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|group = Bushmen


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|poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... // The religion of the San people, or Bushmen, of southern Africa consists of a spirit world and our material world. ... The Khoisan languages (also Khoesaan languages) are the indigenous languages of southern and eastern Africa; in southern Africa their speakers are the Khoi and Bushmen (Saan). ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The Griqua (Afrikaans Griekwa) are a subgroup of South Africas heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people. ...


The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. They were traditionally hunter-gatherers, part of the Khoisan group, and are related to the traditionally pastoral Khoikhoi. Starting in the 1950s through the 1990s they switched to farming, much longer. Genetic evidence suggests they are one of the oldest, if not the oldest, peoples in the world — a "genetic Adam" according to Spencer Wells, from which all humans can ultimately trace their genetic heritage.[1] Kalahari redirects here. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... Spencer Wells (born April 6, 1969 in Georgia, USA) is a geneticist and anthropologist, and an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. ...

Contents

Naming

The terms San, Khwe, Bushmen, and Basarwa have all been used to refer to hunter-gatherer peoples of southern Africa. Each of these terms has a problematic history, as they have been used by outsiders to refer to them, often with pejorative connotations. The individual groups identify by names such as Juǀʼhoansi and ǃKung (the punctuation characters representing different clicks), and most call themselves "Bushmen" when referring to themselves collectively.[2] Juǀʼhoan (also called Zuǀʼhõasi, Dzuʼoasi, Zû-Ç€hoa, JuǀʼHoansi) is a Khoisan language spoken in the Northwest District of Botswana by about 5,000 people (as of 2002) and by perhaps a comparable number across the border in Namibia. ... The ǃKung, or ǃXÅ© as it is also spelled in English, are a people living in the Kalahari Desert in Namibia, Botswana and in Angola. ...


The term "San" was historically applied by their ethnic relatives and historic rivals, the Khoikhoi. This term means "outsider" in the Nama language and was derogatory because it distinguished the Bushmen from what the Khoikhoi called themselves, namely the First People.[2] It is also considered derogatory because the term "san" refers to animals.The Bushmen feel that by calling them "san" they are being put on the same level as animals which they feel they are greater than. Western anthropologists adopted "San" extensively in the 1970s, where it remains preferred in academic circles. The term "Bushmen" is widely used, but opinions vary on whether it is appropriate – given that the term is sometimes viewed as pejorative.[3][4] An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... Nàmá, previously called Hottentot, is the most populous and widespread of the Khoisan languages. ...


In South Africa, the term "San" has become favored in official contexts, being included in the blazon of the new national coat-of-arms. In South Africa "Bushman" is considered derogatory by some groups. Angola does not have an official term for Bushmen, but they are sometimes referred to as Bushmen, Kwankhala, or Bosquímanos (the Portuguese term for Bushmen). Neither Zambia nor Zimbabwe have official terms, although in the latter case the terms Amasili and Batwa are sometimes used. [5] In Botswana, the officially used term is Basarwa[6], where it is partially acceptable to some Bushmen groups, although Basarwa, a Tswana language label, also has negative connotations. The term is a class 2 noun (as indicated by the "ba-" class marker), while an older class 6 variant, "Masarwa," is now almost universally considered offensive.[5] (using class 5 labels with class 6 plurals is a common strategy used by speakers of southern Bantu languages to show contempt for ethnic groups, though there are many societies whose own endonyms are class 1 nouns with irregular class 6 plurals) Tswana (Setswana), is a Bantu language. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ...


Ancestral Land Conflict with Botswana Government

A San man from Namibia

Since the mid-1990s the central government of Botswana has implemented a relocation policy, aiming to move the Bushmen out of their ancestral land on the Central Kalahari Game Reserve into newly created settlements. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Central Kalahari Game Reserve is a National Park in Botswana. ...


Although the government categorically deny that relocation has been forced[7], a recent court ruling confirmed that the removal was unconstitutional and residents were forcibly removed.[8]


The government's official reasons for adopting the policy is: "Over time it has become clear that many residents of the CKGR already were or wished to become settled agriculturists, raising crops and tending livestock as opposed to hunting-gathering when the reserve was established in 1961.


In fact, hunting-gathering had become obsolete to sustain their living conditions. These agricultural land uses are not compatible with preserving wildlife resources and not sustainable to be practiced in the Game Reserve.


This is the fundamental reason for government to relocate the CKGR residents."[9]


Opponents to the relocation policy claim that the government's intent is to clear the area – an area the size of Denmark – for the lucrative tourist trade and for diamond mining. This is strenuously denied on the government's official web site, stating that although exploration had taken place, it concluded that mining activity would not be viable and that the issue was not related to the relocation policy. This article is about the mineral. ...


It is further claimed that the group as a whole has little voice in the national political process and is not one of the tribal groups recognized in the constitution of Botswana. Over the generations, the Bushmen of South Africa have continued to be absorbed into the African population, particularly the Griqua sub-group, which is an Afrikaans-speaking people of predominantly Khoisan that has certain unique cultural markers that set them apart from the rest of the Africans. Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... The Griqua (Afrikaans Griekwa) are a subgroup of South Africas heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ...


Court Decision

On December 13, 2006, the Bushmen won a historic ruling in their long-running court case against the government. By a 2-1 majority, the court said the refusal to allow the Basarwa into the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) without a permit was "unlawful and unconstitutional." It also said the state's refusal to issue special game licenses to allow the Bushmen to hunt was "unlawful" and "unconstitutional" and found that the Bushmen were "forcibly and wrongly deprived of their possessions" by the government. However, the court did not compel the government to provide services such as water to any Bushmen who returned to the reserve. More than one thousand Bushmen intend to return to the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, one of Africa's largest protected nature reserves.[10]


Society

Rock paintings from the Western Cape

The Bushman kinship system reflects their interdependence as traditionally small, mobile foraging bands. Also, the kinship system is comparable to the Eskimo Kinship system, with the same set of terms as in Western countries, and also employ a name rule and an age rule. The age rule resolves any confusion arising around kinship terms, because the older of two people always decides what to call the younger. According to the name rule, if any two people have the same name, for example an old man and a young man both named ǀTwi, each family uses the same kin term to refer to them: Young ǀTwi's mother could call Old ǀTwi "son", Old ǀTwi would address young ǀTwi's sister as his own, Young ǀTwi would call Old ǀTwi's wife "wife", and Old ǀTwi's daughter would be strictly forbidden to Young ǀTwi as a potential bride. Since relatively few names circulate approximately only 35 names per gender, and each child is named for a grandparent or other relative, Bushmen are guaranteed an enormous family group with whom they are welcome to travel. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (2925 × 1935 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (2925 × 1935 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Preparing poison arrows
Preparing poison arrows

Traditional gathering gear is simple and effective: a hide sling, blanket, and cloak called a kaross to carry foodstuffs, firewood, smaller bags, a digging stick, and perhaps a smaller version of the kaross to carry a baby. Women would gather, and men hunted using poison arrows and spears in laborious days-long excursions. Children had no duties besides to play, and leisure was very important to the Bushmen. They spent large amounts of time with conversation, joking around, music, and sacred dances. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Villages ranged in sturdiness from nightly rain shelters in the warm spring, when people moved constantly in search of budding greens, to formalized rings when they congregated in the dry season around the only permanent waterholes. Early spring, a hot dry period following a cool dry winter, was the hardest season, after autumn nuts were exhausted, villages concentrated around waterholes, and most plants were dead or dormant. Meat was most important in the dry months, when wildlife could never range far from receding waters.


Traditionally the San possessed no status hierarchies[11]. They had no "chief" but instead made decisions among themselves, on a consensus basis. Women's status was relatively equal[12]. Women did not begin bearing children until about 18 or 19 years of age due to late first menstruation due to the low calorie and low fat diet [13] and had them spaced four years apart, due to lack of enough breast milk to feed more than one child at a time [14], and the requirements of mobility leading to the difficulty of carrying more than one child at a time.


Children were very well behaved and treated kindly by their parents and group[15]. Children spent much of the day playing with each other and are not segregated by sex, neither sex is trained to be submissive or fierce, and neither sex is restrained from expressing the full breadth of emotion that seems inherent in the human spirit" [16].


The San economy was a gift economy, based on giving each other gifts on a regular basis rather than on trading or purchasing goods and services [17]. A gift economy is an economic system in which goods and services are given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future quid pro quo. ...

1000 – 2000 years old San-paintings near Murewa (Zimbabwe)
1000 – 2000 years old San-paintings near Murewa (Zimbabwe)
1000 – 2000 years old San-paintings near Murewa (ZW)
1000 – 2000 years old San-paintings near Murewa (ZW)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1366x889, 777 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bushmen Murewa ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1366x889, 777 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bushmen Murewa ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x1350, 856 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bushmen ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x1350, 856 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bushmen ... Motto Unity, Freedom, Work Anthem Simudzai Mureza wedu WeZimbabwe(Shona) Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe(Ndebele) Blessed be the land of Zimbabwe Capital (and largest city) Harare Official languages English Demonym Zimbabwean Government Republic  -  President Robert Mugabe  -  Vice President Joseph Msika (1999 - present) Joyce Mujuru (2004 - present) Independence from the United Kingdom...

Early history

Bushmen had an advanced early culture evidenced by archaeological data. For example, Bushmen from the Botswana region migrated south to the Waterberg Massif in the era 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. They left rock paintings at the Lapala Wilderness area and Goudriver recording their life and times, including characterizations of rhinoceros, elephant and a variety of antelope species (resembling impala, kudu and eland, all present day inhabitants). River gorge in the Lapalala Wilderness, Waterberg, South Africa, showing horizontal sandstone layering. ...


In the media

The Bushmen of the Kalahari were first brought to the Western world's attention in the 1950s by South African author Laurens van der Post with the famous book The Lost World of the Kalahari, which was also a BBC TV series. The Kalahari Desert is a large, arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern Africa that covers about 500,000 km². It covers 70% of Botswana, and parts of Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa. ... Sir Laurens Jan van der Post by Frances Baruch Sir Laurens Jan van der Post (aka Laurens van der Post) December 13, 1906 – December 16, 1996. ...


The 1980 comedy movie The Gods Must Be Crazy portrays a Kalahari Bushman tribe's first encounter with an artifact from the outside world (a Coke bottle). In 1969, the director of this movie, Jamie Uys, had directed Lost in the Desert, in which a small boy stranded in the desert encounters a group of wandering Bushmen, and is helped by them and then abandoned due to a misunderstanding created by the lack of a common language. The Gods Must Be Crazy is a film released in 1980, written and directed by Jamie Uys. ... A cultural artifact is a human-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Jacobus Johannes Uys (30 May 1921 – 29 January 1996), better known as Jamie Uys, was a South African film director. ... Lost in the Desert is a South African film from 1969/1970, written and directed by Jamie Uys, who also directed the better-known The Gods Must Be Crazy. ...


John Marshall documented the lives of Bushmen in the Nyae Nyae region of Namibia over more than a 50-year period. His early film The Hunters, released in 1957, shows a giraffe hunt during the 1950s. N!Ai: The Story of a !Kung Woman (1980) is the account of a woman who grew up while the Bushmen were living as autonomous hunter-gatherers and was later forced into a dependent life in the government created community at Tsumkwe. A Kalahari Family (2002) is a five-part, six-hour series documenting 50 years in the lives of the Juǀʼhrtoansi of Southern Africa, from 1951 to 2000. Marshall was a fierce and vocal proponent of the Bushman cause throughout his life, which was, in part, due to strong kinship ties, and had a Bushman wife in his early 20s.[18] John Kennedy Marshall (1932–April 22, 2005) was a filmmaker and anthropologist, particularly known for his involvement with the field of visual anthropology. ...


In Wilbur Smith's The Burning Shore, the San people are portrayed through two major characters, O'wa and H'ani, and the Bushmen's struggles, history and beliefs are touched upon in great detail. The Burning Shore is a volume in the Courtney's of Africa series. Wilbur Addison Smith (born January 9, 1933 in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)) is an author of fiction. ...


PBS's series How Art Made the World compares San cave painting 200 years ago to Paleolithic European painting 14,000 years old. Because of their similarities, the San can help us understand the reasons for ancient cave paintings. Lewis Williams believes that their trance states (traveling to the spirit world) are directly related to the reasons people went deep into caves, experienced sensory deprivation, and painted their visions onto the cave walls.


Spencer Wells' 2003 book The Journey of Man—in connection with National Geographic's Genographic Project—discusses a genetic analysis of the San and asserts their blood contains the oldest genetic markers found on earth, making the Bushmen humankind's "genetic Adam". These genetic markers are present on the y chromosome and are therefore passed down through thousands of generations in a relatively pure form. The documentary continues to trace these markers throughout the world, demonstrating that all of humankind can be traced back to the African continent and that the San are the last, most genetically unadulterated, remnant of humankind's ancient ancestors. Spencer Wells (born April 6, 1969 in Georgia, USA) is a geneticist and anthropologist, and an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. ... The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey is the book by Spencer Wells, an American geneticist and anthropologist, in which he traces the human evolution, summing up the recent progress in genetics and evolutionary biology. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... The Genographic Project, launched in April 2005, is a five-year genetic anthropology study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from over 100,000 people across five continents. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... A genetic marker is a known DNA sequence (e. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Generations redirects here. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. ...


Notables

Autshumato {or Autshumao) was a Khoikhoi leader who worked as an interpreter for the Europeans in present-day South Africa during the time of the establishment of the Dutch settlement on the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. ... Krotoa, or Eva, was the niece of Autshumato, a Khoi leader and trader. ... N!xau (or earlier G!kau; birth name Gcao Coma) (December 16, 1944 - July 1, 2003) was a Namibian bush farmer who was made famous by his roles in the 1980 movie The Gods Must Be Crazy and its sequels, in which he played the Kalahari Bushman Xixo. ... The Gods Must Be Crazy is a film released in 1980, written and directed by Jamie Uys. ... The negro of Banyoles (Catalan: negre de Banyoles) is a controversial piece of taxidermy of a bushman which used to be on the Darder Museum of Banyoles (Catalonia, Spain), of whom became a major attraction[1]. In 2000 the remains of the man were sent to Botswana[2]. It has... A mounted snow leopard. ...

See also

// The religion of the San people, or Bushmen, of southern Africa consists of a spirit world and our material world. ... Species See text Hoodia (IPA: ) is a genus of 13 species in the flowering plant family Apocynaceae, under the subfamily Asclepiadoideae. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Spencer Wells (2003). The Journey of Man. ISBN 069111532X. Pg. 56-58
  2. ^ a b Elizabeth Marshall Thomas (2006). The Old Way. Chapter "About Words and Names". ISBN 0374225524.
  3. ^ Sailer, Steve (2002). Name Game Inuit or Eskimo. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  4. ^ "Wrong Term for the Kalahari's People", Washington Post, 7 June, 2005
  5. ^ a b Hitchcock, Robert K., and Megan Biesele. "San, Khwe, Basarwa, or Bushmen?: Terminology, Identity, and Empowerment in Southern Africa." Kalahari Peoples Fund. 28 December 2000
  6. ^ Botswana Gov. - Basarwa Relocation - Intro
  7. ^ Government of Botswana Web Site http://www.gov.bw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=59&Itemid=52
  8. ^ Botswana's bushmen get Kalahari lands back. CNN. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  9. ^ Government of Botswana Web Site http://www.gov.bw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=59&Itemid=52
  10. ^ Botswana's bushmen get Kalahari lands back. CNN. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  11. ^ Marjorie Shostak, 1983, Nisa: The Life and Words of a ǃKung Woman. New York: Vintage Books. Page 10.
  12. ^ Shostak 1983: 13
  13. ^ Shostak 1983: 15
  14. ^ Shostak 1983
  15. ^ Shostak 1983: 49
  16. ^ Shostak 1983: 180
  17. ^ Shostak 1983: 9, 25
  18. ^ Elizabeth Marshall Thomas (2006)
  19. ^ Yániz, Juan Pedro. Vitrina de la polémica (Spanish). ABC.es. Retrieved on 2007-10-26.

Elizabeth Marshall Thomas (born 1931) is an American anthropologist and author. ... Steve Sailer Steven Ernest Sailer (born December 20, 1958) is an American journalist and movie critic for The American Conservative, ex-correspondent for UPI, and VDARE.com columnist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC is a Spanish national daily newspaper founded in Madrid on January 1, 1903, by Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Elizabeth Marshall Thomas (2006). The Old Way: A Story of the First People.
  • Marjorie Shostak (1983). Nisa: The Life and Words of a ǃKung Woman. New York: Vintage Books.
  • Nancy Howell. (1979). Demography of the Dobe ǃKung. New York: Academic Press.
  • Richard Lee and Irvin DeVore (1999). Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers: Studies of the ǃKung San & Their Neighbors. iUniverse.
  • Robert J. Gordon (1999). The Bushman Myth: The Making of a Namibian Underclass. ISBN 0813335817.

Elizabeth Marshall Thomas (born 1931) is an American anthropologist and author. ... Marjorie Shostak (May 11, 1945 - October 6, 1996) was an untrained American anthropologist who was notable for her writings on the !Kung San people of the Kalahari desert in south-western Africa. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bushmen.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bushmen, or San, of the South Western Cape and their rock paintings in the Cedarberg mountains (718 words)
The Bushmen of the South Western Cape have been extinct for more than two centuries but due to the rock paintings in the Cedarberg mountains, we know that they, (also known as the San), were part of this landscape during earlier times.
Though the Bushmen were famous for their hunting with bows and poisoned arrows, the bulk of their diet consisted of plant foods.
As Bushmen arrows are light and flimsy, a hunter must be close to the animal before he shoots, thereafter relying on the poison to kill the animal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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