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Encyclopedia > Butrint
Remains of a theatre and part of the agora (Photo by Marc Morell)
Remains of the 6th-century baptistery
Remains of the 6th-century baptistery

Butrint (Albanian: Butrint or Butrinti) is a city and an archeological site in Albania, close to the Greek border. It was known in antiquity as Bouthroton in Ancient Greek and Buthrotum in Latin. It is located on a hill overlooking the Vivari Channel. Inhabited since prehistoric times, Butrint has been the site of an Epirot city, a Roman colony and a bishopric. Image File history File links Butrint,_Albania. ... Image File history File links Butrint,_Albania. ... Ruins of Butrint (taken from the German wikipedia) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ruins of Butrint (taken from the German wikipedia) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Vivari Channel links Lake Butrint with the Straits of Corfu, and forms a border of the peninsula of Butrint. ... A mitre is used as a symbol of the bishops ministry. ...

Contents

Ancient history

Butrint was originally a town within the ancient region of Epirus. It was the one of the major centres of the local Chaonian tribe with close contacts to the Greek colony on Corfu and Illyrian tribes to the north. According to the Roman writer Virgil, its legendary founder was the Trojan seer Helenus, the son of King Priam, who had married Andromache and moved West after the fall of Troy. The historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus wrote that Aeneas visited Butrint after his own escape from the destruction of Troy. Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... A sculpture of Virgil, probably from the 1st century AD. For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy (Greek: Τροία [Troia], also Ίλιον [Ilion], Latin: Troia, Ilium) is a legendary city and center of the Trojan War, as described in the Epic Cycle, and especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. ... In Greek mythology, Helenus was the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy. ... Andromache grieves the loss of Hector In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, sister to Podes. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ...


First archaeological evidence of sedentary occupation dates to between 10th and 8th centuries BC. The original settlement probably sold food to Corfu and had a fort and sanctuary. Butrint was in a strategically important position due its access to the Straits of Corfu. By the 4th century BC it had grown in importance and included a theatre, a sanctuary to Asclepius and an agora. Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... An agora (αγορά), translatable as marketplace, was an essential part of an ancient Greek polis or city-state. ...


In 228 Butrint became a Roman protectorate alongside Corfu and Romans increasingly dominated Butrint after 167 BC. In the next century, it became a part of a province of Illyricum. In 44 BC, Caesar designated Butrint as a colony to reward soldiers that had fought on his side against Pompey. The local landholder Titus Pomponius Atticus objected to his correspondent Cicero who lobbied against the plan in the Senate. As a result, Butrint received only small numbers of colonists. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC - 167 BC - 166 BC 165 BC 164... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Caesar may refer to the following: Related to Ancient Roman times Caesar (title), a title used by Roman Emperors Julius Caesar (100 BC–44 BC), a famous politician and military leader He used the Caesar cipher in his military campaigns. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Titus Pomponius Atticus (110 BC/109 BC – 32 BC). ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Classical pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ...


In 31 BC, Emperor Augustus fresh from his victory over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium reestablished the plan to make Butrint a veterans' colony. New residents expanded the city and the construction included an aqueduct, Roman bathhouses, a forum complex, and a nymphaeum. Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions and a World Heritage Site. ... The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... A Nymphaeum, in Greek and Roman antiquities, is a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs. ...


In the 3rd century AD, an earthquake destroyed a large part of the town, levelling buidings in the suburbs on the Vrina Plain and in the forum of the city centre. Excavations have revealed that city had already been in decline and was becoming a manufacturing center. However, the settlement survived into the late antique era, becoming a major port in the province of Old Epirus. The town of late antiquity included the grand Triconch Palace, the house of a major local notable that was built around 425 AD. An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from and is powered by the sudden release of stored energy in the crust that propagates seismic waves. ...


In the early 6th century AD, Butrint became a bishopric and new construction included a large baptistry, one of the largest such Paleochristian buildings of its type, and a basilica. Emperor Justinian strengthened the walls of the city. The Ostrogoths under King Totila sacked Butrint in 550 AD. Evidence from the excavations shows that importation of commodities, wine and oil from the Eastern Mediterranean continued into the early years of the 7th century when the early Byzantine Empire lost these provinces. In this, it follows the historical pattern seen in other Balkan cities, with the 6th to 7th century being a watershed for the transformaiton of the Roman World into the Early Middle Ages. Christen redirects here. ... St. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ...


By the 7th century, following the model of classical cities throughout the Mediterranean, Butrint had shrunk to a much smaller fortified post and with the collapse of Roman power was briefly controlled by First Bulgarian Empire before being regained by the Byzantine Empire in the 9th century. It remained an outpost of the empire fending off assaults from the Normans until 1204 when following the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine Empire fragmented, Butirnt falling to the breakaway Despotate of Epirus. In the following centuries, the area was a site of conflict between the Byzantines, the Angevins of southern Italy, and the Venetians, and the city changed hands many times. In 1267, Charles of Anjou took control of both Butrint and Corfu and renovated the walls and the basilica. The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ... The Byzantine Empire (Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered around its capital of Constantinople. ... Norman conquests in red. ... The Fourth Crusade (1201–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt, instead, in 1204, invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Byzantine Empire (Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered around its capital of Constantinople. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ...


The Republic of Venice purchased the area including Corfu from the Angevins in 1386; however, the Venetian merchants were principally interested in Corfu and Butrint once again declined. In 1490, they built a tower and a small fort. The area was lightly settled afterwards. Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ...


In 1797, Butrint came under French control when Venice ceded it to Napoleon as a part of the Treaty of Campo Formio. In 1799, the local Ottoman governor Ali Pasha Tepelena conquered it, and it became a part of the empire until Albanian independence in 1912. By that time, the site of the original city had been unoccupied for centuries and was surrounded by malarial marshes. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1683) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Engraving of Ali Pasha Ali Pashë Tepelena, commonly known as Ali Pasha, (1741 – January 24, 1822) was the military ruler (pasha) of a large area of the Ottoman Empires European territories. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Archaeological excavations

The first modern archaeological excavations began in 1928 when the Fascist government of Mussolini's Italy sent an expedition to Butrint. The aim was geopolitical rather than scientific, aiming to extend Italian hegemony in the area. The leader was an Italian archaeologist, Luigi Maria Ugolini who despite the political aims of his mission was a good archaeologist. Ugolini died in 1936, but the excavations continued until 1943 and the Second World War. They uncovered the Hellenistic and Roman part of the city including the "Lion Gate" and the "Scaean Gate" (named by Ugolini for the famous gate at Troy mentioned in the Homeric Iliad). Fascism (IPA: ) is a radical political ideology that combines elements of corporatism, authoritarianism, nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Luigi Maria Ugolini (born 1895, died 1936) was an Italian archaeologist. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek peoples that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy (Greek: Τροία [Troia], also Ίλιον [Ilion], Latin: Troia, Ilium) is a legendary city and center of the Trojan War, as described in the Epic Cycle, and especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. ... Homer (Greek Hómēros) was a legendary early Greek poet and aoidos (singer) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... The Iliad (Ancient Greek , Ilias) is, together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer, a supposedly blind Ionian poet. ...


After the communist government of Enver Hoxha took Albania over in 1944, foreign archaeological missions were banned. Albanian archaeologists including Hasan Ceka continued the work. Nikita Khrushchev visited the ruins in 1959 and suggested that Hoxha should turn the area into a submarine base. The Albanian Institute of Archaeology began larger scale excavations in the 1970's. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: ; IPA: ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17, 1894 [O.S. April 5]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


After the collapse of the communist regime in 1992, the new democratic government planned various major developmetns at the site. The same year remains of Butrint were included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. A major political and economic crisis in 1997 and lobbying stopped the airport plane plan and UNESCO reclassified it as a "Site in Danger" because of looting, lack of protection, management and conservation. UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... These are 31 sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob), sacking, or plundering is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack...


The Albanian Government established the Butrint National Park in 2000 under the leadership of Auron Tare. With the support of Albanian and international institutions the situation was improved to the point that UNESCO removed the site from the danger list by 2005. The National Park was also made a UNESCO World Heritage Site during these years as well as a Ramsar Site. Butrint National Park, in Albania, was created in March 2000. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Butrint may yet provide a model of how local communities in developing countries can be empowered through the sustainable exploitation of cultural heritage. The Park Directorate ensured that the Park was able to establish an international position. In 2005 the Butrint National Park in collaboration with the Butrint Foundation and Leventis Foundation reopened the Museum which had been destroyed in 1997. The Butrint National Park has become an important educational resource. Annually at Butrint there are the Albanian-American Anthropology Summer School under the leadership of Prof. Tom Crist and John Johnsen from Utica College and Prof and Neritan Ceka from the Albanian side; a field school for Albanian University Students run as a collaboration with the Butrint Foundation, directed by Ilir Gjepali of the Albanian Institute of Archaeology and The Butrint Foundation and the annual Theatre Festival which is held every summer in the ancient city.


Directions

Butrint is accessible from Saranda, along a road built in 1959 for a visit by the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. It is increasingly becoming a popular tourist attracting day-trippers from the nearby Greek holiday island of Corfu. Hydrofoils (30 minutes) and ferries (90 minutes) run daily between the New Port in Corfu Town and Saranda. A regular public bus service runs between Saranda port and Butrint. Categories: Albania geography stubs | Cities in Albania ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: ; IPA: ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17, 1894 [O.S. April 5]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ...


Sport

The football (soccer) city club is KS Butrinti. Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is a list of cities in Albania: Apollonia Bajram Curri Ballsh Berat Bilisht Bulqizë Burrel Butrint Cërrik Çorovodë Delvinë Durrës Elbasan Ersekë Fier Fushë-Krujë Gjirokastër Gramsh Has Himarë Kamzë Kavajë Këlcyrë Klos Koplik Korçë Krujë Krumë Kuçovë Kukës Laç Lezhë Librazhd Lushnj... Vlorë Tourism in Albania is still in its infancy. ...

Further reading

  • Ceka N. - Butrint: A guide to the city and its monuments (Migjeni Books, Tirana 2005)
  • Crowson A. - Butrint from the Air ("Current World Archaeology" magazine 14 2006)
  • Hodges R. Bowden W. and Lako K. - Byzantine Butrint: Excavations and Surveys 1994-99 (Oxbow Books, Oxford 2004)
  • Jarrett A. Lobell - Ages of Albania (Archeology magazine March/April 2006)
  • Ugolini L. M - Butrinto il Mito D'Enea, gli Scavi (Istituto Grefico Tiberino, Rome 1937, Reprinted Istituto Italiano di Cultura, Tirana 1999)

External links

Coordinates: 39°45′N 20°01′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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