  • The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula by A.S. Corbet and H. M. Pendlebury. (The Malayan Nature Society)

Image File history File links Description: Celastrina argiolus (ルリシジミ) Source: photo taken by Kropsoq Date: July 2005 Author: Kropsoq Permission: GFDL,cc-by-sa-2. ... Image File history File links Description: Celastrina argiolus (ルリシジミ) Source: photo taken by Kropsoq Date: July 2005 Author: Kropsoq Permission: GFDL,cc-by-sa-2. ...

External links

General interest

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Butterfly in
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Regional Lists

  • The Nebraska Butterfly Association
  • Butterflies and Moths of North America
  • North American Butterfly Association (NABA)
  • Butterflies and Moths in the Netherlands
  • Butterflies of Asturias - North of Spain
  • Moths and butterflies of Europe en North Africa
  • Checklist of the butterflies of Afghanistan
  • Insect and butterfly diversity of Pakistan
  • Butterflies of Southern India
  • Butterflies of Sri Lanka
  • Butterflies of Singapore
  • Israel Insect World
  • Singapore Butterfly Checklist
  • Butterfly Conservation Society of Taiwan
  • Butterflies of Morocco
  • Butterflies of Indo-China Chiefly Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.
  • Butteflies of Southeastern Sulawesi

Images

  • Reference quality large format photographs, common butterflies of North America
  • BugGuide.net Many images of North American butterflies, many licensed via Creative Commons
  • Gallery of Florida Butterflies and Moths

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