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Encyclopedia > Butane
n-Butane
Identifiers
CAS number 106-97-8 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 7843
ChemSpider 7555
UN number 1011
As Liquefied petroleum gas: 1075
ChEBI 37808
SMILES
InChI
InChI key IJDNQMDRQITEOD-UHFFFAOYAE
Properties
Molecular formula C4H10
Molar mass 58.12 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless gas
Density 2.48 kg/m3, gas (15 °C, 1 atm)
600 kg/m3, liquid (0 °C, 1 atm)
Melting point

−138.4 °C (135.4 K) CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... UN numbers or UN IDs are four-digit numbers that identify hazardous substances and products (such as explosives and poisonous materials) of commercial importance. ... See also: List of UN Numbers Categories: | ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... See also: List of UN Numbers Categories: | ... ChEBI (meaning Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, or Chemistry at the EBI) is a database of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

−0.5 °C (272.6 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 6.1 mg/100 ml (20 °C)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Highly flammable (F+)
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
4
1
0
Flash point −60 °C
Autoignition
temperature
500 °C
Explosive limits 1.8 - 8.4% [1]
Related compounds
Related alkanes Propane; Pentane
Related compounds Isobutane; Cyclobutane
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Butane is a hydrocarbon with formula C4H10, that is, an alkane with four carbon atoms. The term may refer to any of two structural isomers, or to a mixture of them: Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on butane. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ... The explosive limit of a gas or a vapour, is the limiting concentration (in air) that is needed for the gas to ignite and explode. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Pentane (also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... Butane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C4H10. ... Cyclobutane, C4H8, with a molecular mass of 56. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on butane. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on butane. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on butane. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on butane. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... 900MHz, 21. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... (Structural isomerism) Constitutional isomerism in accordance with IUPAC, is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have atoms bonded together in different orders, as opposed to stereoisomerism. ...

Common name normal butane
unbranched buntane
n-butane
isobutane
i-butane
IUPAC name butane methylpropane
Molecular
diagram
Butane.svg Isobutane.png
Skeletal
diagram
Butane-2D-Skeletal.svg I-Butane-2D-Skeletal.svg

In the IUPAC nomenclature, however, butane refers only to the unbranched n-butane isomer; the other one being called "methylpropane". Butane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C4H10. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...


Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases. The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid) and -ane. In physics, to liquefy or liquify means to turn something into the liquid state. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ...


Rotation about the central C-C bond produces two different conformations (trans and gauche) for n-butane.[2] This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Conformational isomerism is the phenomenon of molecules with the same structural formula but different conformations (conformers) of atoms about a rotating bond. ...

Contents

Reactions and uses

When oxygen is plentiful, butanes burn to form carbon dioxide and water vapor; when oxygen is limited, carbon (soot) or carbon monoxide may also be formed. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: CO2) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

2 C4H10 + 13 O2 → 8 CO2 + 10 H2O

n-Butane is the feedstock for DuPont's catalytic process for the preparation of maleic anhydride: This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point 102 °C RTECS number UE5950000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

2 CH3CH2CH2CH3 + 7 O2 → 2 C2H2(CO)2O + 8 H2O

n-Butane, like all hydrocarbons, undergoes free radical chlorination providing both 1-chloro- and 2-chlorobutanes, as well as more highly chlorinated derivatives. The relative rates of the chlorination is partially explained by the differing bond dissociation energies, 425 and 411 kJ/mol for the two types of C-H bonds. The two central carbon atoms have the slightly weaker C-H bonds. In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... In chemistry, bond dissociation energy, D0, is one measure of the bond strength in a chemical bond. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ...

Spectrum of the blue flame from a butane torch showing molecular radical band emission and Swan bands.

Butane gas is sold bottled as a fuel for cooking and camping. When blended with propane and other hydrocarbons, it is referred to commercially as LPG. It is also used as a petrol component, as a feedstock for the production of base petrochemicals in steam cracking, as fuel for cigarette lighters and as a propellant in aerosol sprays such as deodorants. A small butane torch made for kitchen use A butane torch is a tool for burning the flammable gas butane. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Spectrum of the blue flame from a butane torch showing excited molecular radical band emission and Swan bands. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... A metal naphtha lighter A lighter is a device used to create fire with the intent to ignite another substance such as a cigarette, smoking pipe, or charcoal in a grill. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... Roll-on deodorant Rexona Degree brand Stick deodorant Deodorants (Deodourants) are substances applied to the body, most frequently the underarms, to reduce the body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration. ...


Very pure forms of butane, especially isobutane, can be used as refrigerants and have largely replaced the ozone layer-depleting halomethanes, for instance in household refrigerators and freezers. The system operating pressure for butane is lower than for the halomethanes, such as R-12, so R-12 systems such as in automotive air conditioning systems, when converted to butane will not function optimally. A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth... Halomethane compounds are molecules of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms. ... R-phrases S-phrases , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane, commonly known as CFC, used as a refrigerant and...

Effects and health issues

Inhalation of butane can cause euphoria, drowsiness, narcosis, asphyxia, cardiac arrhythmia, and frostbite which can result in death from asphyxiation and ventricular fibrillation. Butane is the most commonly misused volatile substance in the UK, and was the cause of 52% of "solvent related" deaths in 2000.[3] By spraying butane directly into the throat, the jet of fluid can cool rapidly to –20 °C by expansion, causing prolonged laryngospasm.[4] "Sudden sniffer's death" syndrome, first described by Bass in 1970,[5] is the most common single cause of "solvent related" death, resulting in 55% of known fatal cases.[4] Look up euphoria, euphoric in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... For the effect of diving deep with nitrogen, see Nitrogen narcosis. ... Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... This article is about a medical condition. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a cardiac condition which consists of a lack of coordination of the contraction of the muscle tissue of the large chambers of the heart that eventually leads to the heart stopping altogether. ... In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the laryngeal cords. ... Huffing redirects here. ...


The paper "Emission of nitrogen dioxide from butane gas heaters and stoves indoors", from the American Journal of Applied Sciences, indicates that nitrogen dioxide, a toxic gas, results from burning Butane gas, and represents a human health hazard from home heaters and stoves.

Butane gas cylinder used for cooking.
Butane being sprayed from an aerosol spray can.

See also

References

  1. ^ MSDS Butane BOC Gases
  2. ^ Roman M. Balabin (2009). "Enthalpy Difference between Conformations of Normal Alkanes: Raman Spectroscopy Study of n-Pentane and n-Butane". J. Phys. Chem. A 113 (6): 1012. doi:10.1021/jp809639s. 
  3. ^ Trends in death Associated with Abuse of Volatile Substances 1971-2004 Field-Smith M, Bland JM, Taylor JC, et al., Department of Public Health Sciences. London: St George’s Medical School
  4. ^ a b Ramsey J, Anderson HR, Bloor K, et al. An introduction to the practice, prevalence and chemical toxicology of volatile substance abuse. Hum Toxicol 1989;8:261–9
  5. ^ Bass M. Sudden sniffing death. JAMA 1970;212:2075–9

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Butane is also added to gasoline in order to increase its volatility (evaporation rate) in cold climates.
Butane exists as two isomers: n-butane is a fully hydrogenated linear chain of four carbon atoms: CH and i-butane, or isobutane, has the formula CH, and the systematic name 2-methylpropane.
Butane is also a protoype in organic and structural chemistry for structural (constitutional) isomers and conformational (stereoisomers) isomers.
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