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Encyclopedia > Butorphanol
Butorphanol
Systematic (IUPAC) name
17-cyclobutylmethyl-
morphinan-3,14-diol
Identifiers
CAS number 42408-82-2
ATC code N02AX02
PubChem 5361092
DrugBank APRD00835
Chemical data
Formula C21H29NO2 
Mol. mass 327.473
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Nasal: 60-70%
Metabolism Hepatic hydroxylated & glucuronidated
Half life 4-7 hours
Excretion Renal, 75%
Biliary, 11-14%
Fecal, 15%
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C/D (U.S.) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ... Example of glucuronidation Glucuronidation of alcohols and acids Glucuronidation is a major inactivating pathway for a huge variety of exogenous and endogenous molecules, including drugs, polluants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids and bile acids. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Legal status

Schedule IV(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Routes IV, intranasal

Butorphanol (INN) is a morphinan-type synthetic opioid analgesic marketed in the U.S. under the trade name Stadol. It is most closely structurally related to dextromethorphan. Butorphanol is available only as butorphanol tartrate in injectable and intranasal spray formulations. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... An International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as designated by the World Health Organization. ... Morphinan is the base chemical structures of a subgroup of opioids. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Dextromethorphan (DM or DXM) is an antitussive drug that is found in many over-the-counter cold and cough preparations, usually in the form of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. ...

Contents

Mechanism of action

Butorphanol exhibits partial agonist and antagonist activity at the μ opioid receptor and agonist activity at the κ opioid receptor.[1] Stimulation of these receptors on central nervous system neurons causes an intracellular inhibition of adenylate cyclase, closing of influx membrane calcium channels, and opening of membrane potassium channels. This leads to hyperpolarization of the cell membrane potential and suppression of action potential transmission of ascending pain pathways. Because of its κ-agonist activity, at analgesic doses butorphanol increases pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac work. Additionally, κ-agonism can cause dysphoria at therapeutic or supertherapeutic doses; this gives butorphanol a lower potential for abuse than other opioid drugs, and narcotic addicts do not like it. Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of overdosing on opioids such as heroin and morphine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... HIV protease in a complex with the protease inhibitor ritonavir. ... Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase (EC 4. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In cell biology, potassium channels are the most common type of ion channel. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up dysphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Place in therapy

The most common indication for butorphanol is management of migraine using the intranasal spray formulation. It may also be used parenterally for management of moderate-to-severe pain, as a supplement for balanced general anesthesia, and management of pain during labor. Butorphanol is more effective in reducing pain in women than in men.[1] In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ...


Adverse effects

As with other opioid analgesics, central nervous system effects (such as sedation, confusion, and dizziness) are considerations with butorphanol. Nausea and vomiting are common. Less common are the gastrointestinal effects of other opioids (mostly constipation). Sedation is a medical procedure involving administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure, such as endoscopy, vasectomy, or minor surgery with local anaesthesia. ... // Definition Mental Confusion or Decreased Alertness is the inability to think clearly and quickly; put simply, feeling things just are not right. ... // Pre-syncope is a sensation of feeling faint. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ...


Proprietary preparations

Butorphanol is available in the U.S. as a generic drug; it is available in various nations under one of any number of trade names, including Moradol, Beforal, Stadol, and Stadol NS; veterinary trade names include Butorphic, Dolorex, Morphasol, Torbugesic, and Torbutrol. A generic drug (pl. ...


References

  • Katzung, Bertam G. (Ed.) (2001) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-0598-8.
  • DiPiro, Joseph T. et. al. (2005) Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-141613-7.
  • Stadol NS - monograph
  1. ^ a b Gear, RW; Miaskowski C, Gordon NC, Paul SM, Heller PH, Levine JD (November 1999). "The kappa opioid nalbuphine produces gender- and dose-dependent analgesia and antianalgesia in patients with postoperative pain". Pain 83 (2): 339-45. PMID 10534607. Retrieved on 2007-02-12. 

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

External links

  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stadol Online, Description, Chemistry, Ingredients - Butorphanol Tartrate - RxList Monographs (339 words)
Butorphanol tartrate is a synthetically derived opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic of the phenanthrene series.
The n-octanol/aqueous buffer partition coefficient of butorphanol is 180:1 at pH 7.5.
STADOL NS (butorphanol tartrate) is an aqueous solution of butorphanol tartrate for administration as a metered spray to the nasal mucosa.
Butorphanol Nasal Spray for Headache (933 words)
Butorphanol (Stadol) nasal spray (n.s.) is a mixed agonist-antagonist narcotic analgesic.
Butorphanol (Stadol) nasal spray (n.s.) is a mixed agonist-antagonistopioid analgesic.
This was a retrospective study assessing the results of the utilization of butorphanol n.s., in headache patients.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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