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Encyclopedia > Butte, Montana
Butte, Montana
Nickname: Richest hill on earth
Location of Butte in Montana State
Location of Butte in Montana State
County Silver Bow
Area
 - City 1,856.5 km²  (716.8 sq mi)
 - Land 1,854.7 km² (716.1 sq mi)
 - Water 1.7 km² (0.7 sq mi)
Population (2000)
 - City 33,892
 - Density 18.3/km² (47.3/sq mi)
Time zone MST (UTC−7)
 - Summer (DST) MDT (UTC−6)
Website: [1]
Uptown Butte
Uptown Butte
1942 view of the city
1942 view of the city

Butte is a city in Silver Bow County, Montana and is the county seat. In 1977, the city and county governments consolidated to form the sole entity of The City and County of Butte-Silver Bow. As of the 2000 census, Butte population was 33,892. In its heyday between the late 19th century and about 1920, it was one of the largest and most notorious copper boomtowns in the American West, home to hundreds of saloons and a famous red-light district. Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... Image File history File links Adapted from Wikipedias MT county maps by Seth Ilys. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Silver Bow County is a county located in the state of Montana. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Mountain Standard Time (MST) is UTC-7, Mountain Daylight Time (MDT) is UTC-6 The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-7) during the shortest days of autumn and winter, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Mountain Daylight Time or MDT is the Mountain Standard Time Zone (or MST) during Daylight Savings Time. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x653, 139 KB) Uptown Butte, looking north, at the intersection of Main Street and Park Street. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x653, 139 KB) Uptown Butte, looking north, at the intersection of Main Street and Park Street. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (6920x5232, 3875 KB) Butte, Montana Photo taken in September, 1942. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (6920x5232, 3875 KB) Butte, Montana Photo taken in September, 1942. ... Silver Bow County is a county located in the state of Montana. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... A county seat is a term for an administrative center for a county, primarily used in the United States. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... A boomtown is a community that experiences sudden and rapid population and economic growth. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The De Wallen red-light district in Amsterdam A red-light district is a neighborhoooood where prostitution and other businesses in the sex industry flourish. ...


The local daily newspaper is the Montana Standard. The Montana Standard is a Lee Enterprises daily newspaper printed in Butte, Montana. ...


There is also an independent weekly newspaper, The Butte Weekly. The city is served by Bert Mooney Airport. Bert Mooney Airport serves the city and surrounding area of Butte, Montana, USA. Bert Mooney was an aviator from Butte and was the first to fly mail into Yellowstone National Park in 1935. ...

Contents

History

Butte began as a mining town in the late 19th century. At first only gold and silver were mined in the area, but the advent of electricity caused a soaring demand for copper, which was abundant in the area. The small town soon became one of the most prosperous cities in the country, especially during World War I, and was often called "the Richest Hill on Earth". With an estimated population of about 100,000 at its peak c. 1910-1917 [note that US Census records never show more than about half this population], it was the largest city for many hundreds of miles in all directions. It is estimated that a third of all copper produced in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries came from Butte. The city attracted workers from Ireland, Wales, England, Canada, Finland, Austria, Serbia, Italy, China, Syria, Croatia, Montenegro, Mexico, and all areas of the USA. The legacy of the immigrants lives on in the form of the Cornish pasty which was popularized by mine workers who needed something easy to eat in the mines. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... A Cornish pasty A pasty (Cornish: Pasti, Hoggan, incorrectly written as pastie) is a type of pie, originally from Cornwall, United Kingdom. ...


The influx of miners gave Butte the reputation as a wide-open town where any vice was obtainable. The city's famous saloon and red-light district, called the "Line", was centered on Mercury Street, where the elegant bordellos included the famous Dumas Brothel, regarded as the longest-running house of prostitution in the U.S. In the brick alley behind the brothel was the equally famous Venus Alley, where women plied their trade in small cubicles called "cribs". The red-light district brought miners and other men from all over the region and was openly tolerated by city officials until the 1980s as one of the last such urban districts in the U.S. The Dumas Brothel is now operated as a museum to Butte's rougher days. Close by Wyoming Street is home to the public high school. Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... The Dumas Brothel (formerly the Dumas Hotel) was a famous bordello in Butte, Montana in the United States. ... Whore redirects here. ... Venus Alley was a famous red-light district once located in Butte, Montana in the United States. ...


At the end of the 19th century, Butte was nicknamed "The Richest Hill on Earth." Copper was in great demand because of new technologies such as electric power that required the use of copper. Three men fought for control of Butte's mining wealth. These three "Copper Kings" were William A. Clark, Marcus Daly, and F. Augustus Heinze. Following their eventual deaths, the Anaconda Copper Mining Company took over their holdings. The three Copper Kings of Butte, Montana made millions of dollars through Buttes rich mineral deposits. ... William Andrews Clark William Andrews Clark was born January 8th, 1839, in Connellsville, Pennsylvania. ... Marcus Daly (December 5, 1841 - November 12, 1900), was an Irish-born American businessman known as the Copper King. He emigrated from Ireland to the United States at the age of fifteen, arriving in New York City. ... F. Augustus Heinze was one of the three Copper Kings. His company was called the Boston and Montana Company. ... The Anaconda Copper Mine was a large copper mine in Butte. ...


In 1899, Daly joined with William Rockefeller, Henry H. Rogers, and Thomas W. Lawson to organize the Amalgamated Copper Mining Company. Not long after, the company changed its name to Anaconda Copper Mining Company (ACM). The company engaged in questionable business practices, and at one point even resorted to gunning down strikers in the Anaconda Road Massacre. In the 1920s, it was the fourth largest company in the world, and had a virtual monopoly over the mines in and around Butte. The prosperity continued up to the 1950s, when the declining grade of ore and competition from other mines led the Anaconda company to switch its focus from the costly and dangerous practice of underground mining to open pit mining. This marked the beginning of the end for the boom times in Butte. William Rockefeller (May 31, 1841-June 24, 1922), American financier, was a cofounder of the prominent United States Rockefeller family. ... Henry Huttleston Rogers (January 29, 1840 – May 19, 1909) was a United States capitalist, businessman, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist. ... Thomas William Lawson (February 26, 1857 - February 7, 1925) was an American businessman and author. ... The Anaconda Copper Mine was a large copper mine in Butte. ... The Anaconda Road Massacre is an incident that occurred on April 21, 1920 during a miners strike in Butte, Montana. ... The El Chino mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ...


In 1917, copper production from the Butte mines peaked and has steadily declined since. By WW II, copper production from the ACM's holdings in Chuquicamata, Chile, far exceeded Butte's production. The historian Janet Finn has examined this "tale of two cities"--Butte and Chuquicamata as two ACM mining towns.


Further reading

  • MacGibbon, Elma (1904). "Butte and Anaconda", Leaves of knowledge (DJVU), Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection, Shaw & Borden. 

The open-pit era

Thousands of homes were destroyed in the Meaderville suburb and surrounding areas to excavate the Berkeley Pit, which opened in 1955. At the time, it was the largest truck-operated open pit copper mine in the United States. Other open pit mines were dug in the area, including the still-operational East Continental Pit. The Berkeley pit grew with time, and in November 1973 the Columbia Gardens, William A. Clark's gift to the people of Butte, was torn down to expand the Berkeley Pit. In 1977 the ARCO company purchased Anaconda Mining, and only three years later started shutting down mines due to lower metal prices. In 1982, all mining in the Berkeley Pit was suspended. The Berkeley Pit in May 1984. ... William Andrews Clark William Andrews Clark was born January 8th, 1839, in Connellsville, Pennsylvania. ... An ARCO gas station in Los Angeles ARCO (an acronym for Atlantic Richfield Company) is an American oil company that was formed by the merger of East Coast-based Atlantic Refining and California-based Richfield Petroleum in 1966. ...


Anaconda stopped mining at the Continental pit in 1983. Montana Resources bought the property and reopened the Continental pit in 1986. The company stopped mining in 2000, but resumed in 2003 with higher metal prices, and continues at last report, employing 346 people. From 1880 through 2005, the mines of the Butte district have produced more than 9.6 million tonnes of copper, 2.1 million tonnes of zinc, 1.6 million tonnes of manganese, 381 thousand tonnes of lead, 87 thousand tonnes of molybdenum, 715 million troy ounces of silver, and 2.9 million ounces of gold. [1]


When mining shut down at the Berkeley pit in 1982, water pumps in nearby mines were also shut down, which resulted in highly acidic water laced with toxic heavy metals filling up the pit. Only two years later the pit was classified as a Superfund site and an environmental hazard site. Meanwhile, the acidic water continued to rise. It was not until the 1990s that serious efforts to clean up the Berkeley Pit began. The situation gained even more attention after as many as 342 migrating geese picked the pit lake as a resting place, resulting in their deaths. Steps have since been taken to prevent a recurrence, including but not limited to loudspeakers broadcasting sounds to scare off waterfowl. However, in November 2003 the Horseshoe Bend treatment facility went online and began treating and diverting much of the water that would have flowed into the pit. Ironically, the Berkeley Pit is also one of the city's biggest tourist attractions. It is the largest pit lake in the United States, and is the most costly part of the country's largest Superfund site. Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... The Berkeley Pit in May 1984. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11...


Today, Butte's population is about a third of its peak in 1917. Over a dozen of the headframes still stand over the mine shafts, and the city still contains thousands of old commercial and residential buildings from the boom times. As with many industrial cities, tourism and services, especially health care, are rising as primary employers. Many areas of the city, especially the areas near the old mines, show signs of wear from time but a recent influx of investors and an aggressive campaign to remedy blight has led to a renewed interest in restoring property in Uptown Butte's historic district, which was expanded in 2006 to include parts of Anaconda and is now the largest National Historic Landmark District in the United States with nearly 6,000 contributing properties. The Gallows Frame is the structural frame, usually made of steel or timber, at the top of an underground mine shaft. ... Anaconda, county seat of Anaconda-Deer Lodge County, is located in mountainous southwestern Montana. ... USS Constitution A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, site, structure, or object, almost always within the United States, officially recognized for its historical significance. ...


A century after the era of intensive mining and smelting, the area around the city remains an environmental issue. Heavy metals such as lead and arsenic are found in high concentrations in some spots affected by old mining, and for a period of time in the 1990s the tap water was unsafe to drink due to poor filtration and decades-old wooden supply pipes. Efforts to improve the water supply have taken place in the past few years, with millions of dollars being invested to upgrade water lines and repair infrastructure. Environmental research and cleanup efforts have contributed to the diversification of the local economy, and signs of vitality remain, including a multi-million dollar polysilicon manufacturing plant locating nearby in the 1990s and the city's recognition and designation in the late 1990s as an All-American City and also as one of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Dozen Distinctive Destinations in 2002. In 2004, Butte received another economic boost as well as international recognition as the location for the Hollywood film Don't Come Knocking, directed by renowned director Wim Wenders and released throughout the world in 2006. For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... All-America City Program Logo The All-America City Award is given by the National Civic League annually to ten cities in the United States. ... Dont Come Knocking is a 2005 film directed by Wim Wenders. ...


The annual celebration of Butte's Irish heritage (since 1882) is the annual St. Patrick's Day festivities. In these modern times about 30,000 revelers converge on Butte's Historic Uptown District to enjoy the parade led by the Ancient Order of Hibernians and celebrate in bars such as Maloney's, the Silver Dollar Saloon, the M&M Cigar Store, and The Irish Times Pub. St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


North Butte Mining Disaster of 1917

Sparked by a tragic accident more than 2000 feet below the ground, a fire in the Granite Mountain shaft spewed flames, smoke, and poisonous gas through the labyrinth of underground tunnels. A rescue effort commenced but the carbon monoxide was stealing the air supply. A few men built man-made bulk heads to save their lives but many others died in a panic to try to get out. Rescue workers set up a fan to prevent the fire from spreading. This worked for a short time but when the rescuers tried to use water, the water evaporated creating steam that burned people trying to escape. Once the fire was out, those waiting to hear the news on the surface couldn't identify the victims. They were too mutilated to recognize, leading many to assume the worst. One hundred sixty one bodies were removed from the mine. Due to the heroic efforts of men such as Ernest Sullau, Manus Duggan, Con O'Neil, and JD Moore, some survived to tell the tale. Abandoned mine shafts in Marl, Germany. ... A Roman mosaic picturing Theseus and the Minotaur. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Notable places

  • Montana Tech[2], a university specialising in the resources and engineering fields. (The giant letter "M" visible in the top photograph on this page stands for Montana Tech and was constructed in 1910.)
  • Our Lady of the Rockies Statue, a 90-foot statue, dedicated to women and mothers everywhere, on top of the Continental Divide, overlooking Butte
  • The Berkeley Pit, a gigantic former open pit copper mine filled with toxic water. There is an observation deck on the high wall of the Berkeley Pit lake.
  • The World Museum of Mining on the site of the Orphan Girl mine.
    • There are many underground mine headframes (Gallows frames[3]) still remaining on the hill in Butte, including the Anselmo, the Steward, the Original, the Travona, the Belmont, the Kelly, the Mountain Con, the Lexington, the Bell/Diamond, the Granite Mountain, and the Badger.
  • The Dumas Brothel, widely considered America's longest running house of prostitution [2]
  • Venus Alley
  • Mai Wah Museum [4]
  • Rookwood Speakeasy [5], an underground, prohibition era Speakeasy
  • Copper King Mansion [6], a bed and breakfast/local museum and previously home to William Andrews Clark, one of Butte's three Copper Kings.
  • The Arts Chateau, formerly the home of William Andrews Clark's son, Charles, the home was designed in the image of a French Chateau. This ornate mansion now serves as a community arts center and gallery.
  • The Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives [7] stores and provides public access to documents and artifacts from Butte's rich past.

Montana Tech is a university located in Butte, Montana. ... Our Lady of the Rockies is a 90-foot statue that sits atop the Continental Divide overlooking Butte, Montana. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... The Berkeley Pit in May 1984. ... The Dumas Brothel (formerly the Dumas Hotel) was a famous bordello in Butte, Montana in the United States. ... Venus Alley was a famous red-light district once located in Butte, Montana in the United States. ... The Copper King Mansion, a 34-room residence of Victorian architecture, was built from 1884 to 1888 as the Butte residence of William Andrews Clark, one of Montanas three famous Copper Kings. The home features fresco painted ceilings, elegant parquets of rare imported wood, gas and electric chandeliers, ornate... William Andrews Clark William Andrews Clark was born January 8th, 1839, in Connellsville, Pennsylvania. ... The three Copper Kings of Butte, Montana made millions of dollars through Buttes rich mineral deposits. ... William Andrews Clark William Andrews Clark was born January 8th, 1839, in Connellsville, Pennsylvania. ...

Notable people from Butte

  • Mary MacLane, renowned feminist author
  • Evel Knievel, motorcycle daredevil
  • George F. Grant, innovative fly tier, author, and conservationist; an excellent exhibit of Grant's flies and historic collection is on permanent display at the Butte Visitor's Center.
  • Martha Raye, actress
  • Levi Leipheimer, Olympic cyclist
  • Tim Hauck
  • Barbara Ehrenreich
  • Rudy Autio, ceramist/sculptor/artist
  • Kirby Grant, actor
  • Patricia Briggs, fantasy author
  • Paul B. Lowney, writer and humorist, author of At Another Time — Growing up in Butte
  • Sonny Lubick, football coach
  • Lucille Ball, was from Jamestown, New York, however, she would often tell people that she was from Butte, Montana. As she later explained to a biographer, she knew more about Butte than most natives after years of putting on this ruse in order to seem more middle America.
  • Manus Duggan, born on May 30, 1887. Worked for the North Butte Mining Company as a "nipper". A nipper was one who sharpened tools for miners that drilled into the rock. Being a "nipper", he was familiar with every crosscut, manway, and drift of the mine. During the mining disaster of 1917, Manus saved the lives of many men by building a bulkhead to prevent Carbon Monoxide from killing them. He would die, but many others with him survived. One said: "No greater love hath no man that he lay down his life for his friend." While he was missing he became the hero in the newspapers.
  • Josip Elic, a renowned Broadway, movie, and television actor was born in Butte on March 10, 1921.

Mary MacLane, 1911 Mary MacLane (May 1, 1881 - August 1929) was a controversial writer during the Edwardian period. ... Robert Craig Evel Knievel, Jr. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Martha Raye (August 27, 1916 – October 19, 1994) was an American comic actress and singer who performed in movies, and later on television. ... Levi Leipheimer (born October 24, 1973 in Butte, Montana) is an American professional bicyclist who rides with the Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team. ... Tim Hauck (born December 20, 1966 in Butte, Montana) is a former American football Defensive Back. ... Barbara Ehrenreich (born August 26, 1941, in Butte, Montana) is a prominent American writer, columnist, feminist, socialist and political activist. ... Rudy Autio (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Patricia Briggs (b. ... Paul B. Lowney in April 2005 Paul Benjamin Lowney (born in Butte, Montana) is a Seattle-based author and humorist. ... Sonny Lubick is synonymous with the Colorado State Rams football program. ... Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an iconic American actor, comedian and star of the landmark sitcom I Love Lucy, a four time Emmy Award winner (awarded 1953, 1956, 1967, 1968) and charter member of the Television Hall of Fame. ... Jamestown is a city in Chautauqua County, New York in the United States. ... Bulkhead is a retaining wall, such as bulkhead within a ship or watershed retaining wall. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, Butte has a total area of 1,856.5 km² (716.8 mi²). 1,854.7 km² (716.1 mi²) of it is land and 1.7 km² (0.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 0.09% water. Butte is also home to one of the largest deposits of Bornite. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Bornite (Copper Iron Sulfide) Tarnish of Bornite Bornite is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the cubic system. ...


Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 33,892 people, 14,135 households, and 8,735 families residing in Butte. The population density was 18.3/km² (47.3/mi²). There were 15,833 housing units at an average density of 8.5/km² (22.1/mi²). The racial makeup of Butte is 95.38% White, 0.16% African American, 1.99% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, and 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.74% of the population. Irish-Americans constitute one of the largest ethnic groups in Butte, which is reflected in the St. Patrick's Day parade. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the west European nation of Ireland. ... St. ...

There were 14,135 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.2% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.97. Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


In Butte the population is spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.


The median income for a household in Butte is $30,516, and the median income for a family was $40,186. Males had a median income of $31,409 versus $21,626 for females. The per capita income for Butte is $17,068. About 10.7% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.2% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Butte and Superfund

The mining activity in Butte resulted in significant contamination of downstream and downwind areas, and currently is home to one of the largest (in terms of land area) Superfund sites, extending along a 120 mile long corridor. Over the past century, mining and smelting operations of the Anaconda Copper Mining Corporation polluted the Clark Fork River watershed at the headwaters of the Columbia River. This area takes in the cities of Butte, Anaconda, and Missoula. Between the upstream city of Butte and the downstream city of Missoula lies the Deer Lodge Valley. By the 1970s, local citizens and agency personnel were increasingly concerned over the toxic effects of arsenic and heavy metals on environment and human health. Most of the waste was created by the Anaconda Copper Mining Corporation (ACM), which merged with the Atlantic Richfield Corporation (Arco) in 1977. Shortly thereafter, in 1983, Arco ceased mining and smelting operations in the Butte-Anaconda area. An ARCO gas station in Los Angeles ARCO (an acronym for Atlantic Richfield Company) is an American oil company that was formed by the merger of East Coast-based Atlantic Refining and California-based Richfield Petroleum in 1966. ...


For more than a century, the Anaconda Copper Mining company mined ore from Butte and smelted it in nearby Anaconda. During this time, the Anaconda smelter released up to 40 tons per day of arsenic, 1,700 tons per day of sulfur, and great quantities of lead and other heavy metals into the air (MacMillan). In Butte, mine tailings were dumped directly into Silver Bow Creek, creating a 150-mile plume of pollution extending down the valley to Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River just upstream of Missoula. Air and water borne pollution poisoned livestock and agricultural soils throughout the Deer Lodge Valley. Though the farmers sought damages in a series of lawsuits between 1905 and 1924, the powerful and influential mining companies prevailed in every case.


References and Bibliography

  1. ^ Steve J. Czehura (2006) Butte: a world class ore deposit, Mining Engineering, 9/2006, p.14-19.
  2. ^ "The Richest Hill on Earth - A History of Butte, Montana," by Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives Staff, 2003 (CD-ROM)
  • The Battle for Butte: Mining & Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906 by Michael P. Malone, from Montana Historical Society Press, 1995.
  • Copper Camp: Stories of the world's greatest mining town, Butte, Montana compiled by Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Montana.
  • The War of the Copper Kings: The Builders of Butte and the Wolves of Wall Street (1935) by C. B. Glasscock

Books and Book Chapters

  • Barnett, Harold C. 1994. Toxic Debts and the Superfund Dilemma. University of North Carolina Press.
  • Beirle, Thomas C. and Jerry Cayford. 2002. Democracy in Practice: Public Participation in Environmental Decisions. Washington DC, USA: Resources For the Future Press.
  • Callon, Michel. 1986. “Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and Fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay.” In John Law (ed.), Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).
  • Calvert, Jerry. 1988. The Gibraltar: Socialism and Labor in Butte, Montana (Helena, Montana: Montana Historical Society).
  • Castree, Noel and Tom MacMillan. 2001. “Dissolving Dualisms: Actor-networks and the Reimagination of Nature.” In Noel Castree and Bruce Braun (eds.), Social Nature: Theory, Practice, and Politics (Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers).
  • Church, Thomas W. and Robert T. Nakamura. 2003. Taming Regulation: Superfund and the Challenge of Regulatory Reform (Washington: Brookings Institution Press).
  • Church, Thomas W. and Robert T. Nakamura. 1993.Cleaning up the Mess: Implementation Strategies in Superfund (Washington: The Brookings Institution).
  • Clark Fork Coalition. 2005. State of the Clark Fork: Understanding our Watershed. Missoula, Montana: The Clark Fork Coalition.
  • Cranor CF. 1993. Regulating Toxic Substances (NY: Oxford U. Pr).
  • Edelstein, Michael R. 2003. Contaminated Communities: Coping with Residential Toxic Exposure. Westview Press.
  • Emmons, David. 1989. The Butte Irish: Class and Ethnicity in an American Mining Town, 1875-1925 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press).
  • Everett, George. 2007. Butte Trivia (Helena, Montana: Riverbend Publishing Co.)
  • Finn, Janet. 1998. Tracing the Veins: Of Copper, Culture, and Community from Butte to Chuquicamata (Berkeley: University of California Press).
  • Freudenberg, Nicholas and Carol Steinspir. 1992. “Not in Our Backyards: The Grassroots Environmental Movement,” pp. 27-38 in Dunlap, Riley E. and Angela G. Mertig (eds.) American Environmentalism: The U.S. Environmental Movement: 1970-1990 (Philadelphia , PA : Taylor & Francis).
  • Gibbs, Lois. 1998. Love Canal: The story continues… (Stony Creek, CT: New Society Publishers).
  • Glasscock, C.B. 1935. The War of the Copper Kings (NY: Grosset and Dunlap).
  • Hird, John. 1994. Superfund: The Political Economy of Environmental Risk (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press).
  • Hiskes, Richard P. 1998. Democracy, Risk, and Community: Technological Hazards and the Evolution of Liberalism (NY: Oxford University Press).
  • Kemmis, Daniel. 1990. Community and the Politics of Place (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press).
  • Krimsky, Sheldon and Alonzo Plough.1988. Environmental Hazards: Communicating Risks as a Social Process (Dover, Mass: Auburn House Publishing Company).
  • Law, John and John Hassard (eds.). 1999. Actor Network Theory and After (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers).
  • MacGibbon, Elma (1904). Leaves of knowledge. Shaw & Borden Co. Available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection Elma MacGibbons reminiscences of her travels in the United States starting in 1898, which were mainly in Oregon and Washington. Includes chapter "Butte and Anaconda."
  • MacMillan, Donald. 2000. Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution, and the Courts, 1890-1924. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press.
  • Malone, Michael. 1981. The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on the Northern Frontier (Seattle: University of Washington Press).
  • Mercier, Laurie. 2001. Anaconda: Labor, Community, and Culture in Montana’s Smelter City (Chicago: University of Illinois Press).

Munday, Pat. 2001. Montana’s Last Best River: The Big Hole River and its People (Guilford, Connecticut: The Lyons Press).

  • Murphy, Mary. 1997. Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-1941 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press).
  • Nash, June. 1979. We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat Us (NY: Columbia University Press).
  • National Research Council. 2005. Superfund and Mining Megasites: Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (Washington, DC: National Academy Press).
  • Novotny, W. Patrick. 2000. We Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and the Struggle for a New Environmentalism (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers).
  • Punke, Michael. 2006. Fire and Brimstone The North Butte Mining Disastor of 1917 (New York: Hyperion Books).
  • Salzman, James and Barton H. Thompson, Jr. 2003. Environmental Law and Policy (NY: Foundation Press).
  • Taylor, Peter. 2005. Unruly Complexity: Ecology, Interpretation, Engagement (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Journal Articles

  • Capek, Stella M.. 1992. Environmental Justice, Regulation, and the Local Community.” International Journal of Health Services 22(4):729-746.
  • Chess, C. and Purcell, K. 1999. Public participation and the environment: Do we know what works? Environmental Science and Technology 33(16): 2685-2692.
  • Covello VT and Mumpower J. 1985 “Risk Analysis and Risk Management: A Historical Perspective,” Risk Analysis 5(2): 103-120.
  • Folk, Ellison. "Public Participation in the Superfund Cleanup Process," Ecology Law Quarterly 18 (1991), 173-221.
  • Hird, J. A. 1993. “Environmental Policy and Equity: the case of Superfund.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12: 323-343.
  • Jasanoff, Sheila. 1992. "Science, Politics, and the Renegotiation of Expertise at EPA", Osiris, Vol. 7 (1992): 195-217.
  • Light, Andrew. 2000. "What is an Ecological Identity?," Environmental Politics 9 (4): 59-81.
  • Malone, Michael. 1985. “The Close of the Copper Century.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 35: 69-72.
  • Moore, Johnnie N. and S.N. Luoma, S.N. 1990. "Hazardous wastes from large-scale metal extraction." Environmental Science & Technology 24 (Sept. 1990): 278-282.
  • Munday, Pat. 2002. “’A millionaire couldn’t buy a piece of water as good:’ George Grant and the Conservation of the Big Hole River Watershed.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 52 (2): 20-37.
  • Quivik, Fredric. 2004. “Of Tailings, Superfund Litigation, and Historians as Experts: U.S. v. Asarco, et al. (the Bunker Hill Case in Idaho).” The Public Historian 26 (1): 81-104.

Probst, K. et al. 2002. “Superfund's Future: What Will It Cost?” Environmental Forum, 19 (2 ): 32-41.

  • Tesh, Sylvia. 1999. “Citizen experts in environmental risk.” Policy Studies 32 (1): 39-58.
  • Teske, N. 2000. "A tale of two TAGs: Dialogue and democracy in the superfund program." American Behavioral Scientist. 44 (4): 664-678.
  • Wyckoff, William. 1995. “Postindustrial Butte. (Butte, Montana)” The Geographical Review 85 (4): 478-497.

Other

  • Arco (Atlantic Richfield Company). U.d. “Clark Fork River Operable Unit—Clark Fork River Facts.” http://www.clarkforkfacts.com Accessed 03.Nov.02.
  • Center for Public Environmental Oversight. 2002. “Roundtable on Long-term Management in the Cleanup of Contaminated Sites.” Report from a roundtable held in Washington, DC, 28 June 2002. http://www.cpeo.org/, accessed 19.Dec.05.
  • Curran, Mary E. 1996. “The Contested Terrain of Butte, Montana: Social Landscapes of Risk and Resiliency.” Master’s thesis, University of Montana.
  • Dobb, Edwin. 1999. “Mining the Past.” High Country News 31 (11): 1-10.
  • Dobb, Edwin. 1996. “Pennies from Hell: In Montana, the Bill for America’s Copper Comes Due.” Harper’s Magazine (293): 39-54.
  • Langewiesche, William. 2001. “The Profits of Doom—One of the Most Polluted Cities in America Learns to Capitalize on Its Contamination” The Atlantic Monthly (April 2001): 56-62.
  • Levine, Mark. 1996. “As the Snake Did Away with the Geese.” Outside Magazine 21 (Sept. 1996): 74-84.
  • LeCain, Timothy. 1998. “Moving Mountains: Technology and Environment in Western Copper Mining.” PhD Dissertation, University of Delaware.
  • Missoula Independent (newspaper). 2005. “Knocking Opportunity,” 07 October 2005. Missoula, Montana.
  • Montana Environmental Information Center. 2005. “Federal Superfund: EPA's Plan for Butte Priority Soils.” Available at http://www.meic.org/Butte_Superfund2005/Butte_Superfund.html.
  • Murray, C. and D.R. Marmorek. 2004. “Adaptive Management: A science-based approach to managing ecosystems in the face of uncertainty.” Prepared for presentation at the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas: Making Ecosystem Based Management Work, Victoria, British Columbia, May 11-16, 2003. ESSA Technologies, BC, Canada.
  • National Academy of Sciences. 2005. The National Academy of Sciences Report on Superfund and Mining Megasites: Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin. Available at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/reports/coeur.htm.
  • Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility. 2005. “Cut and Run: EPA Betrays Another Montana Town—A Tale of Butte, the Largest Superfund Site in the United States.” News release (August 18, 2005). http://www.peer.org/news/news_archive.php, accessed 15.Sept.05.
  • Quivik, Frederic. 1998. “Smoke and Tailings: An Environmental History of Copper Smelting Technologies in Montana, 1880 – 1930.” PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Society for Applied Anthropology. 2005. “SFAA Project Townsend, Case Study Three, The Clark Fork Superfund Sites in Western Montana.” www.sfaa.net Accessed 23.Nov.05.
  • Southland, Elizabeth. 2003. “Megasites: Presentation for the NACEPT—Superfund Subcommittee.” www.epa.gov/oswer/docs/naceptdocs/megasites.pdf, accessed 22.April.05.
  • St. Clair, Jeffrey. 2003. “Something About Butte.” Counterpunch, an online magazine. www.counterpunch.org, accessed 3.Oct.05.
  • Steele, Karen Dorn. 2002. “Superfund revived Butte.” Spokesman-Review (newspaper), Spokane, Washington, 28 July 2002.
  • Toole, K. Ross. 1954. “A History of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company: A Study in the Relationships between a State and its People and a Corporation, 1880-1950.” PhD Dissertation, University of California-Los Angeles.
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2005a. Region 8 – Superfund: Citizen’s Guide to Superfund. Updated 27 December 2005. www.epa.gov/ Accessed 27Dec.05.
  • ______. 2005b. “EPA Region 8—Environmental Justice (EJ) Program.” Updated 24 March 2005). www.epa.gov/region8/ej/ Accessed 05.Jan.06.
  • ______. 2004a. Superfund Cleanup Proposal, Butte Priority Soils Operable Unit of the Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area Superfund Site. www.epa.gov/Region8/superfund/sites/mt/FinalBPSOUProposedPlan.pdf Accessed 20.Dec.2004.
  • ______. 2004b. “Clark Fork River Record of Decision,” available at http://www.epa.gov/region8/superfund/sites/mt/milltowncfr/cfrou.html.

______. 2002a. Superfund Community Involvement Toolkit. EPA 540-K-01-004.* _______. 2002b. “Butte Benefits from a $78 Million Cleanup Agreement.” Available at http://www.epa.gov/region8/superfund/sites/mt/silver_.html. High Country News is a bi-weekly magazine published in Paonia, Colorado that focuses on environmental and cultural issues in the Western United States. ...

  • ______. 1998. Superfund Community Involvement Handbook and Toolkit. Washington, DC: Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
  • ______. 1996. “EPA Superfund Record of Decision R08-96/112.” Available at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/rods/fulltext/r0896112.pdf.
  • ______. 1992. "Environmental Equity: Reducing Risk for All Communities." EPA A230-R-92-008; two volumes (June 1992).

Movies Featuring Butte and Butte Buildings

  • 2004 - Don't Come Knocking, Wim Wenders Productions
  • 2003 - Who Killed Cock Robin?, Extreme Low Frequency
  • 2003 - Love Comes to the Executioner, Aura Entertainment
  • 1993 - Return to Lonesome Dove, RHI Productions.
  • 1989 - Lonesome Dove, RHI Productions
  • 1985 - Runaway Train, Cannon Films
  • 1974 - The Killer Inside Me, Cyclone Productions
  • 1971 - Evel Knievil, Fanfare Films

Dont Come Knocking is a 2005 film directed by Wim Wenders. ... Who Killed Cock Robin is a nursery rhyme beginning Who killed Cock Robin? I, said the Sparrow, with my bow and arrow, I killed Cock Robin. ... Lonesome Dove, written by Larry McMurtry, is a Pulitzer Prize-winning western novel and the first published book of the Lonesome Dove series. ... A runaway train is a train which is unable to stop or be stopped. ... Robert Craig Evel Knievel, Jr. ...

See also

Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... Anaconda, county seat of Anaconda-Deer Lodge County, is located in mountainous southwestern Montana. ... St. ...

External links

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
  • EcoRover, a blog about Butte superfund and Butte as a recovering ecosystem
  • The Montana Standard, the local newspaper
  • ButteAmerica.com
  • Clark Fork River Technical Assistance Committee
  • Copper King Mansion
  • Mai Wah Museum
  • Butte CVB
  • Mainstreet Uptown Butte
  • City and County of Butte-Silver Bow Government Website
  • Butte, MT Travel Guide: The Online Guide to Butte, Montana
  • PitWatch
  • Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives
  • Butte Fanpage with photos and cultural history
  • Butte photos and information at Western Mining History
  • Biography of Frank Little, tortured and lynched for organizing the copper miners of Butte
  • Butte, Montana - St. Urho's Finnish Holiday Day Celebration - March 16
  • Butte, Montana St. Patrick's Day Parade
  • Butte, Montana - St. Patrick's Day Celebration - March 17
  • KXLF TV - Montana's NewsStation

Coordinates: 46°00′23″N, 112°31′47″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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