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Encyclopedia > Bushmeat
African Brush-tailed Porcupine sold for meat in Cameroon
African Brush-tailed Porcupine sold for meat in Cameroon

Bushmeat (calque from the French viande de brousse) is the term commonly used for meat of terrestrial wild animals, killed for subsistence or commercial purposes throughout the humid tropics of the Americas, Asia and Africa. However, originally the term was only used to describe the hunting of wild animals in West and Central Africa. To reflect the global nature of hunting of wild animals Resolution 2.64 of the IUCN General Assembly in Amman (October 2000) referred to wild meat rather than bushmeat. A more worldwide term is game; see that article for a fuller description. The term bushmeat crisis tends to be used to describe unsustainable hunting of wildlife in West and Central Africa or the humid tropics (rainforest), depending on interpretation. African hunting predates recorded history, but it has only recently become an international issue. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x656, 893 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old World porcupine Bushmeat User:BrianSmithson/photos ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x656, 893 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old World porcupine Bushmeat User:BrianSmithson/photos ... The African Brush-Tailed Porcupine (Atherurus africanus) is a species of rat-like Old World porcupine called brush-tailed porcupines. The brush-tailed porcupines live in forests, usually at high elevations. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... Mortal Kombat character, see Meat (Mortal Kombat). ... Animal environments are classified as either aquatic (water), terrestrial (land), or amphibious (water and land). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... This article is about the rainforest in general. ...

Contents

Examples

Bushmeat species include apes, other primates, ungulates, rodents, and birds. The species hunted depend on the geographical area, e.g. no apes in the Americas, and preferences and taboos of the hunters. Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six survive: Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, and many others Cetacea: whales and dolphins (which evolved from hoofed land animals) Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos Proboscidea: elephants... Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Hunting

Bushmeat hunting is common in sub-Saharan Africa's dense forests. The bushmeat trade refers to the sale of any bushmeat species, though Western sources tend to focus on the trade specifically involving great apes. Bushmeat hunters have recently begun targeting the gorilla, chimpanzee, and bonobo, as well as other primate species, which has distressed many conservationists and advocates of animal rights and Great ape personhood. Hunter and Huntress redirect here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name Pan paniscus Schwarz, 1929 Bonobo distribution The Bonobo (Pan paniscus), until recently usually called the Pygmy Chimpanzee and less often the Dwarf or Gracile Chimpanzee, is one of the two species comprising the chimpanzee genus, Pan. ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ...


The issue of bushmeat hunting is highly politicized, with little support for the practice outside the African forests and cities where it is conducted. International efforts to stop it have been launched, especially in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada. In the countries where the hunting occurs, orphaned apes (deemed unable to survive on their own, but also deemed too small to be worth shooting and cutting up, to the hunters) are raised and returned to the wild as part of these efforts.


In Cameroon, where gorilla populations became especially endangered, the World Wildlife Fund launched an education campaign to teach children about Koko the gorilla, who was part of a number of psychology experiments in an American zoo. As awareness of the intelligence of gorilla species and their ability to express feelings and care for pets spread, local support for gorilla hunting dropped. Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ... Koko (born July 4, 1971, in San Francisco, California) is the name of a captive, acculturated gorilla trained by Dr. Francine Penny Patterson and other scientists at Stanford University to allegedly communicate with more than 1,000 signs based on American Sign Language, and understand approximately 2,000 words of... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions of going to the bathroom. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ...


Factors

Logging concessions operated by European and Malaysian companies in African forests have been closely linked to the bushmeat trade. Because they provide roads, trucks and other access to remote forests, they are the primary means for the transportation of hunters and meat between forests and urban centres. Some, including the Congolaise Industrielle du Bois (CIB) in Republic of Congo, have partnered with governments and international conservation organizations to regulate the bushmeat trade within the concessions where they operate. Numerous solutions are needed; because each country has different circumstances, traditions and laws, no one solution will work in every location.


Many conservation organizations have come together to address the bushmeat crisis through the formation of the Bushmeat Crisis Task Force, whose mission is to build a public, professional and government constituency aimed at identifying and supporting solutions that effectively respond to the bushmeat crisis in Africa and around the world.

This Cameroonian chimpanzee was brought to a rescue centre after its mother was killed by poachers.
This Cameroonian chimpanzee was brought to a rescue centre after its mother was killed by poachers.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x768, 532 KB) Rescued chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) near Djoum, South Province, Cameroon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x768, 532 KB) Rescued chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) near Djoum, South Province, Cameroon. ...

Effect on Great Apes

Some species are legal to hunt and not endangered, and some are not. Only about 1% of the bushmeat trade is in ape meat. However, the apes' small numbers and the attractiveness of hunting them (being a large animal, a gorilla can offer a good "payoff" for each cartridge) means the impact on hunting them is considerable. Orphans of the bushmeat trade are often sold as pets, as young apes do not have enough meat on them to eat. The Pan African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA) is a member organization of sanctuaries that provide care for bushmeat orphans and education for local communities.


Armed conflict has a direct impact on the killing of great apes for bushmeat. This is largely because the widespread availability of automatic rifles and the breakdown of law and order. A well documented case was the killing and eating of mountain gorillas during the military insurrection around Virunga National Park in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in January 2007.


Apes reproduce relatively slowly, at about one-fourth the rate of most other mammals. A study in Gabon, the wealthiest country in the region with 80% of its forest cover still in place, showed that it had suffered at least a 56% decline in its ape population over seventeen years.


Role in African diseases of humans

  • Apes harbour pathogens that also affect humans. Ebola for instance is epidemic in chimps and gorillas, and might spread to humans during the butchering and hunting of such animals. One of the many hypotheses that attempt to explain how HIV crossed over to humans is that the virus passed into people by this hunting and/or butchering of an ape, most probably a chimpanzee or gorilla. Hunting and butchering produces blood splatters that easily create infective aerosols.

Ebola is the common term for a group of viruses belonging to genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, which cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Species Heliosciurus ruwenzorii Heliosciurus gambianus Heliosciurus rufobrachium Heliosciurus mutabilis Heliosciurus undulatus Sun squirrels (genus Heliosciurus), form a taxon of squirrels under the subfamily Xerinae and the tribe Protoxerini. ... Species Funisciurus carruthersi Funisciurus isabella Funisciurus lemniscatus Funisciurus congricus Funisciurus bayonii Funisciurus substriatus Funisciurus leucogenys Funisciurus pyrrhopus Funisciurus anerythrus African striped squirrels (genus Funisciurus), or rope squirrels, form a taxon of squirrels under the subfamily Xerinae and the tribe Protoxerini. ... Monkeypox is a disease caused by the Monkeypox virus. ...

Efforts at eradication

The bushmeat trade is considered by some anti-globalization activists to be one of many ways in which globalization affects life on the planet, due to the lumber trade (as described in the Factors section above)[citation needed]. There is no way (other than by researching the corporations involved, or their countries of origin) to tell which lumber has been produced in a way that assists the hunting of apes, and which has not[citation needed]. It has been suggested that the only way to eliminate the bushmeat trade might be industry-specific protocols, along the lines of the Cocoa Protocol[citation needed]. Although some argue against Western interference with African culture, claiming that the West should take a value-neutral perspective on eating apes, many African cultures greatly respect or fear apes, and frown on their consumption[citation needed]. Some have suggested that the economic incentive to hunt bushmeat has led to an erosion of these traditional values, and that Western interference is therefore appropriate[citation needed]. A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Harkin-Engel Protocol, also known as the Cocoa Protocol is an agreement signed by the cocoa and chocolate industries to eliminate child slavery in their field. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as understood by materials science, see Erosion (materials science) For erosion as an English analogy, see Erosion (figurative) For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil...


It has also been proposed by Dr. Peter Arcese, an associate professor of forest sciences at the University of British Columbia, that farming infrastructure needs to be created and the international exploitation of African fisheries needs to stop. The fisheries are being overfished by mainly EU-subsidized fleets and could collapse within a few decades. Reduced fishery landings in Africa increase demand for bushmeat, which is leading many species to face extinction, and a humanitarian crisis could easily follow. In some locations the biomass of mammals in parks has been reduced by 70% since 1967 because of bushmeat harvesting. Since wildlife monitoring is limited to a few countries the full extent and future outlook of bushmeat is not currently known. [1] Temperate rainforest on Northern Slopes of the Alborz mountain ranges, Iran A dense growth of softwoods (a conifer forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California A decidous broadleaf (Beech) forest in Slovenia. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Switchgrass, a hardy plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... Look up monitor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... Hunter and Huntress redirect here. ... The Siberian Tiger, a subspecies of tiger. ... Species Thryonomys gregorianus (Lesser Cane Rat) Thryonomys swinderianus (Greater Cane Rat) The genus Thryonomys, also know as cane rats, is a genus of rodent found in Africa south of the Sahara. ... Binomial name Thryonomys swinderianus (Temminck, 1827) The Greater Cane Rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) is a close relative of porcupines and guinea pigs that inhabits Africa, south of the Saharan Desert. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... × The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... The word Bushfood refers to any Australian native food, although it sometimes is used with the specific connotation of food found in the Outback while living on the land. It is also called bushtucker. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

References

  1. ^ Bushmeat. CBC Radio (2004-11-27). Retrieved on 2007-02-21.

2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bushmeat (260 words)
Commercial exploitation of bushmeat, meat from wild animals killed for human consumption, is a threat to wildlife populations in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America.
Bushmeat hunting is currently one of the worldÂ’s most pressing conservation problems.
Bushmeat hunting is a complex issue with cultural and economic implications.
Bushmeat (974 words)
Commercial bushmeat hunters, who use shotguns and snares that can kill many more animals in much less time than the traditional spears and nets, are bringing the lucrative bushmeat to growing markets in villages and cities.
Logging roads are used by bushmeat hunters to gain access to the deep forest and to transport the bushmeat out of the forest to markets, often with logging trucks.
Organizations such as the Bushmeat Project, The WSPA, and coalitions of organizations such as the Ape Alliance, of which The HSUS is a member, are seeking solutions to the bushmeat crisis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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