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Encyclopedia > Butter
Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured 4oz.) or blocks, and frequently served with the use of a butter knife.
Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured 4oz.) or blocks, and frequently served with the use of a butter knife.

Butter is a dairy product, made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. Butter is used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and frying. Butter consists of butterfat surrounding minuscule droplets consisting mostly of water and milk proteins. The most common form of butter is made from cows' milk, but it can also be made from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt, flavorings, or preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat. When refrigerated, butter remains a solid, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). The density of butter is 911 kg/m3 [1]. Butter generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. The color of the butter depends on the animal's feed and is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene. Butter may be one of the following: Butter, a dairy product made from milk Butter, a term used in alchemy Butter (song), Track 04 on A Tribe Called Quests 1991 album The Low End Theory. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1350x900, 287 KB) butter http://visualsonline. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1350x900, 287 KB) butter http://visualsonline. ... A butter knife is a flat, metal knife used to spread butter, peanut butter, vegemite or other spreads. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Farmer selling the churned butter (machine in the foreground). ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Cans of cream. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or small blocks, and often served using a butterknife. ... Salt, sugar and pepper are the most essential condiments in Western cuisine. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... Flavouring (or flavoring) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the kitchen, rendering can mean clarifying butter into ghee, suet into tallow and bacon fat into lard. ... Clarified butter is butter that has been rendered to separate the milk solids and water from the butter fat. ... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu Ú¯Ú¾ÛŒ, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... Refrigeration (from the Latin frigus, frost) is generally the cooling of a body by the transfer of a portion of its heat away from it. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... A yellow Tulip. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... Bixin, the major apocarotinoid of annatto Annatto, sometimes called Roucou, is a derivative of the achiote trees of tropical regions of the Americas, used to produce a red food coloring. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ...


The term "butter" is used in the names of products made from puréed nuts or peanuts, such as peanut butter. It is also used in the names of fruit products, such as apple butter. Other fats solid at room temperature are also known as "butters"; examples include cocoa butter and shea butter. In general use, the term "butter," when unqualified by other descriptors, almost always refers to the dairy product. The word butter, in the English language, derives (via Germanic languages) from the Latin butyrum, borrowed from the Greek boutyron. This may have been a construction meaning "cow-cheese" (bous "ox, cow" + tyros "cheese"), or the word may have been borrowed from another language, possibly Scythian.[2] The root word persists in the name butyric acid, a compound found in rancid butter and dairy products. Purée and (more rarely) mash are general terms for food, usually vegetables or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, and/or strained to the consistency of a soft paste or thick liquid. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... Peanut butter in a jar. ... Apple butter is a highly concentrated form of applesauce, produced by long, slow cooking of apples with cider or water to a point where the sugar in the apples caramelizes. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, edible natural vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Shea nut butter is a slightly greenish or ivory-colored natural fat extracted from fruit of the Shea tree by crushing and boiling. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ...

Contents

Butter production

Main article: Churning (butter)
Today, commercial butter-making is a carefully-controlled operation.
Today, commercial butter-making is a carefully-controlled operation.

Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules. These globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids (fatty acid emulsifiers) and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. Variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies, mostly due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, and undamaged fat globules. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter; butters with many crystals are harder than butters dominated by free fats. Farmer selling the churned butter (machine in the foreground). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 303 KB) Licensing Butter fabrication in Fügen, Austria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 303 KB) Licensing Butter fabrication in Fügen, Austria. ... Homogenization (or homogenisation) is a term used in many fields such as Chemistry, agricultural science, food technology, sociology and cell biology. ... Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ...

Churning machine
Churning machine

Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream. This watery liquid is called buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. The buttermilk is drained off; sometimes more buttermilk is removed by rinsing the grains with water. Then the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together. When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands. This consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixels, file size: 1. ... Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Scotch hands (also known as butter beaters) are large wooden spatulas used when making butter. ...


Commercial butter is about 80% butterfat and 15% water; traditionally-made butter may have as little as 65% fat and 30% water. Butterfat consists of many moderate-sized, saturated hydrocarbon chain fatty acids. It is a triglyceride, an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acid groups. Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl. The density of butter is .911 g/cm³, about the same as ice. Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ... Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or 2,3-butanedione) is a natural byproduct of fermentation. ...


Types of butter

A hand-made butter
A hand-made butter

Before modern factory butter making, cream was usually collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter. During fermentation, the cream naturally sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The fermentation process produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product.[3] Today, cultured butter is usually made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixels, file size: 1. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Fermentation in progress Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. ... Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or 2,3-butanedione) is a natural byproduct of fermentation. ... Species Lactococcus garvieae Lactococcus lactis Lactococcus piscium Lactococcus plantarum Lactococcus raffinolactis Lactococcus is the genus of bacteria formerly known as Streptococcus Group N and related species. ... Leuconostoc is a kind of bacteria, often found in butter. ...


Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the early 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and then incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows as the butter is aged in cold storage. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient since aging the cream used to make butter takes significantly more space than simply storing the finished butter product. A method to make an artificial simulation of cultured butter is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter; while this more efficient process is claimed to simulate the taste of cultured butter, the product produced is not cultured but is instead flavored.

When heated, butter quickly melts into a thin liquid.
When heated, butter quickly melts into a thin liquid.

Today, dairy products are often pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other microbes. Butter made from pasteurized fresh cream is called sweet cream butter. Production of sweet cream butter first became common in the 19th century, with the development of refrigeration and the mechanical cream separator.[4] Butter made from fresh or cultured unpasteurized cream is called raw cream butter. Raw cream butter has a "cleaner" cream flavor, without the cooked-milk notes that pasteurization introduces. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixels, file size: 1. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ...


Throughout Continental Europe, cultured butter is preferred, while sweet cream butter dominates in the United States and the United Kingdom. Therefore, cultured butter is sometimes labeled European-style butter in the United States. Commercial raw cream butter is virtually unheard-of in the United States. Raw cream butter is generally only found made at home by consumers who have purchased raw whole milk directly from dairy farmers, skimmed the cream themselves, and made butter with it. It's rare in Europe as well.[5] Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ...


Several spreadable butters have been developed; these remain softer at colder temperatures and are therefore easier to use directly out of refrigeration. Some modify the makeup of the butter's fat through chemical manipulation of the finished product, some through manipulation of the cattle's feed, and some by incorporating vegetable oils into the butter. Whipped butter, another product designed to be more spreadable, is aerated via the incorporation of nitrogen gas—normal air is not used, because doing so would encourage oxidation and rancidity. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ...

Butter sold in a London market, salted (right) and unsalted (left)
Butter sold in a London market, salted (right) and unsalted (left)

All categories of butter are sold in both salted and unsalted forms. Salted butters have either fine, granular salt or a strong brine added to them during the working. Nations that favor sweet cream butter tend to favor salted butter as well, possibly reflecting the blander taste of uncultured butter. In addition to flavoring the butter, the addition of salt also acts as a preservative. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 688 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 2090 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 688 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 2090 pixels, file size: 1. ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Another important aspect of production is the amount of butterfat in the finished product. In the United States, all products sold as "butter" must contain a minimum of 80% butterfat by weight; most American butters contain only slightly more than that, averaging around 81%. European-style butters generally have a higher ratio of up to 85% butterfat. Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk. ...


Clarified butter is butter with almost all of its water and milk solids removed, leaving almost-pure butterfat. Clarified butter is made by heating butter to its melting point and then allowing it to cool off; after settling, the remaining components separate by density. At the top, whey proteins form a skin which is removed, and the resulting butterfat is then poured off from the mixture of water and casein proteins that settle to the bottom. Clarified butter is butter that has been rendered to separate the milk solids and water from the butter fat. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Casein (from Latin caseus cheese) is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ...


Ghee is clarified butter which is brought to higher temperatures (120 °C/250 °F) once the water has cooked off, allowing the milk solids to brown. This process flavors the ghee, and also produces antioxidants which help protect it longer from rancidity. Because of this, ghee can keep for six to eight months under normal conditions.[6] Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu Ú¯Ú¾ÛŒ, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ...


History

Ancient butter-making techniques were still practiced in the early 20th century. Picture taken from March 1914 National Geographic.
Ancient butter-making techniques were still practiced in the early 20th century. Picture taken from March 1914 National Geographic.

Since even accidental agitation can turn cream into butter, it is likely that the invention of butter goes back to the earliest days of dairying, perhaps in the Mesopotamian area between 9000 and 8000 BCE. The earliest butter would have been from sheep or goat's milk; cattle are not thought to have been domesticated for another thousand years or so.[7] An ancient method of butter making, still used today in some parts of Africa and the Near East, is shown in the photo at right, taken in Palestine. A goat skin is half filled with milk, then inflated with air and sealed. It is then hung with ropes on a tripod of sticks and rocked to and fro until the butter is formed. Image File history File links ButterMakingPalestine1914. ... Image File history File links ButterMakingPalestine1914. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle, goats, or other lactating animals for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... BCE redirects here. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ...


Butter was certainly known in the classical Mediterranean civilizations, but it does not seem to have been a common food, especially in Ancient Greece or Rome. In the warm Mediterranean climate, unclarified butter would spoil very quickly— unlike cheese, it was not a practical method of preserving the benefits of milk. The people of ancient Greece and Rome seemed to consider butter a food fit more for the northern barbarians. A play by the Greek comic poet Anaxandrides refers to Thracians as boutyrophagoi, "butter-eaters".[8] In Natural History, Pliny the Elder calls butter "the most delicate of food among barbarous nations", and goes on to describe its medicinal properties.[9] Mediterranean redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Anaxandrides (Αναξανδριδεσ), was an Athenian comic poet, contemporary of Aristotle. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


Historian and linguist Andrew Dalby says that most references to butter in ancient Near Eastern texts should more correctly be translated as ghee. Ghee is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as a typical trade article around the 1st century CE Arabian Sea, and Roman geographer Strabo describes it as a commodity of Arabia and Sudan.[10] In India, ghee has been a symbol of purity and an offering to the gods—especially Agni, the Hindu god of fire—for more than 3000 years; references to ghee's sacred nature appear numerous times in the Rig Veda, circa 1500–1200 BCE. The tale of the child Krishna stealing butter remains a popular children's story in India today. Since India's prehistory, ghee has been both a staple food and used for ceremonial purposes such as fueling holy lamps and funeral pyres. Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu Ú¯Ú¾ÛŒ, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Butter-making woman, Compost et Kalendrier des Bergères, Paris, 1499.
Butter-making woman, Compost et Kalendrier des Bergères, Paris, 1499.

Cooler climates in northern Europe allowed butter to be kept longer before spoiling. Scandinavia has the longest history in Europe of a butter export trade, dating at least to the 12th century.[11] Across most of Europe after the fall of Rome and through much of the Middle Ages, butter was a common food, but one with a low reputation; it was consumed principally by peasants. It slowly became more accepted by the upper class, especially when, in the early 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church permitted its consumption during Lent. Bread and butter became common fare among the new middle class, and the English, in particular, gained a reputation for their liberal use of melted butter as a sauce for meats and vegetables.[12] Image File history File links MakingButter1499. ... Image File history File links MakingButter1499. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Catholic Church redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Across far-northern Europe—Ireland, Scotland, Iceland, and Scandinavia—butter was sometimes treated in a manner unheard-of today: it was packed into barrels (firkins) and buried in peat bogs, perhaps for years. Such "bog butter" would develop a strong flavor as it aged, but remain edible, in large part because of the unique cool, airless, antiseptic and acidic environment of a peat bog. Firkins of such buried butter are a common archaeological find in Ireland; the Irish National Museum has some containing "a grayish cheese-like substance, partially hardened, not much like butter, and quite free from putrefaction." The practice was most common in Ireland in the 11th–14th centuries; it ended entirely before the 19th century.[13] This article is about the country. ... A Firkin is an old English unit of volume. ... Virgin boreal acid bogs at Browns Lake Bog, Ohio A bog is a wetland type that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ...


France, like Ireland, became well-known for its butter, particularly in the Normandy and Brittany regions. By the 1860s, butter had become so in demand in France that Emperor Napoleon III offered prize money for an inexpensive substitute to supplement France's inadequate butter supplies. In 1869, a French chemist claimed the prize with the invention of margarine. The first margarine was beef tallow flavored with milk and worked like butter; vegetable margarines followed after the development of hydrogenated oils around 1900. For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ...

Gustaf de Laval's centrifugal cream separator sped the butter-making process.
Gustaf de Laval's centrifugal cream separator sped the butter-making process.

Until the 19th century, the vast majority of butter was made by hand, on farms. The first butter factories appeared in the United States in the early 1860s, after the successful introduction of cheese factories a decade earlier. In the late 1870s, the centrifugal cream separator was introduced, marketed most successfully by Swedish engineer Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval. This dramatically sped the butter-making process by eliminating the slow step of letting cream naturally rise to the top of milk. Initially, whole milk was shipped to the butter factories, and the cream separation took place there. Soon, though, cream-separation technology became small and inexpensive enough to introduce an additional efficiency: the separation was accomplished on the farm, and the cream alone shipped to the factory. By 1900, more than half the butter produced in the United States was factory made; Europe followed suit shortly after. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1860x2670, 1691 KB) Summary Gustaf De Laval (en) (1845-1913), Swedish industrialist. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1860x2670, 1691 KB) Summary Gustaf De Laval (en) (1845-1913), Swedish industrialist. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval (May 9, 1845 - February 2, 1913) was a Swedish engineer and inventor who made important contributions to the design of steam turbines and dairy machinery. ...


Per capita butter consumption declined in most western nations during the 20th century, in large part because of the rising popularity of margarine, which is less expensive and, until recent years, was perceived as being healthier. In the United States, margarine consumption overtook butter during the 1950s[14] and it is still the case today that more margarine than butter is eaten in the U.S. and most other nations that track such data.[15] Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ...


Shape of butter sticks

Western-Pack shape Butter
Western-Pack shape Butter

In the United States, butter sticks are usually produced and sold in 4-ounce sticks, wrapped in wax paper and sold four to a carton. This practice is believed to have originated in 1907 when Swift and Company began packaging butter in this manner for mass distribution.[16] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 705 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of a stick of western pack Butter taken in San Marcos, California. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 705 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of a stick of western pack Butter taken in San Marcos, California. ... The ounce (abbreviation: oz) is the name of a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Gustavus Franklin Swift (June 24, 1839–March 29, 1903) founded a meat-packing empire in the Midwest during the late nineteenth century, over which he presided until his death. ...


Due to historical variances in butter printers, these sticks are commonly produced in two differing shapes:

  • The dominant shape east of the Rocky Mountains is the Elgin, or Eastern-pack shape. This shape was originally developed by the Elgin Butter Tub Company, founded in 1882 in Elgin, Illinois and Rock Falls, Illinois. The sticks are 4.75" long and 1.25" wide, and are usually sold in somewhat cubical boxes stacked 2x2.[17] Among the early butter printers to use this shape was the Elgin Butter Cutter.
  • West of the Rocky Mountains, butter printers standardized on a different shape that is now referred to as the Western-Pack shape.[17] These butter sticks are 3.125" long and 1.5" wide and are typically sold packed side-by-side in a rectangular container.

Both sticks contain the same amount of butter, although most butter dishes are designed for Elgin-style butter sticks.[citation needed] Incorporated City in 1854. ... Rock Falls is a city in Whiteside County, Illinois, United States. ...


The stick's wrapper is usually marked off as 8 tablespoons (approximately 118 ml); the actual volume of one stick is approximately 9 tablespoons. This tablespoon has a capacity of about 1 tbsp. ...


Worldwide

Indian ghee in a jar

India produces and consumes more butter than any other nation, dedicating almost half of its annual milk production to making butter or ghee. In 1997, India produced 1,470,000 metric tons of butter, consuming almost all of it. Second in production was the United States (522,000 tons), then France (466,000), Germany (442,000), and New Zealand (307,000). In terms of consumption, Germany was second after India, using 578,000 tons of butter in 1997, followed by France (528,000), Russia (514,000), and the United States (505,000). Most nations produce and consume the bulk of their butter domestically. New Zealand, Australia, and the Ukraine are among the few nations that export a significant percentage of the butter they produce.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 336 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (543 × 968 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ghee in a jar This image was created by Whitebox, and is licensed under the following license I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 336 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (543 × 968 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ghee in a jar This image was created by Whitebox, and is licensed under the following license I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu Ú¯Ú¾ÛŒ, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu Ú¯Ú¾ÛŒ, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ...


Different varieties of butter are found around the world. Smen is a spiced Moroccan clarified butter, buried in the ground and aged for months or years. Yak butter is important in Tibet; tsampa, barley flour mixed with yak butter, is a staple food. Butter tea is consumed in the Himalayan regions of Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal and India. It consists of tea served with intensely flavored — or "rancid"—yak butter and salt. In African and Asian developing nations, butter is traditionally made from sour milk rather than cream. It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented milk.[19] Smen (also called sman or semneh) is a traditional cooking oil most commonly found in Moroccan cuisine. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Tsampa (Tibetan: rtsam pa) is a Tibetan staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the country. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Butter tea known as Po Cha is a drink of the Tibetans, and is also consumed in Bhutan. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... Soured milk is prepared from whole milk via fermentation by Lactobacillus bacteria. ...


Storage and cooking

Normal butter softens to a spreadable consistency around 15 °C (60 °F), well above refrigerator temperatures. The "butter compartment" found in many refrigerators may be one of the warmer sections inside, but it still leaves butter quite hard. Until recently, many refrigerators sold in New Zealand featured a "butter conditioner", a compartment kept warmer than the rest of the refrigerator—but still cooler than room temperature—with a small heater.[20] Keeping butter tightly wrapped delays rancidity, which is hastened by exposure to light or air, and also helps prevent it from picking up other odors. Wrapped butter has a shelf life of several months at refrigerator temperatures.[21] Fridge redirects here. ... Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ...


"French butter dishes" or "Acadian butter dishes" involve a lid with a long interior lip, which sits in a container holding a small amount of water. Usually the dish holds just enough water to submerge the interior lip when the dish is closed. Butter is packed into the lid. The water acts as a seal to keep the butter fresh, and also keeps the butter from overheating in hot temperatures. This allows butter to be safely stored on the countertop for several days without spoilage. The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ...


Once butter is softened, spices, herbs, or other flavoring agents can be mixed into it, producing what is called a composed butter or composite butter. Composed butters can be used as spreads, or cooled, sliced, and placed onto hot food to melt into a sauce. Sweetened composed butters can be served with desserts; such hard sauces are often flavored with spirits. For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Desert. ... Hard sauce is a cold dessert sauce made by creaming or beating butter and sugar with rum, brandy, whiskey, vanilla or other flavoring. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ...

Hollandaise sauce served over white asparagus and potatoes.
Hollandaise sauce served over white asparagus and potatoes.

Melted butter plays an important role in the preparation of sauces, most obviously in French cuisine. Beurre noisette (hazel butter) and Beurre noir (black butter) are sauces of melted butter cooked until the milk solids and sugars have turned golden or dark brown; they are often finished with an addition of vinegar or lemon juice. Hollandaise and béarnaise sauces are emulsions of egg yolk and melted butter; they are in essence mayonnaises made with butter instead of oil. Hollandaise and béarnaise sauces are stabilized with the powerful emulsifiers in the egg yolks, but butter itself contains enough emulsifiers—mostly remnants of the fat globule membranes—to form a stable emulsion on its own. Beurre blanc (white butter) is made by whisking butter into reduced vinegar or wine, forming an emulsion with the texture of thick cream. Beurre monté (prepared butter) is an unflavored beurre blanc made from water instead of vinegar or wine; it lends its name to the practice of "mounting" a sauce with butter: whisking cold butter into any water-based sauce at the end of cooking, giving the sauce a thicker body and a glossy shine—as well as a buttery taste.[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 224 KB) Asparagus (vegetable), served with Hollandaise and potatoes Author: Elke Wetzig (elya) Date: 2004-05-07 File links The following pages link to this file: Butter Hollandaise sauce ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 224 KB) Asparagus (vegetable), served with Hollandaise and potatoes Author: Elke Wetzig (elya) Date: 2004-05-07 File links The following pages link to this file: Butter Hollandaise sauce ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the botanical genus, see Asparagus (genus). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sauce (disambiguation). ... French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. ... Beurre Noisette (hazelnut butter, sometimes loosely translated as brown butter) is frequently used in French pastry production. ... Beurre noir (French: black butter) is melted butter that is cooked over low heat until the milk solids turn a very dark brown. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Binomial name Citrus X limon {{{author}}} Lemons are the citrus fruit from the tree Citrus X limon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bearnaise sauce (French: Sauce Béarnaise) is a sauce of butter and egg yolks flavored with tarragon and shallots, with chervil, cooked in wine and vinegar to make a glaze. ... A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... In cooking, Beurre blanc (white butter in French) is a hot butter sauce made with a vinegar and shallot reduction to which butter is added (lemon juice is sometimes used in place of vinegar). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


Butter is used for sautéing and frying, although its milk solids brown and burn above 150 °C (250 °F)—a rather low temperature for most applications. The smoke point of butterfat is around 200 °C (400 °F), so clarified butter or ghee is better suited to frying.[23] Ghee has always been a common frying medium in India, where many avoid other animal fats for cultural or religious reasons. Sautéing is a method of cooking food using a small amount of fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat. ... Plantains frying in vegetable oil. ... The smoke point refers to the point in which a cooking fat or oil is heated until it breaks down. ...

Mixing dissolved butter with chocolate to make a brownie
Mixing dissolved butter with chocolate to make a brownie

Butter fills several roles in baking, where it is used in a similar manner as other solid fats like lard, suet, or shortening, but has a flavor that may better complement sweet baked goods. Many cookie doughs and some cake batters are leavened, at least in part, by creaming butter and sugar together, which introduces air bubbles into the butter. The tiny bubbles locked within the butter expand in the heat of baking and aerate the cookie or cake. Some cookies like shortbread may have no other source of moisture but the water in the butter. Pastries like pie dough incorporate pieces of solid fat into the dough, which become flat layers of fat when the dough is rolled out. During baking, the fat melts away, leaving a flaky texture. Butter, because of its flavor, is a common choice for the fat in such a dough, but it can be more difficult to work with than shortening because of its low melting point. Pastry makers often chill all their ingredients and utensils while working with a butter dough. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Préparation des brownies, étape 3 : Faire fondre le beurre et le mélanger avec le chocolat. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Préparation des brownies, étape 3 : Faire fondre le beurre et le mélanger avec le chocolat. ... In American cooking, a chocolate brownie, also known as a brownie or a Boston brownie, is a small, rich, chocolate baked cake slice, named for its brown color. ... Some examples of baked food. ... This article is about the fat. ... Suet is raw beef or mutton fat, especially that found around the loins and kidneys. ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... This article is about the food. ... Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... Batter is a thick or thin liquid mixture, usually based on flour, water or milk, and egg. ... A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. ... Creaming is a cooking technique used to blend one or more dry ingredients together with shortening of some form. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Shortbread rounds before being baked Shortbread is a type of biscuit (cookie) which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts plain white flour, although other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture. ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ...


Health and nutrition

Butter, unsalted
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 720 kcal   3000 kJ
Carbohydrates     0 g
Fat 81 g
- saturated  51 g
- monounsaturated  21 g  
- polyunsaturated  3 g  
Protein 1 g
Vitamin A equiv.  684 μg  76%
Cholesterol 215 mg
Fat percentage can vary.
See also Types of butter.
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

According to USDA figures, one tablespoon of butter (14 grams) contains 100 calories, all from fat, 11 grams of fat, of which 7 grams are saturated fat, and 30 milligrams of cholesterol.[24] In other words, butter consists mostly of saturated fat and is a significant source of dietary cholesterol. For these reasons, butter has been generally considered to be a contributor to health problems, especially heart disease. For many years, vegetable margarine was recommended as a substitute, since it is an unsaturated fat and contains little or no cholesterol. In recent decades, though, it has become accepted that the trans fats contained in partially hydrogenated oils used in typical margarines significantly raise undesirable LDL cholesterol levels as well.[25] Trans-fat free margarines have since been developed. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... “USDA” redirects here. ... This tablespoon has a capacity of about 1 tbsp. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ...


Butter contains only traces of lactose, so moderate consumption of butter is not a problem for the lactose intolerant.[26] People with milk allergies need to avoid butter, which contains enough of the allergy-causing proteins to cause reactions.[27] Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Milk allergy is an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to one or more cows milk proteins. ...


Butter can form a useful role in dieting by providing satiety. A small amount added to low fat foods such as vegetables may stave off feelings of hunger. Satiety, or the feeling of fullness and disappearance of appetite after a meal, is a process mediated by the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Physics Hypertextbook: density
  2. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entry for butter. Retrieved 27 November 2005.
  3. ^ McGee p. 35.
  4. ^ McGee p. 33.
  5. ^ McGee p. 34.
  6. ^ McGee p. 37.
  7. ^ Dates from McGee p. 10.
  8. ^ Dalby p. 65.
  9. ^ Bostock and Riley translation. Book 28, chapter 35.
  10. ^ Dalby p. 65.
  11. ^ Web Exhibits: Butter. Ancient Firkins.
  12. ^ McGee p. 33, "Ancient, Once Unfashionable".
  13. ^ Web Exhibits: Butter. Ancient Firkins.
  14. ^ Web Exhibits: Butter. Eating less butter, and more fat.
  15. ^ See for example this chart from International Margarine Association of the Countries of Europe statistics. Retrieved 4 December 2005.
  16. ^ Milton E. Parker (1948). "Princely Packets of Golden Health (A History of Butter Packaging)" (PDF). Retrieved on October 15, 2006.
  17. ^ a b "A Better Stick of Butter?", Cook's Illustrated (no. 72): 3, 2005
  18. ^ Statistics from USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (1999). Dairy: Word Markets and Trade. Retrieved 1 December 2005. The export and import figures do not include trade between nations within the European Union, and there are inconsistencies regarding the inclusion of clarified butterfat products (explaining why New Zealand is shown exporting more butter in 1997 than was produced).
  19. ^ Crawford et al, part B, section III, ch. 1: Butter. Retrieved 28 November 2005.
  20. ^ Bring back butter conditioners. Retrieved 27 November 2005. The feature has been phased out for energy conservation reasons.
  21. ^ According to joyofbaking.com, unsalted butter can last for up to three months and salted butter up to five.
  22. ^ Sauce information from McGee, pp. 36 (beurre noisette and beurre noir), 632 (beurre blanc and beurre monté), and 635–636 (hollandaise and béarnaise).
  23. ^ McGee p. 37.
  24. ^ Data from nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 27 November 2005.
  25. ^ Q&A about Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol from the (U.S.) National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2005). Retrieved 15 April 2006.
  26. ^ From data here, one teaspoon of butter contains 0.03 grams of lactose; a cup of milk contains 400 times that amount.
  27. ^ Allergy Society of South Africa. Milk Allergy & Intolerance. Retrieved 27 November 2005.

“USDA” redirects here. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Image:Teaspoon sugar. ...

References

  • McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.  pp 33–39, "Butter and Margarine"
  • Dalby, Andrew (2003). Food in the Ancient World from A to Z, 65. Google Print. ISBN 0-415-23259-7 (accessed November 16, 2005). Also available in print from Routledge (UK).
  • Michael Douma (editor). WebExhibits' Butter pages. Retrieved November 21, 2005.
  • Crawford, R.J.M. et al (1990). The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 92-5-102899-0.  Full text online
  • Grigg, David B. (November 7, 1974). The Agricultural Systems of the World: An Evolutionary Approach, 196–198. Google Print. ISBN 0-521-09843-2 (accessed November 28, 2005). Also available in print from Cambridge University Press.

is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Butter
  • Composition and characteristics of butter, The Canadian Dairy Commission
  • Manufacture of butter, The University of Guelph
  • "Butter", Food Resource, College of Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, February 20, 2007. – FAQ, links, and extensive bibliography of food science articles on butter.
  • Cork Butter Museum: the story of Ireland’s most important food export and the world’s largest butter market
  • Nutrition & Ingredient facts

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon (USA). ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ... ... Fats is the plural for fat, a generic term for a class of lipids in biochemistry. ... Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, edible natural vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu گھی, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... This article is about the fat. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... A slab of słonina aged in paprika, popular in Central and East Europe Salo (Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Hungarian: Polish: , Macedonian: , Romanian slănínă or slánă, Serbo-Croatian, Czech and Slovak: slanina) is a traditional Central and Eastern European food: slabs of pork underskin fat, with or... Fat percentage can vary. ... Shea nut butter is a slightly greenish or ivory-colored natural fat extracted from fruit of the Shea tree by crushing and boiling. ... Suet is raw beef or mutton fat, especially that found around the loins and kidneys. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... Oil painting is done on surfaces with pigment ground into a medium of oil - especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... Argan oil is an oil produced from the fruits of the Argan (Argania spinosa) a species of tree endemic to the calcareous semi-desert of southwestern Morocco. ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn. ... Cottonseed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed. ... Grape oil (also grapeseed oil) is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of various varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, an abundant by-product of wine making. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. ... A bottle of peanut oil Peanut oil is an organic oil derived from peanuts, noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent legume. ... Pumpkin seed oil (Bučno olje in Slovenian, Kernöl or Kürbiskernöl in German) is a culinary specialty of eastern Slovenia (Styria and Prekmurje) and south eastern Austria (Styria), and a European Union Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) product. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Safflower oil is an oil extracted from the safflower seed. ... Chinese Sesame Oil White sesame seeds Sesame oil (also known as gingelly oil and til oil) is an organic oil derived from sesames, noted to have the distinctive aroma and taste of its parent seed. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... Walnut oil was one of the most important and vital oils of the Renaissance. ... Olive oil The following is intended to be a comprehensive list of oils that are extracted from plants. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Butter - Free Encyclopedia (627 words)
Butter sold in United States markets is typically salted.
When the butter is coming, which is easily ascertained by the sound, take off the lid, and with a small, flat board scrape down the sides of the churn, and do the same to the lid: this prevents waste.
When the butter is come the butter-milk is to be poured off and spring water put into the churn, and turned for two or three minutes; this is to be then poured away and fresh added, and again the handle turned for a minute or two.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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